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Introduction to PostgreSQL Integer

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Types of PostgreSQL INTEGER

Consider the following table, which illustrates the types of the integer:

Name Storage Size Min Max

SMALLINT 2 bytes -32, 768 +32, 767

INTEGER 4 bytes -2, 14, 74, 83, 648 +2, 14, 74, 83, 647

BIGINT 8 bytes -92, 23, 37, 20, 36, 85, 47, 70, 000 +92, 23, 37, 20, 36, 85, 47, 70, 000


Let us consider all types one by one with some examples:


The storage size required for the PostgreSQL SMALLINT data type is 2 bytes. PostgreSQL allows the SMALLINT data type to store values that are within the range of ( -32,767, 32,767 ). The PostgreSQL SMALLINT data type can store 16-bit integer data.

Consider the following example where we can use the PostgreSQL SMALLINT integer data type for storing values such as the count of students and the count of the teacher in a department. Consider the following table named ‘department’, which will store the number of students, and the number of the teacher in a department.

CREATE TABLE department ( department_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, department_name VARCHAR ( 255 ) NOT NULL, );

Explanation: In the above example, we have added students_count and teachers_count columns with data type as the PostgreSQL SMALLINT. We must need at least one student and one teacher to form any department. So we have defined the CHECK constraint on the students_count and teachers_count columns.


The storage size required for the PostgreSQL INTEGER data type is 4 bytes. PostgreSQL allows the INTEGER data type to store values that are within the range of ( -2,147,483,648, 2,147,483,647 ) or ( -2^31 to 2^31 -1 (2 Gb) ). The PostgreSQL INTEGER data type is often used as it gives the best performance, range, and storage size. The PostgreSQL INTEGER data type can be used as INT, INTEGER, and INT4. The INTEGER data type can store 32-bit integer data.

Consider the following example where we can use the INTEGER data type for storing values which are big numbers such as the count of students in the university or the count of the teacher in the university.

Consider the table named ‘university’, which will store the number of students and the number of the teacher in a university using the CREATE TABLE statement.

CREATE TABLE university ( university_id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, university_name VARCHAR ( 255 ) NOT NULL, );

Explanation: In the above example, we have added students_count and teachers_count columns with data type as INT.


The storage size required for the BIGINT data type is 8 bytes. PostgreSQL allows the BIGINT data type to store values which are within the range of ( -9,223, 372, 036, 854, 775, 808, + 9,223, 372, 036, 854, 775, 807 ) or ( -2^63 to 2^63 -1 ) which means the BIGINT type can store any number. The BIGINT data type is used to store the very big numbers which are out of the storage scope of the PostgreSQL INTEGER data type, such as the unpredictable value storage like memory required by any server. The PostgreSQL BIGINT data type might affect the system’s performance, so we should use BIGINT type if there is a valid reason to use it. The PostgreSQL BIGINT data type can store 64-bit integer data.


We hope from the above article you have understood the PostgreSQL INTEGER data type and the types of the PostgreSQL INTEGER data type such as SMALLINT, INTEGER, and BIGINT, etc. Also, we have added several examples of PostgreSQL INTEGER data types to understand it in detail.

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Histogram In Excel (Types, Examples)

Histogram in Excel

Histogram Chart in Excel is a data analysis tool used to show the periodic rise and drop in the data with the help of vertical columns. We can find the Histogram chart option if we use Excel 2024. Still, for the older version of MS Excel, such as 2013 and 2010, we need to find this option in the Data Analysis option, which is available under the Data Analysis option.

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Uses of Histogram Chart in Excel

A histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of numerical data. A histogram is a column chart that shows the frequency of data in a certain range in a simpler way. It provides the visualization of numerical data by using the number of data points that fall within a specified range of values (also called “bins”).

A histogram chart in Excel is classified or made up of 5 parts:

Title: The title describes the information about the histogram.

X-axis: The X-axis is the grouped interval that shows the scale of values in which the measurements lie.

