Trending February 2024 # Change Or Switch Servers On Mastodon: Step # Suggested March 2024 # Top 4 Popular

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As Twitter undergoes recent changes, many users have been looking for alternatives. And Mastodon has been at the top of the list for many users. This open-source, decentralized microblogging platform introduces a new way to interact with your followers and a new way for people to find communities and servers that best fit their needs. These individual servers can have their own moderation, content, and privacy policies, allowing a broad range of users to create individual spaces based on interests and preferences.

So, if you’re new to Mastodon and want to change servers (instances), here’s how you can do that.

How to change servers on Mastodon: Step-by-step guide

Before you switch servers (instances), we recommend you back up your data so that you can recover your posts and more in case something goes wrong. To switch instances, you need to first sign up to your newly chosen instance, then notify both instances and verify your identity. You will then be switched to the new instance, where you can also add redirects for your old instance. Here’s a detailed guide to help you along with the process.

Step 1: Backup your data (Download archive)

We first recommend you back up your profile data. You can do this on Mastodon by downloading your archive, which will contain all your posts as well as other data stored on your chosen server. This will help us keep a copy of your data in case something goes wrong during the switching process. Use these steps to help backup your data and download an archive to your PC. 

And that’s it! You will now have backed up all your profile data to your PC. In case you need to access this archive, you can use a third-party tool like WinRar or 7Zip.

Related: 12 Best Mastodon servers and 5 Tips

Step 2: Switch Mastodon servers

We can now switch Mastodon servers for your account. The switching process requires you to first sign up to the new server and then notify both servers accordingly. Here’s how you can do that for your Mastodon profile.

Sign up to new server

Type in your personal details as needed. You can choose to have the same username as your previous server, but it isn’t necessary to switch accounts.

You will now be redirected to your chosen server, where you will be logged into your new account. You can now use the next section to notify both servers and change them for your account as needed.

Notify both severs

We now need to notify both servers so that your profile can be switched to your new account on the new server. Use the steps below to help you along with the process. 

Now type in your old username on the old server in the dedicated text box on your screen under Handle of the old account.

Note: If you get an error, ensure that you include the entire username, including your old server address.

Now type in the username chosen for your new account under Handle of the new account.

Once done, type in the password for your old account under Current password.

And that’s it! Your old account will now switch to your new account, and all followers will now be moved to your new account.

Step 3: Restore your backup if you lose data

You can restore the following items on your new account using .CSV files. These files can be downloaded from the same location we downloaded your backup above.



Blocked users list

Muted users list 

Domain block list


Your followers are moved automatically to your new server when you notify and freeze your old account. The only data you can’t move to your new server are your posts on the old server. This is due to the current technical limitations of Mastodon, but you can easily always find your old posts on the old server. Additionally, you can also find them in the archive we downloaded above. This is why your old profile redirects to your new profile in case someone discovers you using your old posts.

Now that you’re familiar with the items you can transfer, use the steps below to restore compatible items to your new account. 

Now select the .CSV file you downloaded earlier. 

Select Merge. This will merge your old follows with the new follows you have on your server. You can also choose Overwrite if you wish to replace follows on your new account with your old follows.

Once the data is successfully imported, you will be shown a confirmation for the same at the top of the same screen.

And that’s how you can restore your data when moving to a new server. You can repeat the steps above to restore additional data that you might wish to move to your new account.

What happens when you switch servers on Mastodon?

There are a few changes that take place for your old account when switching servers on Mastodon. Getting familiar with these changes will help you better migrate to the new account and notify your followers accordingly. Here’s a brief list of major changes that take place when you switch servers on Mastodon.

Your old followers will be automatically moved to your new account on the new server.

Your old account will no longer show up in search results on Mastodon.

Your old account’s profile will be updated to redirect to your new account in case somebody visits your old account on the old server.

A waiting period will be applied before you will be allowed to switch servers and accounts again.

Your old account will be inactive once you migrate. You will, however, still have the option to re-activate your old account and download your data.

