Trending February 2024 # Conversion Rate Optimisation : A 9 Step Process # Suggested March 2024 # Top 3 Popular

You are reading the article Conversion Rate Optimisation : A 9 Step Process updated in February 2024 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 Conversion Rate Optimisation : A 9 Step Process

But when I recently met Ben Jesson and Karl Blanks from Conversion Rate Experts their background didn’t fit the norm. Their company was founded when a real-life rocket scientist teamed up with a internet marketing specialist to look at websites through unconventional eyes.

This unusual perspective has turned out to be highly profitable for their clientele, which includes firms like Google, Vodafone, and Sony.

In this interview we explore how Conversion Rate Experts approaches optimisation since I think companies, agencies and consultants can learn a lot to their approach to returning the commercial returns from websites of all types.

2012 update:

When I completed the original interview with Ben and Karl back in 2010, I asked whether they had a summary of their process to share. We did cover this in Question 3, but recently Karl has been in touch to say they now have an infographic to show this process. I thought I’d share it so you can review your processes against it. You can read more about their process on their blog where they expand upon each step.

What is Conversion rate optimisation?

Q1. We’re seeing a lot more companies working now on CRO. What is it? Is it more than landing page optimisation?

Yes, it should be. Landing page optimisation focuses on one page. We coined the term Conversion Rate Optimisation (“CRO”) in 2007 to describe the process of optimizing the business itself. It’s really commercial optimization

A proper job of CRO includes the review of the entire process from the initial lead-generation ad, all the way through to the post-sale follow-up. The real goal is to identify which parts of the sales funnel will yield the greatest wins with the least work.

That means it’s necessary to bring a lot of disciplines to the party, including understanding traffic sources, visitor psychology, and the company’s position in the marketplace, including its core strengths and weaknesses. On top of that there’s usability testing, copywriting, and web design factors to look at.

All these elements go into creating hypotheses for testing. We’re maniacal about testing, because we’ve seen too many businesses merely throw a series of “best practices” against the wall to see if anything sticks. Best practices should not be the answer to optimizing a website, but merely one starting point for formulating a test strategy.

Once we determine what truly works for a particular website, then we examine how our findings might be used in other media channels. For instance a better series of benefit statements might be transferrable to direct mail or email autoresponder campaigns””subject to testing in those media, of course.

The business case

Q2. How do you help companies persuade colleagues of the returns from CRO, the business case?

Unlike certain industries like public relations, the entire foundation of CRO is based on data, measurement, and testing. You don’t need to present arguments when the data can do the talking for you. Once you measure the value of visitors, conversions, and sales, then it’s simple arithmetic to show how, say, a 10% boost in conversions would help the bottom line.

Identifying the biggest opportunities

Q3. What approaches do you use to decide which part of a site needs most urgent attention?

FORTUNE magazine called what we do “a combination of multivariate statistical analysis and good old-fashioned detective work” and that pretty well describes our approach.

It’s often very useful to map out your entire sales/conversion funnel and make sure it’s being comprehensively measured in whatever web analytics package you prefer.

What mistakes limit conversion?

Q4. Give some examples of the most common “conversion rate killers” you see.

Killer #1: Not split testing. Many people think they’re done if they take action to make changes to their site. In reality they’re only “done” when tests show that the changes in fact improved conversions. Installing a “best practice” magic button that another site swears by might actually lower conversions. Despite the popularity of video, Google once discovered through tests that video reduced conversions on one of its pages. You simply must test to find out.

Not long ago, multivariate testing software cost more than £5,000 per month. Now you can use Google Website Optimizer and other software packages for free, so there’s really no excuse. We created a tool, called Which Multivariate, which helps you to select the best software for multivariate testing.

Killer #2 is “meek tweaking”””in other words, making changes that are never likely to have a significant effect.

Killer #3 is asking for the sale on the first visit. It’s often a good idea to test the creation of a multi-step conversion funnel, in which you provide great value before you ask for the order. Comparison charts, forums, special reports, and email marketing are examples of elements that allow you to provide good information, ask for names, cultivate a relationship and thereby improve the chances of a sale.

We recently gave a talk on 15 Common Causes of Conversion Death

What are the latest approaches?

Q5. Are you seeing any innovative design techniques that are helping conversions?