Y-axis: The Y-axis is the scale showing the times the values occurred within the intervals corresponding to the X-axis.

The bars: This parameter has a height and width. The height of the bar shows the number of times the values occurred within the interval. The width of the bars shows the interval or distance, or covered area.

Legend: This provides additional information about measurements.

Why is the histogram chart important in Excel?

There are many benefits to using a Histogram chart in Excel.

The histogram chart shows the visual representation of data distribution.

A histogram chart displays a large amount of data and the occurrence of data values.

Easy to determine the median and data distribution.

Types/Shapes of Histogram Chart

It depends on the distribution of data; the histogram can be of the following type:

Normal Distribution

A Bimodal Distribution

A Right Skewed Distribution

A Left Skewed Distribution

A Random Distribution

Now we will explain the shapes of the Histogram chart in Excel.

Normal Distribution:

A Bimodal Distribution:

There are two peaks. This is also called Double peaked distribution in this dist. Under this distribution in one data set, the results of two processes with different distributions are combined. The data is separated and analyzed like a normal distribution. This looks like the below image:

A Right Skewed Distribution:

In this distribution, a large number of data values occur on the left side and a fewer number of data values on the right side. This is also called a positively skewed distribution. This distribution occurs when the data has a range boundary on the left-hand side of the histogram. For example, a boundary of 0. This dist. It looks like the below image:

A Left Skewed Distribution:

This is also called a negatively skewed distribution. In this distribution, a large number of data values occur on the right side and a fewer number of data values on the left side. This distribution occurs when the data has a range boundary on the right-hand side of the histogram. For example, a boundary such as 100. This dist. It looks like the below image:

A Random Distribution:

This is also called a multimodal distribution. In this dist., several processes with normal distributions are combined. This has several peaks; thus, the data should be separated and analyzed separately. This dist. It looks like the below image:

Where is the Histogram Chart found in Excel?

The histogram chart option is found under Analysis ToolPak. The Analysis ToolPak is a Microsoft Excel data analysis add-in. This add-in is not loaded automatically on Excel. Before using this, we need to load it first.

Steps to load the Analysis ToolPak add-in:

This will open the below Add-Ins dialog box.

This will open an Add-Ins dialog box.

The Analysis ToolPak is loaded in excel now and will be available under the DATA tab with the name Data Analysis.

How to Create a Histogram Chart in Excel?

Before creating a histogram chart in Excel, we must create the bins in a separate column.

Bins represent the intervals into which we want to group the data set. These intervals should be consecutive, non-overlapping, and of equal size.

There are two ways to create a histogram chart in Excel:

If you are working on Excel 2024, there is a built-in histogram chart option.

If you are working on Excel 2013, 2010, or earlier versions, you can create a histogram using Data Analysis ToolPak.

Creating a Histogram chart in Excel 2024:

Excel 2024 adds a histogram chart option as an inbuilt chart under the chart section.

Select the entire dataset.

The histogram chart would appear based on your dataset.

Creating a Histogram chart in Excel 2013, 2010, or earlier version:

Download the Data Analysis ToolPak as shown in the above steps. You also can activate this ToolPak in Excel 2024 version too.

Examples of Histogram Chart in Excel

You can download this Histogram Chart Excel Template here – Histogram Chart Excel Template

Example #1

Let’s create a dataset of scores (out of 100) of 30 students as shown below:

For creating a histogram, we need to create the intervals at which we want to find the frequency. These intervals are called bins. 

Below are the bins or score intervals for the above data set.

Please follow the below steps to create the Histogram chart in Excel: 

A Histogram dialog box will open.

In the Histogram dialog box, we will enter the following details:

Select the Input Range (as per our example – with the scores column B)

Select the Bin Range ( Intervals column D)

This would create a Frequency Distribution table and the Histogram chart in the specified cell address.

There are below points that need to keep in mind while creating Bin’s or Intervals:

The First bin includes all the values below it. For bin 30, frequency 5 includes all the scores below 30.