These changes help ensure that your followers and people that discover you can easily follow and find you on your new account.

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How To Delete Or Recover A Design In Canva (Step By Step)

If you’re a regular Canva user, chances are, you have tons of designs that need to be deleted permanently. The question is, how do you make sure that once you throw your design in the trash, no one else can fish it out and claim it as their own? The process is simple but requires an extra step many people forget to do. 

If you’re a Canva Pro user, your account has a 100 GB space limit. If you are a free Canva user, you only have 5 gigs to work with. So deleting old designs permanently is important not just for staying organized, but for making sure you don’t go over your limit. I will show you how to delete your designs on both desktop and mobile. Not only that, but I’ll also show you how you can bring your designs back if you made a mistake. 

How To Permanently Delete A Design In Canva 

First, I’m going to show you the quickest and easiest way to delete your design forever. I will cover this for designs only you can access, and also for shared projects.  

Here’s an old design in my Canva projects folder that’s out of season and needs to be deleted permanently. 

Step 1: Trash Your Project Step 2: Open Your Trash Step 3: Hit The Red Button 

The warning is not fooling around either. Once you hit the Delete Permanently button, your project is gone forever. 

How To Delete Shared Designs In Canva

If you use Canva with a team, there will be times you need to delete a project and make sure your team can no longer access it. 

Step 1: Find Your Shared Project  Step 2: Trash Your Project 

Then, select Move To Trash. 

Step 3: Open Your Trash Step 4: Hit The Red Button How To Recover A Deleted Design In Canva

So you just deleted a design because it’s months out of season. Then it hits you: “I’ll need that design when the season rolls back around!”

Don’t worry. I’ll teach you now how to recover your recently deleted design. 

Step 1: Open Your Trash Step 2: Locate And Restore  Step 3: Double-Check

To confirm that your project is restored, go back to the Canva Homepage and check under Recent Designs. You should find your recently deleted project back and ready to edit. 

The one thing to remember about your trash is that it will automatically empty after 30 days. So if you have any second thoughts about deleting your designs, you have 30 days to make your decision to restore them. 

How To Delete A Design In Canva Mobile

When you need to delete your designs on the go, you’ll be happy to know that you can do so on mobile just as quickly and easily!

Step 1: Locate And Trash Your Design

On the mobile version of the Canva Homepage, tap on Your Projects. 

Tap on the Three Dots in the upper right corner of the project you wish to delete to bring up the options. Select Move To Trash. 

Step 2: Find Your Design In The Trash

The project disappears from your recent designs, but your project is not yet permanently deleted. To permanently delete your project, open your Trash from the Canva Homescreen. 

Step 3: Delete Your Design Permanently

Find your project and tap on the Three Dots. Then, select Delete Permanently.  

You will receive a warning that you should take seriously. Tap on Delete Permanently, only if you truly want to delete your project forever. 

How To Recover A Design In Canva Mobile 

What’s great about making mistakes in Canva, is that you can fix them, even on the go!

Here’s how you recover a recently deleted design on your phone. 

Step 1: Open Your Trash

On the mobile version of the Canva Home Page, tap on Trash. 

Step 2: Restore Your Design

Once your Trash is open, locate the design you would like to bring back to life. Tap on the Three Dots in the right corner of the project. When the option pops up, select Restore. 

Step 3: Double-Check

Trust but verify when it comes to any computer program. After tapping Restore, go back to the Homepage and tap on Your Projects. 

Under Recent, make sure that the project you restored is there. If it isn’t, go back to your Trash and restore it again. 

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Step Chart In Excel – A Step By Step Tutorial

Watch Video – Creating a Step Chart in Excel

A step chart can be useful when you want to show the changes that occur at irregular intervals. For example, the price rise in milk products, petrol, tax rate, interest rates, etc.

Let’s take the example of a Petrol hike in India. It can happen any day (as decided by the government) and the value remains constant between these changes. In such a case, a step chart is the right way to visualize such data points.