Excellent design is a prerequisite for conversion, but the biggest breakthroughs tend to be the new tools and techniques for gathering insights into the visitor’s mindset.

KISSInsights and Ethnio are both good for asking your visitors to give you immediate feedback on your site. GazeHawk enables you to conduct an eye-tracking study on your site for a tiny fraction of the traditional cost.

Many of your readers will already know about how wireframing is important in order to get agreement on functional aspects before you take the time to make a site look good. We like Balsamiq for that purpose. [Editor – I use that too – a great simple wireframing tool for consultants and agencies]

Finally, your readers may want to get our free newsletter to see what a million-dollar landing page looks like, along with a graphical analysis. We call it that because it generated over a million dollars for one of our clients.

If you want even more examples of what’s possible with conversion improvement, watch the video in the header of our website.

You're reading Conversion Rate Optimisation : A 9 Step Process

Conversion Rate Optimization: Marketing’s Most Underused Weapon

CRO is an underrepresented specialty in today’s marketing industry and because of a general lack of understanding about the field of work, it often loses out

I attend and speak at some of the best digital marketing conferences all over the world and I can count on one hand, the number of sessions I’ve seen that offered quality content about Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO). This marketing specialization always seems to fly under the radar in marketing circles.

Download our Premium Resource – Website conversion optimization planner

Plan structured tests and experiments to improve results from your site.

Access the Website conversion optimization planner

Yes, there are a number of great websites and resources dedicated to CRO. There are also some excellent CRO-specific conferences out there and I’ve attended most of them – but the real problem is this: The only people talking about conversion rate optimization are CRO experts at CRO conferences and CRO bloggers on CRO-specific websites. Digital marketing generalists and marketing departments don’t pay a whole lot of attention to it and they certainly don’t give it the respect it deserves

And believe me, it deserves more respect.

I’ve personally seen CRO campaigns contribute millions in revenue to online brands, for pennies-on-the-dollar compared to costs of other marketing channels. In fact, at the software company Project Manager (where I lead the marketing teams), one recent iteration of A/B testing lead to a 49% increase in conversions. Gains that big are rare, so when you find a marketing channel yielding such positive returns, you can’t afford to ignore it.

I’ve made it my personal mission to help expand the reach of conversion rate marketing. This starts with us talking more about what CRO is and how it can help other marketing teams.

Understanding the ways in which users navigate your site and become customers is what CRO is all about and improving that process means more sales. A good, basic understanding of key terms and metrics is important to understand the necessity of CRO.

Here’s a quick CRO crash course in case you need a little refresher:

Key terms and metrics

Conversion is the term for what happens when an online visitor becomes a paying customer. Conversions take many forms: buying an item, subscribing to an email, requesting a quote, or creating a user account.

Your conversion rate is the total number of conversions divided by the total number of user sessions. If your website has 20,000 user sessions a month and you receive 500 orders in that month, your conversion rate is 500/20,000 = 2.5%.

Bounce Rate

Your bounce rate is the rate at which a visitor arrives at your website and leaves without taking any actions. If your website is providing information (say, ‘how to increase CRO’), then a high bounce rate isn’t inherently bad – it means the visitor received the information and left. If you’re in the business of selling products or services online, you want visitors to take on-page actions.

Call To Action Shopping Cart Abandonment

Shopping cart abandonment by customers is frustrating and rightfully so. Losing out on the potential sale at this final stage means missing out on significant revenue. Tracking abandonment rate is part and parcel of successful CRO implementation.

These metrics are at the core of any website analysis for improvements that could come from a successfully implemented CRO campaign.

Analyzing your website for CRO improvements

To determine how to most efficiently implement CRO, it’s a valuable exercise to analyze your current website and identify any obvious areas that need improvement. Colour contrast levels, CTA location and video inclusion are just a few areas worth exploring.

Unclear value propositions, weakly worded or misplaced calls-to-action and difficult checkout procedures are some of the big red flags for companies with lower conversion rates.

Most of all, be sure to bring as much data as possible.

Your Google Analytics dashboard is positively loaded with conversion rate metrics, including:

Traffic from target market (traffic sources)

Return visitor conversion

Interactions per visit

Traffic from target market is of particular importance, as narrowing down your dataset to your specific target market is how you separate potential customer traffic from overall visitor metrics.

Doing the work to analyze your website, where CRO can best provide an impact and fully implementing CRO is only part the battle.