The last bin is 90. This bin includes any data values which are higher than the last bin. In our example, 3 values are higher than the last bin, 90. If the values are higher than the last bin, Excel automatically creates another bin – More.

This chart is called a static histogram chart. If you want to change the source data, you must create the histogram again.

You can do the formatting of this chart like other charts.

Example #2

Let’s take another example with 15 data points which are the salary of a company.

Now we will create the bins for the above dataset.

For creating the histogram chart in Excel, we will follow the same steps as in example 1.

It will open a histogram dialog box.

Select the Input Range with the Salary data points.

Select the Bin Range with the bins column.

The below chart will appear as follows:


The First bin, $25,000, will include all data points less than this value.

The last bin, More, will include all the data points over $65,000. It’s created automatically by Excel.


The histogram is very useful while working with a large amount of data.

A histogram chart shows the data in a graphical form that is easy to compare and understand.


Histogram chart is very difficult to extract the data from the input field in the histogram. It means difficult to point out the exact number.

While working with histograms, it creates a problem with multiple categories.

Things to Remember About Histogram Charts in Excel

A histogram chart uses for continuous data and determines the range of data with the bin.

The bins are usually determined as consecutive and non-overlapping intervals.

The bins must be adjacent and are of equal size (but are not required to be).

If you are working with Excel 2013, 2010, or earlier versions, you must activate the Excel Add-Ins for Data Analysis ToolPak.

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This has been a guide to histograms in Excel. Here we discuss its types and how to create a Histogram chart in Excel, along with Excel examples and a downloadable Excel template. You may also look at these useful charts in Excel –

Working Of The Decode Function With Examples

Introduction to PL/SQL DECODE

In this article, we will study the general syntax of the decode function along with the help of arguments and will also try to understand its working and implementation along with the help of some examples.

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The syntax of the DECODE function in the PL/ SQL Oracle database is as shown in the below description –

DECODE (expression/value, search expression 1, return value 1 [, search expression 2, return value 2], …. [, search expression n, return value n] [, default value])

The terminologies used in the above syntax are as described here –

Expression or value – This is the literal value of an expression or a column name of the table, which we have to compare with the search expressions. Before comparing this value, it is converted into the datatype of the search expression 1. If they evaluate to true, the return value is returned or else if default value is specified then it is returned else NULL is return if a comparison of the expression and the search expression evaluates false.

Search expression 1, Search expression 2, Search expression 3, …. Search expression n – This is the expressions with which the expression will be compared one by one. Each of the search expressions is firstly converted to the appropriate datatype and then compared with the expression.

Note: If for any of the search expressions the comparison evaluates to true, then there is no datatype conversion taking place for the further search expressions. Which means that if a comparison of expression and search expression r-1 evaluates to true, then all the expressions starting from search expression r until last are not even converted to compatible datatypes for conversion.

Default value – If for all the mentioned search expressions the comparison evaluates to false, then the NULL value is returned from the decode function if this default value parameter is not specified. This is an optional parameter. IF comparison evaluates to false by all the search expression comparisons, then the decode function returns the default value as the output of the function.

Note: All these parameters search expressions, return values, and the default value can be expressions. When they are specified as expressions, their value is evaluated only when we have to do a comparison which involves those expression participants, or else, they are not evaluated when specified.

Working and Examples of PL/SQL DECODE

Let us try to understand the working of the DECODE function with the help of simple examples.

Example #1

Consider the following query statement in PL/ SQL:

SELECT DECODE (500, 500, "Five Hundred") FROM dual;

The output of the above query statement after execution is as shown below –

IF 500===500 THEN RETURN "Five Hundred" END IF; Example #2

If we try to execute the following query statement with the DECODE function shown below, then it returns the NULL value –

SELECT DECODE (500,600," Five Hundred") FROM dual;

The output of the execution of the above query statement is as shown below –

This is because when the comparison of the first two arguments evaluates to false, then as no default value is mentioned, the last parameter, the return value by default for false evaluation, is NULL which is given as output. The working of the above decode function is internally similar to following if-else condition –