Unfortunately, Excel does not have an inbuilt feature to create a step chart, however, it can easily be created by rearranging the data set.

Step Chart in Excel

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

The difference between a Step Chart and a Line Chart.

Creating a Step Chart using the “Line Chart technique”.

A line chart would connect the data points in such a way that you see a trend. The focus in such charts is the trend and not the exact time of change.

On the contrary, a step chart shows the exact time of change in the data along with the trend. You can easily spot the time period where there was no change and can compare the magnitude of change in each instance.

Here is an example of both the line chart and step chart – created using the same data set (petrol prices in India).

Both of these charts look similar, but the line chart is a bit misleading.

It gives you the impression that the petrol prices have gone up consistently during May 2024 and June 2024 (see image below).

But if you look at the step chart, you’ll notice that the price increase took place only on two occasions.

Similarly, a line chart shows a slight decline from September to November, while the step chart would tell you that this was the period of inactivity (see image below).

Hope I have established some benefits of using a Step Chart over a Line Chart. Now let’s go ahead a look at how to create a step chart in Excel.

First things first. The credit for this technique goes to Jon Peltier of chúng tôi He is a charting wiz and you will find tons of awesome stuff on his website (including this technique). Do pay him a visit and say Hello.

Here are the steps to create a step chart in Excel:

Have the data in place. Here I have the data of petrol prices in India in 2024.

Have a copy of the data arranged as shown below.

The easiest way is to construct the additional data set right next to the original data set. Start from the second row of the data. In cell D3, enter the reference of the date in the same row (A3) in the original data set. In cell E3, enter the reference of the value in the row above (B2) in the original dataset. Drag the cells down to the last cell of the original data.

Copy the original data (A2:B18 in the above example), and paste it right below the additional dataset that we created.

You will have something as shown below (the data in yellow is the original data and green is the one that we created). Note that there is a blank row between the header and the data (as we started from the second row). If you are too finicky about how data looks, you can delete those cells.

You don’t need to sort the data. Excel takes care of it.

That’s it! You’ll have the step chart ready.

How does this work:

To understand how this works, consider this – You have 2 data points, as shown below:

What happens when you plot these 2 data points on a line chart? You get a line as shown below:

Now to convert this line chart into a step chart, I need to show in the data that the value remained the same from 1 to 2 January, and then suddenly increased on 2 January. So I restructure the data as shown below:

I carry forward the data to the next date when the change in value happens. So for 2nd January, I have two values – 5 and 10. This gives me a step chart where the increase is shown as a vertical line.

The same logic is applied to the restructuring of the data while creating a full-blown step chart in Excel.

While it would be nice to get an inbuilt option to create step charts in Excel, once you get a hang of restructuring the data, it won’t take more than a few seconds to create this.

Related Tutorials:

Other Excel Charting Tutorials You Might Like:

How To Automatically Change Your Apple Watch Face Based On Time Or Location

Automatically changing watch faces is one of the many Apple Watch hacks few people know about. The process is pretty straightforward and involves using the Shortcuts app to create watch face automation.

We’ll show you how to change Apple Watch (Amazon, Best Buy) faces based on time schedules and location activities.

Table of Contents

Note: Apple Watch automation in Shortcuts works with iPhones, and Apple watches running at least iOS 14 and watchOS 7, respectively.

Change Apple Watch Face Based on Time

Open the Shortcuts app on your iPhone and follow the steps below:

Head to the Automation tab and select Create Personal Automation.

Select Time of Day on the “New Automation” screen.

Set the preferred time you want your Apple Watch’s screen changed. You can choose Sunrise, Sunset, or set a specific time of the day.

To set a specific time, tap the preset time, and select the hour, minute, and time convention—AM or PM. Tap anywhere outside the time box to proceed.

Next, select a “Repeat” schedule—Daily, Weekly, or Monthly—and tap Next in the top-right corner.