The challenges of CRO

The actual functional work of implementing CRO isn’t overwhelming, but there are some common hurdles that get in the way when teams try to roll out their first conversion marketing program:

Challenge 1: CRO is resource intensive

Marketing staff: to analyze website usage data, form the hypotheses and set up the test in the split testing software.

Design staff/front-end developers: to design page variants and turn the hypothesis into working web pages.

Content writers: to craft new messaging for page variants.

SEO staff: to ensure testing does not cause any organic problems (duplicate content or similar pages can create issues for Google).

Data scientist or experienced CRO practitioner: to ensure testing is statistically sound and to interpret the results.

Challenge 2: CRO is complex

Conversion optimization requires a general grasp of statistics, some of which can become confusing pretty quickly. At the very least you will need to understand P-values and statistical significance. In fact, A/B testing done wrong – results without statistical significance – can lead to false interpretations of data and cause misguided marketing decisions to be made.

As the saying goes: “The data will confess to anything if you torture it long enough.”

Here’s an illustration of why statistics matter:

Say you take the homepage of your e-commerce website and make an identical copy of it. You now have two pages that are exactly the same. Next, you run 50% of your web traffic to the original version (page A) and 50% to the identical copy (page B). You begin to run your A/B test, and you record which page generates more purchases.

After the first hour of testing, you notice page version B generated five purchases, while Page A generated only one, so you stop the test. Without an understanding of statistical significance, you could conclude that Version B is the winner. After all, it’s a better page as it has 400% more sales.

However, the two pages are identical. If you would have let the test run longer (like statistical mathematics dictate) then over time the numbers would have equalized and you would have seen that one page does not actually perform better than the other.

Statistics and timing are crucial when it comes to getting CRO right.

Challenge 3: Getting leadership buy-in is difficult

No matter how well prepared you may be to deliver a CRO campaign, it’s all pointless if you don’t have leadership buy-in, particularly from the C-Suite.

If the technical challenges weren’t enough, It can be unbelievably difficult to convince C-suite leaders in an organization to put precious marketing resources towards Conversion Rate Optimization.

The scenario goes something like this:

Marketing Director: “I need extra marketing resources to implement a CRO program.”

CEO: “We don’t have the budget to work on the website right now, we just need to focus on bringing in new business instead. Let’s revisit this next year…”

It can be hard for company leaders to understand how CRO could be as valuable to the bottom line as lead generation marketing that brings in new revenue. Luckily, the golden rule of C-suite persuasion applies nicely here: Tie it back to money. Convincing management to implement CRO doesn’t require technical language. Speak in terms C-suite executives understand – profit, cost and sales.

Sell CRO by selling results and back those results up with proof. Few people have the time or willingness to understand what boosting a conversion rate from 2.5% to 5.0% means in technical terms but saying you can double sales with a proper CRO campaign is something no one can ignore.

CRO is a process and it takes quality data to sell long-term improvements to management. Look for case studies and examples from your specific industry. After all, it’s hard to deny the value in CRO if your competitors are embracing it.

Frame the discussion in terms that non-technical or traditional-minded executives understand. If a visitor walks into your brick-and-mortar store, you need to get them to spend money. Hiding the checkout queue, greeting customers or offering finance are all ways stores try to convert their customers. Portray CRO as the digital equivalent of organizing a store and even the most ardent C-suite executive is sure to see the value.

Need a little additional ammunition to convince your CEO? Quote some of these case studies:


It would stand to reason Moz, one of the premier online marketing providers, would be a case study for effective CRO implementation. When Moz tweaked its approach towards CRO, it registered over $1 million/year in new subscribers.

On its landing page, Moz changed its marketing and sales language from ‘buy’ to ‘why’. This new marketing approach demonstrated value (e.g. ‘here’s who eBay, Disney, and Marriott turn to…’) instead of trying to sell a product or service. Moz also clarified what customers would get with their subscriptions. Charts and images perform well with users and create interest in viewers. This reduced bounce rate and kept visitors engaged.

The company also emphasized video marketing content in lieu of pure written text – something viewers love to see. With Moz drawing in larger crowds with its improved landing page, the company tweaked its sales funnel by making it easier for customers to try their service. Revamped CTAs ($1 for 30 days of paid membership) and no-obligation product trial periods lowered the shopping cart abandonment rate and prompted more conversions.