IF 500=600 THEN RETURN "Five Hundred" ELSE RETURN NULL END IF; Example #3

We can also provide more than one search expression for comparison; in that case, our decode function will be behaving the same as that of the if-else if ladder. Let us consider an example for that scenario as well. Let us try executing the following query statement of decode function –

SELECT DECODE (500, 600, "Six Hundred", 500, "Five Hundred") FROM dual;

The output of the execution of the above query statement is as shown below –

IF 500 = 600 THEN RETURN 'Six Hundred'; ELSEIF 500 = 500 THEN RETURN 'Five Hundred'; END IF; Example #4

We can even try providing the default value when neither of the search expression matches with the specified expression. Consider the following query statement –

SELECT DECODE (300, 600, "Six Hundred", 500, "Five Hundred"," Not even Five or six hundred") FROM dual;

The output of the execution of the above query statement is as shown below:

The above query statement behaves in the same manner as shown in the below program of PL/ SQL of If else if ladder.

IF 300 = 600 THEN RETURN 'Six Hundred'; ELSEIF 300 = 500 THEN RETURN 'Five Hundred'; ELSE RETURN "Not even Five or six hundred" END IF;

Null Play

Even though in all other cases, when you compare a null value with a null value, they are not treated as equal while using the DECODE function if you try to provide the NULL in first as well as any of the search expressions, the corresponding return value is returned as output which means that the two null values are treated equal.

Conclusion – PL/SQL DECODE

We can make the use of the DECODE function in PL/ SQL for making the use of the same functionality provided by if else if ladders that are for conditional statement evaluation. We can even specify the default value for false evaluation.

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Understanding Cash And Cash Equivalents: Types And Examples

Cash and Cash Equivalents Meaning

Cash and Cash Equivalents are items on a company’s balance sheet that refer to the value of assets held in cash or easily converted to cash.

For example, CVS Health, an American healthcare company, shows $9,408 million as cash and cash equivalents in its balance sheet as of 31st December 2023. It is an increase from 2023’s report of $7,854 million. It signifies that the firm has high liquidity and is healthy.

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(Image Source: CVS Health Annual Report 2023)

Key Highlights

Cash and Cash Equivalent is readily accessible funds that can help pay for sudden expenses

It includes physical currency and any funds that can easily convert into cash. It has short-term investments, such as money market funds and commercial paper

A business’s amount on hand can be a good indicator of its financial health. Companies need to maintain liquidity and meet their financial obligations

Businesses should carefully monitor their assets, as they can be susceptible to theft and fraud.


Cash and cash equivalents refer to the value of a company’s assets like short-term bonds, treasury bills, commercial papers, etc. Marketable securities and money market holdings are equivalent to cash because they are highly liquid and do not have material deviations in value. Bank accounts and marketable securities are cash equivalents, just like debt securities.

It is generally for those assets whose maturity is less than three months or 90 days. When a business records it on its balance sheet, it is the total money it has on hand. All businesses must identify it in their annual report.

Cash and Cash Equivalents On the Balance Sheet (Financial Statement)

It is generally available in a company’s balance sheet under the current asset section with the same name as cash and cash equivalent, and only the overall value is present.

A note provides the breakup of the overall sum at the end of the financial statement. The cash and cash equivalent will generally bear a number beside its total, which describes the serial number in the notes section to understand the breakup of the cash and cash equivalent.

(Image Source: Apple Inc Annual Report 2023)

Real Company Examples Example #1-Apple Inc.

(Image Source: Apple Inc Annual Report 2023)

According to the 2023 financial statement by Apple Inc, its total cash and cash equivalents are $34,940 million.

Cash= $34940 million

Total assets=$351002 million

Cash as % of Total Assets= 9.95%

Total Sales= $297392 million

Cash as % of Total Sales= 11.74%

The cash-to-total asset ratio of the company is 9.95% which is not very significant. Similarly, the cash-to-sales ratio is 11.74 %, which indicates that most sales are in credit. The company is not thinking of any heavy investment in the future as its cash reserves are unlimited compared to the total assets.