For a “Weekly” schedule, choose the days you want the watch face automation repeated. If you prefer a “Monthly” schedule, select a day in the month when you want to repeat the automation.

Tap the Add Action button.

Go to the Apps tab, tap Watch, and select Set Watch Face.

Alternatively, type watch face in the search bar and tap Set Watch Face.

The next step is to select a watch face category. Tap Face in the “Set active watch face to” section.

Select a watch face category to proceed. Or, tap Ask Each Time to manually choose your preferred watch face at the scheduled time.

Refer to this Apple Watch User Guide document to learn more about watch faces and their features.

Tap Next to continue.

Toggle off Ask Before Running, select Don’t Ask on the prompt, and tap Done to save the automation.

That’ll redirect you to the Automation dashboard. To edit the automation, tap on it and select the condition you want to modify. Tap Done in the top-right corner to save the changes.

Toggle off Enable This Automation to suspend Shortcuts from automatically changing your watch face.

To delete the automation, return to the “Automations” dashboard, swipe the watch face automation to the left, and tap Delete.

The Shortcuts app will display a notification when the automation runs at the set schedule. Check your Apple Watch face to confirm if it works.

If you want to change your watch’s face multiple times in a day, week, or month, you’ll need to create multiple automations. Say you want different watch faces at 10 AM and 6 PM every day; create automation for each period.

Change Apple Watch Face Based on Location

Having different watch faces based on different periods of the day is fun. However, changing your Apple Watch face based on your activities around a location is way more interesting.

The Shortcuts app lets you configure your watch to use a new face when you arrive or leave an area. Follow the steps below to set up location-based automation for your Apple Watch face.

Open Shortcuts, select Automations at the bottom of the screen and tap the plus icon in the top-right corner.

Tap the Create Personal Automation button.

Select Arrive if you want to change your Apple Watch face when you reach a preferred location. Otherwise, select Leave to change your watch face when you depart a place/location.

Tap Choose in the “Location” row.

Tap Allow While Using App to grant the Shortcuts app access to your location.

Select a recent location from the list or enter an address in the search bar. Tap Current Location to set your present region as the preferred location. Tap Done in the top-right corner to continue.

Select Any Time to use a different watch face any time you arrive (or leave) at the location. Otherwise, select Time Range to choose a period when the change occurs. Tap Next to proceed.

Say you set a 5 PM – 9 PM time range; your watch face will only change when you arrive or leave the location within those hours.

Tap Add Action to proceed.

Head to the “Apps” tab, select Watch, and tap Set Watch Face.

Better yet, type watch face in the search bar, and select Set Watch Face.

 Tap Face in the “Set active watch face to” section, choose a watch face category, and tap Next.

 Review the location-based automation and tap Done.

Note: Unlike time-based automation, your watch face won’t change automatically when you arrive or leave a location. Instead, Shortcuts will display a pop-up asking you to confirm the watch face change manually.

Watch Face Not Changing Automatically? Try These N Fixes

Your watch may fail to automatically change its wallpaper if it’s outdated or disconnected from your iPhone. Bugs in your iPhone’s operating system can also cause the problem. If your watch face doesn’t change according to the time or location automation, these troubleshooting tricks should resolve the issue:

Disable Airplane Mode on Your Apple Watch

Airplane mode disconnects your Apple Watch from your iPhone. Swipe up from the bottom of your watch face and check the top-right corner of the Control Center.

If a red crossed-out phone icon is in the top-right corner, your Apple Watch isn’t connected to your iPhone. Disabling airplane mode should fix this problem.

Scroll down to the Control Center, tap the orange airplane icon, and wait for the iPhone icon to turn green.

Additionally, make sure Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are toggled off in the “Airplane Mode Behavior” section.

One more thing: make sure your iPhone and Apple Watch’s Bluetooth are turned on. Open your watch’s Settings app, tap Bluetooth, scroll to the bottom of the page, and toggle on Bluetooth.

Refer to our tutorial on reconnecting Apple Watch to iPhone if the problem persists.