Hubspot and 37Signals

The lesson is clear: find areas to improve on, and run A/B tests to get quality data on what works. Often, the simplest changes lead to the best results.

Moving forward with CRO

At its core, CRO is about making it easier for customers to spend their money.

Help them do it!

Eye Tracking To Boost Conversion Rate Of Your Ecommerce Site

Do you know that your website images play a biggest role in boosting up the conversion rate of your website? To know the importance of your website’ images, you can give a look on eye tracking reports; however, you also need to run one. It is true that running eye-tracking software for your website is quite expensive, but you can boost conversion rate of your website in mean-time.

If you have decided to improve the conversion rate of your ecommerce website, you need to look at where the viewers’ eyes are going and have to conclude that it is a place where you want their eyes to go or not.

Here, you can find how you can boost conversion rate through eye-tracking:

People are more interested in Media than text:

As we all know that most of the people are interested in media like pictures to videos and etc. People will more focus on media if you put it on your page. As compare to the text on the page, they like to spend their time on media part of the page. You need to remember that how you used to look at Google search results before it adding pictures and videos.

And, now in the below image, you can see that Google has put some videos in the search results that got huge impact:

And now in the given image, you can see that Google has added some pictures of the product in the search results:

So, what you came to know from above example is that media is good, but make sure that you use it carefully. Using media to sell your products and services is completely best for you. However, media is a interruption, then you will reduce the conversion rates of your site.

Cautiously Utilize People in Your Images:

In this modern world, those stock picture sites are extremely infamous that have thousands of pictures of people. It is better for you to use a picture of someone on your website, but make sure that you use pictures accurately otherwise it can affect your conversion rate.

Here in this below given image, you can see that the girl is looking at you, not at the product. So, customers are looking at her instead of the product.

Nothing has been changed in this image except her eyes that plays a biggest role in this ad. Through eye-tracking, you will come to know that the direction of the model’s look compels you to look at the product.

People Spend Time to read Left to Right:

How many of you know that most of the websites have their navigation path from left to right because maximum number of people enters in the website and first they look at your logo and after that they turn on your menu bar.

So, you need to keep attractive pictures on the left side of your website that are the perfect examples of the eye tracking. As per the reports that average web users are spending their 69% of their time looking at the left side of the web page, so make sure your important and eye-catching elements should be placed on the left-hand side.

However, you can also have to test that which one is working best for you, but keeping essential elements on the left side will give you a wonderful start for your site.

Faces Plays Vital Role:

As we all that eye placement give huge impact on what you look at, but the position of the body also make even a big impact as compare to eye movement. Here in the below given images, you can see that in the first picture baby’s body position is in the front of you, so you will surely look him instead of products.

However in the second image, the body position of the baby is towards products that draws your attention to the product. If you prefer to use pictures on your ecommerce site’ landing page, make sure that you have them look at your product and services or you have their whole body face on it. It may help you to boost conversion rate of your website.

Above mentioned points can help you to boost the conversion rate of your ecommerce website without any hassle. As per the described points, you can make your ecommerce website more popular and create unique brand on the web.

Step Chart In Excel – A Step By Step Tutorial

Watch Video – Creating a Step Chart in Excel

A step chart can be useful when you want to show the changes that occur at irregular intervals. For example, the price rise in milk products, petrol, tax rate, interest rates, etc.

Let’s take the example of a Petrol hike in India. It can happen any day (as decided by the government) and the value remains constant between these changes. In such a case, a step chart is the right way to visualize such data points.

Unfortunately, Excel does not have an inbuilt feature to create a step chart, however, it can easily be created by rearranging the data set.

Step Chart in Excel

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

The difference between a Step Chart and a Line Chart.

Creating a Step Chart using the “Line Chart technique”.

A line chart would connect the data points in such a way that you see a trend. The focus in such charts is the trend and not the exact time of change.

On the contrary, a step chart shows the exact time of change in the data along with the trend. You can easily spot the time period where there was no change and can compare the magnitude of change in each instance.

Here is an example of both the line chart and step chart – created using the same data set (petrol prices in India).

Both of these charts look similar, but the line chart is a bit misleading.

It gives you the impression that the petrol prices have gone up consistently during May 2024 and June 2024 (see image below).

But if you look at the step chart, you’ll notice that the price increase took place only on two occasions.