Example #2-Microsoft Corporation

(Image Source: Microsoft Annual Report 2023)

The financial statement of Microsoft shows that the value of assets has increased in the financial year 2023 for the company.

Cash= $14224 million

Total sales in 2023= $168088 million

Cash % of Total Sales (2024) = 8.46%

Total sales in 2023= $143015 million

Cash % of Total Sales (2024) = 9.94%

The cash-to-sales ratio for 2023 has decreased to 8.46% compared to 9.94% in 2023. According to the acquisition strategy, we can assume that the company is not thinking of any new acquisitions in the future as they have not increased their cash reserves over 12 months.

Example #3-Tesla Inc.

(Image Source: Tesla Annual Report 2023)

The above extract from the financial statement of Tesla Inc. shows a cash and cash equivalent of $17,576.

Cash= $18144 million

Total assets= $62131 billion

Cash as % of Total Assets= 29.20%

Total Sales=$53823 million

Cash as % of Total Sales= 33.71%

Cash as a percentage of total assets is 29%. The company might be thinking of business acquisitions in the future as cash reserves are significantly higher according to industry standards. If the company is not thinking of an acquisition, it should invest in short-term or long-term investments to earn interest income.

Example #4- Walmart

(Image Source: Walmart Annual Report 2023)

The value of cash and cash equivalent balance with Walmart Inc. was $17,741 for the financial year 2023.

Cash= $252496 million

Total sales in 2023= $559151 million

Cash % of Total Sales (2024) = 45.15%

Total sales in 2023= $523964 million

Cash % of Total Sales (2024) = 48.19%

In both financial years, the percentage cash of total sales is significantly higher compared to industry standards. The company should invest in short-term or long-term investments for a certain proportion of it. They might lose an opportunity to earn interest income on extra cash Reserves.


Cash & Cash Equivalent = Sum of all Cash & Cash Equivalent Assets

It includes assets such as paper money, accounts, deposits, receipts, government bills, and more

It excludes government securities, loans, inventories, AR accounts, etc.

How to calculate it? – Excel Examples

You can download this Cash and Cash Equivalents Examples here – Cash and Cash Equivalents Examples

Example #1:

XYZ Ltd has the following items on its balance sheet for the financial year 2023,

Checking accounts = $10,000

Undeposited receipts = $7,500

Bank Certificate of deposit = $2,500

Treasury bills = $1,250

Prepaid expenses = $10,000

Inventory = $3,250

Calculate cash & cash equivalents.


As inventory and prepaid expenses do not count in cash & cash equivalents, we have,


Totalling all the values,

The value of cash and cash equivalent for XYZ Ltd is $21,250.

Example #2:

ABC Ltd wants to consider the following to calculate cash and cash equivalent,

Coins and paper money = $12,500

Money orders = $2,500

Bank Certificate of deposit = $3,000

Money market mutual funds = $4,500

Preferred stock = $6,500



Implementing the formula,

Types Bank Account:

Cash stored in the bank account is the best example for this discussion because it is one of the company’s most liquid assets and can help it repay its short-term obligations.

It is money in the form of currency, coins, and notes.

A demand deposit plays a role here. It is an account from which one can withdraw funds at any point in time without informing the business.

Foreign Currency:

Companies that have a lot of forex transactions may face certain exchange risks.

It is better to convert the currency to the reporting currency for financial reporting.

It also includes the gains made in the conversion mode. Still, any losses caused in the conversion mode are reported as “accumulated other comprehensive income.”

Cash Equivalents:

These investments can be easily converted to cash and must be short-term, usually with a maturity period of not more than three months or 90 days.

They must have high liquidity and can easily sell in the market.

The buyers of such an asset class must be easy to access.

Certificate of deposit:

A certificate of deposit can be a cash equivalent, provided the maturity date is less than 90 days.