Check Location Services Permission

You need to grant “Shortcuts” and “Apple Watch Faces” access to your location to use location-based automation. Failure to do so will prevent the app from tracking your arrival or departure from an area.

Return to the Location Services menu and configure the same location access for the Shortcuts app.

Select Shortcuts, select While Using the App, and toggle on Precise Location.

Restart Your Devices

Rebooting your Apple Watch or iPhone can fix temporary glitches preventing your watch face from changing automatically.

If you’re charging your Apple Watch, take it off its charger. Press and hold the watch’s side button and drag the Power Off slider to the right.

Wait for 30 seconds for your watch to shut down completely. Afterward, press and hold the side button again to restart the watch. Release the button when you see the Apple logo on the screen. If the problem persists, reboot your iPhone and check again.

Update Your Devices

Software bugs in your iPhone or Apple Watch’s operating system can prevent both devices from synchronizing information correctly. Open your Apple Watch and iPhone settings menu and install any available software update for both devices.

Automation is Fun

How To Run Python Scripts: Step By Step Guide

What is the Script in Python?

A script in Python can be defined as a file that consists of Python code or a program. It ends with an extension as .py

An interpreter can execute a script in two distinct ways, as listed below: –

A script can be executed as a module or as a script itself.

A code that is written in an interactive Python command prompt session manner.

How to run Python code and scripts interactively?

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) The programmer must open the command line in the interactive mode.

Step 2) In the next step, invoke the python interpreter in the command line by typing the following command: –



Step 3) The programmer can sequentially write Python code and execute them in the same order.

The following program can be typed in the command line as shown below:

Example: –

Python Code:

python print ('hello world Guru99')


hello world Guru99

Let us take another Python code that could be written in the command line interactively.


Python Code:

Python a=25 b=50 ... print ("a is more than b") ... else: ... print ("b is more than a") ... b is more than a >>>


b is more than a

Following is the screenshot: –


The above code compares two arguments and finds which argument is greater. Ensure the statements are properly indented to avoid indentation errors. To exit the windows commanded line, press Ctrl+Z and follow with an Enter.

How to run Python script files interactively from Windows GUI?

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) Open the command line and type the Python command followed by the script file name.

Step 2) Ensure that the script file is already created.

Step 3) The script file should end with either .py or. pyw. As a next step, open the Windows command prompt.

Following would be the code to be written in the command line to invoke a Python script:

Python Command line Code:



Hello, world!

How to run Python scripts from an IDE

An integrated development environment is also referred to as IDE in short form. It offers a virtual setup of file and folder hierarchy. It allows the programmer to build Python projects quickly. IDE provides the organization of files into different folders.

These different folders belong to one common directory.

Spyder and PyCharm are two Python IDEs that enable the programmer to run Python programs.

Let us take an example of executing a Python script in PyCharm IDE:

Step 1) As the first step, create a new project in PyCharm.

Step 4) Go to the new option and create a new Python file.

Step 5) Give the name of the Python file

Here we have given Guru99Example.

Step 6) In the blank Python file created in PyCharm IDE, write the following piece of code as shown below: –

Python Code:

print ('hello world Guru99')

This code will open the console window within IDE, and the following would be the output:


PyDev console: starting. Python 3.10.6 (tags/v3.10.6:9c7b4bd, Aug 1 2023, 21:53:49) [MSC v.1932 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32 >>> runfile('C:/Users/OS Name/PycharmProjects/Guru99Example/', wdir='C:/Users/OS Name/PycharmProjects/Guru99Example') hello world Guru99

Following is the Screenshot:


The above code is a simple example of how to print hello world in the PyCharm IDE.

How to run Python scripts using a file manager?

Here are the steps to run the Python script using file manager:

Step 1) Open Notepad and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World Guru99’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension as either .py or. pyw.

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

When executed, it opens a command line screen for a moment. Refer to the below screenshot: –

To ensure the screen remains for a while, add the following statement in the Python script file as shown below: –

Python Code:

input ('Press provide enter to exit...')