Preferred equity shares can also be considered an example of a cash equivalent.

Treasury bills, commercial papers, and short-term bonds are examples of it.

What does Cash & Cash Equivalents Include?

Coins and paper money: Coins and paper money are easy to use and don’t require a bank account, but they can be lost or stolen more quickly than other forms of cash.

Checking accounts: They’re more secure than coins and paper money, but you’ll need a bank account to use them.

Money orders: Money orders are similar to checks, and they do not need a bank account to work.

Undeposited receipts: Undeposited receipts are also cash equivalent that does not require a bank account. However, they’re less common than other forms of cash.

Bank Certificate of deposit: Certificates with a maturity period of fewer than 90 days are an example of cash and cash equivalent.

Commercial papers: Commercial papers issued by corporations are also considered cash equivalents.

Treasury bills: It is a government backup security with a high level of liquidity.

Money market mutual funds: Money market mutual funds are a type of investment fund that invests in short-term debt instruments, such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and commercial paper.

Preferred stock: Preferred stockholders typically have priority over common stockholders when it comes to receiving dividends. They also have the right to receive their investment back before common stockholders.

What Does Cash & Cash Equivalents Not Include?

Securities or other investments: They are not cash equivalents as they are not as liquid as cash

Accounts receivable: As the company is yet to receive this amount, they cannot consider it cash

Credit cards and Loans: These are debt instruments that the company cannot count for cash equivalents

Prepaid expenses: As the companies have already made these payments, they cannot include them in the cash

Inventory: It is not cash equivalent because it is a physical asset that can fluctuate in value.

Difference Between Cash & Cash Equivalents


Cash Equivalents

It is a currency that is physically in your possession An investment that can quickly convert into cash

It includes cash, receipts, bank accounts, etc Includes money market funds, short-term commercial paper, and Treasury bills.

It is subject to theft and loss, so it is not as safe as cash equivalents. These are less risky than other investments since they are short-term and highly liquid.

Cash & Cash Equivalents IFRS

Under IFRS, cash includes physical cash on hand, demand deposits, and short-term investments readily convertible to known amounts of money and subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

To be classified as a cash equivalent under IFRS, an investment must be:

Readily convertible to known amounts of cash

Subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

Examples of investments that typically meet these criteria are short-term, highly liquid investments such as commercial paper and Treasury bills. The requirements for classification intend to ensure that only genuinely short-term and low-risk assets are in this category.


It offers the highest level of liquidity available to the management of the company The company may misuse the excess balance

It can help repay short-term obligations and other operating expenses Too much cash may resemble that company is not paying dividends to its shareholders

A company with a healthy balance is perceived to perform well and manage its resources Retaining cash & cash equivalents doesn’t fetch a reasonable interest rate which means that the investment is reaping a loss

This component significantly influences the company’s valuation during mergers and acquisitions. In business handling, a lot of cash in foreign exchange may eventually lead to an exchange loss while converting it to the reporting currency.

Final Thoughts

Cash & cash equivalents are essential components of a balance sheet and resemble a company’s financial health. It helps pay off short-term obligations very quickly without any need for borrowing. It is also essential for the shareholders as it can pay them dividends.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. What is the definition of cash & cash equivalents in accounting?

Answer: In accounting, it refers to the short-term investments that a company has made that are readily convertible to cash. It could include investments in money market funds, short-term bonds, and commercial paper.

Q2. How to audit cash & cash equivalents?

Answer: When auditing cash & cash equivalents, there are key things to remember. First, always obtain an unqualified opinion on the financial statements. Second, focus on risk areas such as receivables and payables. Finally, make sure to test for compliance with internal controls.

Q3. What are restricted cash & cash equivalents?

Answer: These are funds that a company sets aside for a specific purpose. They do not use it for general corporate expenses. The most common type of restricted cash is held in escrow to secure a loan or lease agreement. Other types of restricted cash may include money set aside to pay taxes, insurance premiums, or employee bonuses.

Q4. How do the changes in the exchange rate affect cash & cash equivalents?

Answer: When a country’s currency Exchange rate changes, the value of cash & cash equivalents also changes. For example, if the US dollar weakens against the euro, then a US company with money in euros will see the value of its cash increase when translated back into US dollars.

Conversely, if the US dollar strengthens against the euro, the value of cash held in euros will decrease when translated back into US dollars. The change in the exchange rate can also have an indirect effect on it.

Q5. What are the uses of cash & cash equivalents for a business?

Answer: Businesses primarily use cash to purchase assets or make investments. It signifies that the company has enough money to meet its short-term obligations, like payroll, rent, and utilities. It is generally a buffer against unexpected expenses. For instance, if a company has future bills, it saves money in cash equivalents.

Cash And Cash Equivalents Video

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Top Digital Marketing Platforms: Meaning, Examples, Types, Strategies

What is a Digital Marketing Platform?

Digital marketing platforms provide a one-stop solution for various functions to perform on the web for marketing purposes.

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The digital domain is extensive and vast; therefore, marketers must be well-equipped with knowledge about digital media. Moreover, generating revenue can be hassle-free if you bet right on digital marketing platforms.

Key Highlights

It helps promote and sell products or services over the web.

It involves using various digital marketing tools and tactics to reach and engage customers.

Top digital marketing platforms are Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.

With the increase in the use of the web and digital devices, more and more people are using online channels to find and purchase products and services.

To boost your business, you must have a strong digital marketing strategy.

Types Social Media Marketing

It is the most effective type of digital marketing as most users spend around 2 hours and 22 minutes of their entire day on social media. Thus, nothing can be better than finding your target audience on social media platforms. It involves promoting a product or service through social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

Email Marketing

One of the most common types of digital marketing is email marketing. It involves sending emails to potential and existing customers to promote a product or service. You can curate and customize emails according to your needs and send them to your potential customers.

Content Marketing Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search engine optimization goes hand-in-hand with content marketing. It involves optimizing a website for search engines to appear higher in search results. Moreover, content is curated following all the SEO standards to make it rank higher amongst the competitors on SERP.

Top Digital Marketing Platforms Google Ecosystem 

It is one of the most preferred search engines available online. Google data studio, a reporting tool comprising Google Analytics, is a great digital marketing platform.

It has mainly time-saving benefits as it automatically updates and notifies you of every change.


Facebook Ads are the most effective way to spread the word about the business. Marketing on Facebook helps the brand and business to reach out to millions globally.

It consists of organic (free) and boosted (paid) posts. They are highly targeted to reach potential customers.


Twitter is a digital marketing platform businesses use to boost their sales and promotion. Advertising on Twitter can help direct traffic to the website. Twitter is a powerful tool for achieving marketing goals.

Twitter should be a part of your marketing strategy as it is one of the most popular platforms and is great for featuring short posts.

It offers a great opportunity to interact with a brand’s target audience.


LinkedIn is one of the top digital marketing platforms to connect with professionals, including employers, business partners, corporates, competitors, clients, and customers.

It helps to do business with potential brands and establish strong business and professional relationships. It is great to build connectivity globally.

LinkedIn is an especially designed social media platform for professionals and corporates and is great for influencing, networking, and growing brands.


Through these platforms, you can communicate with the clients, which can help you build Consumer Loyalty: “A satisfied customer is more likely to come back to your store or refer your products to others, both of which can boost sales.”

Why is Digital Marketing Important?

Digital marketing is the most efficient and effective way to connect with your targeted audience and promote your product or service.

In a world where nearly everyone is online, reaching where potential customers spend most of their time is essential.

Digital marketing allows you to tailor your marketing strategies to specific demographics, which means you can target those audiences who are most likely to be interested in your product or service.

This ensures you’re not wasting your time and money on marketing campaigns that aren’t reaching your target audience.

Digital marketing is also very measurable, so you can track the results of your marketing campaigns and adjust your strategies accordingly.