Until and unless there is no input from the user, the screen continues to run and display Python output.

However, if the Python script has some error, the execution of the input command is interrupted or aborted. Due to this, the user may not be able to see Python script execution using file manager.

How to run Python scripts using script file name and command line?

Here are the steps to run the Python script using script file name and command line:

Step 1) Open Notepad and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World Guru99’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension as either .py or. pyw.

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

It helps to validate the path of the script file with the command line path. Open a command line and type the script file name as created above with the name followed by the extension .py. Refer to the below screenshot: –

Alternatively, the script file created above can be run as a python module. Type the following command as shown below: –


python -m example


hello world Press provides enter to exit...

Refer to the following screenshot:


The above code follows the following syntax:


Python -m

The above -m parameter searches for the sys. Path for the module referred to and executed the code as part of the _main_.

How to run Python Scripts on Linux

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) The programmer must open the Linux terminal in the interactive mode.

Step 2) In the next step, invoke the Python interpreter in the Linux terminal by typing the following command: –



Step 3) The programmer can sequentially write Python code and execute them in the same order.

The following program can be typed in the command line as shown below:

Example: –

Python Code:

python3 a=25 b=50 ... print ("a is more than b") ... else: ... print ("b is more than a") ... b is more than a >>>


b is more than a

Following is the screenshot: –

Alternatively, Here are the steps to run the Python script file using a Linux terminal:

Step 1) Open the text editor and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

Step 5) In the next step, invoke the Python interpreter in the Linux terminal by typing the following command: –


python3 chúng tôi


hello world

Refer to the following screenshot: –


The python interpreter in the Linux terminal runs the script file that is saved at the desktop location.

Comparison of code, module, and script in Python

In the world of computing, the following is the comparison between module, code, and script:

Parameters Code Module Script

Definition A code is defined as a series of instructions. A module is defined as a series of codes arranged sequentially. A script can be defined as a file that comprises logical orders or a batch of organized codes.

Executability They are run through the Python interpreter They are imported first in a script or a piece of code and then executed using the Python interpreter The scripts are generally run through a Python interpreter.


A Python interpreter can be considered an interface or a bridge that helps execute code or a script. It runs the code in two manners:

It invokes a script or a module.

It invokes a code written in an active session.

Python interpreter works in the following manner: –

Post evaluation, it prints the results of the command.

It loops backward and performs the repetition of the process.

A Python interpreter is available in several forms, as listed below:

Interpreter Description

Jython Using Java programming language, Python programs can be run on java-based platforms.

PyPy Interpreter designed in a Python programming language.

CPython Interpreter designed using C language to run and execute Python programs in C-based platforms

IronPython It is an open-source project which used as an interpreter for .Net platforms.

The Python script is run under the multi-step process defined as Python Execution Model. Under this model, the statements defined in the script are processed and executed step-by-step.

Following are the basic requirements needed to execute a Python Script:

Make the Python script executable and install the interpreter beforehand on the computer.

You should have a code editor or an integrated development environment pre-installed in the computer’s operating system.

Add Python beforehand to execute code through the command line to the operating system environment variable.


A Python script can be executed using several methods.

You can execute using the command line or using IDE.

The programmer can use PyCharm and Spyder IDE to develop sophisticated Python scripts.

Ensure that the code adheres to indentation when using the if and else statements in the command line.

Javascript Tutorial For Beginners: Learn Javascript Step By Step

JavaScript Tutorial Summary

This online JavaScript guide is geared to make you a JavaScript pro! It will help you learn JavaScript step by step. You will learn all the JavaScript basics in this guide.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is an open-source and most popular client-side scripting language supported by all browsers. JavaScript is mainly used for enhancing the interaction of the webpage with users by making it more lively and interactive. It is also used for game development and mobile application development.

Javascript Syllabus First Steps in Javascript Basics for Beginners

👉 Lesson 1

What is JavaScript?