This level of data analysis is not possible with traditional marketing methods, which makes it easier to see what’s working and what’s not.

Overall, digital marketing is essential to any modern marketing strategy.

Using digital marketing techniques, you can reach more people more effectively and at a lower cost than traditional marketing methods.

How to Create a Digital Marketing Strategy?

Once you recognize your goals, you can create a plan to achieve them.

Finally, you need to measure your results. Set up tracking methods for each of your goals so that you can measure your progress.

Then, adjust your strategy as needed to ensure you are on track to reach your goals.

By abiding by these simple steps, you can create a digital marketing strategy that will help you achieve your desired results.

Final Thoughts

Digital marketing platforms are a great way to revamp your marketing strategies and effectively generate revenues. However, the digital marketing platform can be confusing at times to use, but you can simplify this with some strategies. Moreover, awareness about digital marketing platforms is necessary to achieve maximum growth to boost the brand at its peak and reach maximum heights.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q.1 What are the various types of digital platforms? Q.2 What is the best digital marketing platform?

Answer: Many digital marketing platforms are available online to help with your requirements. Some of the best are HubSpot, Salesforce marketing, MailChimp, Morphio, chúng tôi Google Analytics, etc.

Q.3 What are the types of digital marketing? Q.4 What are the 3 C’s of digital marketing?

Answer: To bet on the most successful and effective digital marketing practices, you must follow the 3C’s of digital marketing. The 3C’s are known as content, context, and communication.

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Example And Types Of Leveraged Loans With Its Uses

Introduction to Leveraged Loans

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These are simple loans; their distribution and arrangement are the only difference. They are arranged for the companies already having debts and are set by the syndicate banks. These are managed by private equity firms, hedge funds, and other players.

Example of Leveraged Loans Types of Leverage Loans

There are three types :

Underwritten Deals: In this type, the arranger guarantees the entire loan amount by entering into the underwriting deal. The arranger must bear any left-out loan if the investors do not subscribe to the loan amount. He can try to sell the remaining loan in the market later on. Even if the market conditions are down in the future, the arranger is the only one who bears losses by selling the loan even at a discounted rate.

Best- Efforts: Contrary to the above, instead of committing the entire amount of underwriting of the loan, the arranger group commits to underwrite less than the whole amount. Any undersubscribed amount can be adjusted per the market variations, or it can be left as a credit. If, after the changes also, the loan continues to be unsubscribed, the lower amount of the loan has to be accepted by the borrower to close the deal.

Club Deal: This type of deal is usually for private equity players. The private equity players can acquire targets previously held by more prominent strategic players anytime in the past while distributing the exposure risk. These are larger-sized loans than own funding by the lenders and are used for M&A activity.

Leveraged Loans Index Uses of Leveraged Loans

There are many M&A deals where leveraged buyout (LBO) is used. Leveraged loans form an essential and significant portion of LBO. Hence, these are used in many M& A deals.

The Loans are used to better prepare the company’s balance sheet in case of its stock repurchase.

Debts of the companies can be refinanced with the help of these.

The company can use it for its day-to-day operations and acquiring various long-term assets.

Leveraged Loans vs High Yield

Leveraged Loans are secured loans guaranteed by the company’s assets, whereas high-yield bonds are not secured.

As the Leveraged Loans are secured, they prioritize getting paid in case of the company’s insolvency, whereas the High Yield bonds are paid after the Leveraged Loans.


The loan amount obtained through these loans can push the company’s capital, and if that amount is used correctly, it can make the company achieve its dream heights.

When the business has objectives of acquisition, management buyout, shares buy-back, or a one-time dividend, leveraged loans suit the best because there are additional costs and risks of bulking up on debt.

The company takes these Loans in addition to other debts, i.e., short-term and long-term debts. It brings the company to a higher than average debt level, and in the long run, it possesses an increased leverage risk.

The interest rates paid in these loans are higher; hence, this type of funding proves costly for the company.

The process of taking, dealing with, and managing leveraged loans is much more complex; thus, the management must invest much time.

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