— A Complete Introduction with Hello World! Example

👉 Lesson 2

JavaScript Variables

— Declare Variables in JavaScript, Assign a Value with Example

👉 Lesson 3

JavaScript Array Methods

— Create Array with Example in JavaScript

👉 Lesson 4

JavaScript Loops

— For, While and Do While LOOP in JavaScript (with Example)

👉 Lesson 5

Conditional Statements

— IF, Else, Else IF Conditional Statements in JavaScript

👉 Lesson 6

JavaScript String Format

— Methods with EXAMPLES

Javascript Advance Stuff! JavaScript Interview Questions, Tools, Books & Tutorial PDF

👉 Lesson 1

JavaScript Courses

— 90 Best JavaScript Certification Courses

👉 Lesson 2

JavaScript Books

— 14 Best JavaScript Books for Beginners and Experts

👉 Lesson 3

BEST JavaScript IDE

— List of Top 20 BEST JavaScript IDE

👉 Lesson 4

JavaScript Interview Questions

— Top 85 JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers

👉 Lesson 5

JavaScript Tutorial PDF

— Download Javascript Tutorial PDF for Beginners

What will you learn in this JavaScript Tutorial for Beginners? Are there any prerequisites for this JavaScript Tutorial?

Nothing! This is an absolute JavaScript beginner guide to learn JavaScript with examples. However, if you have some basic knowledge of HTML and CSS, it will help you learn faster and more efficiently.

Who is this JavaScript Tutorial for?

This JavaScript for beginners tutorial is for students who want to learn about Web application development and software development. This tutorial is also helpful for the professionals working in web application development to enhance their knowledge and skills.

Why learn JavaScript Programming Language?

JavaScript is the most popular client-side programming language which is widely used for web application development in every industry. There is a huge demand in the IT industry for candidates having knowledge of JavaScript. Therefore, learning JavaScript is beneficial for you to get a good job and also enhance your skills and knowledge as well.

How do JavaScript engines work?

JavaScript Engines are complicated. But it works on some simple basics:

Then it converts or compiles the script to the machine language.

After that machine code runs.

What can in-browser JavaScript do?

JavaScript’s functionality depends on the environment it’s running in. For example, chúng tôi supports functions which allows JavaScript to read and write arbitrary files, perform network requests, object-oriented, etc. The roles that JavaScript plays in both client-side (front end) and server-side (back end) development of applications can vary wildly.

In-browser JavaScript also allows you to perform webpage manipulation, interaction with the user and with the web server.

Show dynamic content based on the user profile.

Support features like auto-validated form entries and interactive drop-down menus.

Send requests to remote servers, Upload and download files.

JavaScript code can also create movement and sound

Ask questions to the users, Get and set cookies, show messages, switch browser tabs.

Allows the data to be stored in the local storage.

What can’t in-browser JavaScript do?

JavaScript’s capabilities in the browser are quite limited for the sake of the user’s safety. It helps to prevent any unauthorized webpage from accessing private information.

Examples of such limitations are:

JavaScript on a webpage may not allow you to copy, execute or read/write arbitrary files on the hard disk. It doesn’t offer any access to Operating system functions.

JavaScript allows you to communicate over the net to the server where the current page came from. Although, it does not allow you to receive data from other sites/domains.

What makes JavaScript unique?

Here, are the three most important features which make JavaScript unique

It offers full integration with HTML/CSS.

Simple things are done quickly without any complication or following strict rules.

Supported by all major browsers and JavaScript is enabled by default.

Alternatives to JavaScript

The syntax of JavaScript not suited for everyone as different project demands different features. However, some modern tools like a Coffee script, Typescript, and Dart allowing developers to code in another language and then auto-convert into the JavaScript code.

Where is JavaScript Today?

ECMAScript is a specification governed by ECMA international aimed at standardizing JavaScript. The latest version is ECMA9 also called JavaScript 9. It is supported by all major browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc. Though each browser has an array of unique commands that are not part of the standards.

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