Similarly, a line chart shows a slight decline from September to November, while the step chart would tell you that this was the period of inactivity (see image below).

Hope I have established some benefits of using a Step Chart over a Line Chart. Now let’s go ahead a look at how to create a step chart in Excel.

First things first. The credit for this technique goes to Jon Peltier of chúng tôi He is a charting wiz and you will find tons of awesome stuff on his website (including this technique). Do pay him a visit and say Hello.

Here are the steps to create a step chart in Excel:

Have the data in place. Here I have the data of petrol prices in India in 2024.

Have a copy of the data arranged as shown below.

The easiest way is to construct the additional data set right next to the original data set. Start from the second row of the data. In cell D3, enter the reference of the date in the same row (A3) in the original data set. In cell E3, enter the reference of the value in the row above (B2) in the original dataset. Drag the cells down to the last cell of the original data.

Copy the original data (A2:B18 in the above example), and paste it right below the additional dataset that we created.

You will have something as shown below (the data in yellow is the original data and green is the one that we created). Note that there is a blank row between the header and the data (as we started from the second row). If you are too finicky about how data looks, you can delete those cells.

You don’t need to sort the data. Excel takes care of it.

That’s it! You’ll have the step chart ready.

How does this work:

To understand how this works, consider this – You have 2 data points, as shown below:

What happens when you plot these 2 data points on a line chart? You get a line as shown below:

Now to convert this line chart into a step chart, I need to show in the data that the value remained the same from 1 to 2 January, and then suddenly increased on 2 January. So I restructure the data as shown below:

I carry forward the data to the next date when the change in value happens. So for 2nd January, I have two values – 5 and 10. This gives me a step chart where the increase is shown as a vertical line.

The same logic is applied to the restructuring of the data while creating a full-blown step chart in Excel.

While it would be nice to get an inbuilt option to create step charts in Excel, once you get a hang of restructuring the data, it won’t take more than a few seconds to create this.

Related Tutorials:

Other Excel Charting Tutorials You Might Like:

A Step By Step Guide For Data Visualization Using Tableau

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Introduction to Data Visualization using Tableau

Our goal as Data Analysts is to get the insights from our data in such a way that everybody who sees them can easily understand their implications and how to act on them.

Tableau is a data analytics and visualization tool. It’s the leading (33% market share followed by Power-BI) data analytics and visualization tool in the market. Tableau comes with a very easy drag-drop interface which makes it easy to learn and you can work on almost every type of data in Tableau.

This makes it an excellent choice for data analysts.

Table of Contents

This article will give you a walkthrough of all essential features of the Tableau, which you must know in order to work on it:

Installing Tableau on your System

Getting Started with Tableau!

Tableau Visualizations – Charts, Tooltips, Maps

Tableau Visualizations – Formatting, Colors

Parameters, and Calculated Fields in Tableau

Analytics in Tableau (Forecasting, Clustering)

Creating Dashboards in Tableau

Crafting your own Story in Tableau

Tableau provides us various services according to our business need Tableau Desktop, Tableau Public, and Tableau Online, all these offer Data Visual Creation. Choice of Tableau depends upon the type of work.

Tableau Desktop is a program that allows you to execute complicated data analysis tasks and generate dynamic, interactive representations to explain the results. Tableau also lets you share your analysis and visualizations with the rest of your company, allowing everyone from coworkers to top management to look into the data that matters to them.

Before you can begin using Tableau, you need to download the Tableau setup from the link and then accept all the licenses and agreements. After installation, you will get a home screen same as the given picture below.

After installation, if you find this Homescreen you are good to go:

Getting Started with Data Visualization using Tableau

Once you have installed Tableau in the system, let’s start with some real-world Data Visualization using Tableau.

Load Data in Tableau

We will be using global superstore data throughout the article, which is perfect for learning purposes. This link will take you to a page where you may download the dataset. The downloaded file is a zip file that contains an excel that looks like the given picture below:

Now we have an excel file and Tableau installed let’s load the data set into Tableau. Tableau also gives us some flexibility to create new columns, rename, split, edit alias, join tables, some preprocessing before loading the data into Tableau. The below image will demonstrate to you how to load data and perform some preprocessing.

Tableau supports various data formats which can be loaded by choosing those options. Under a file we see various options to load data from the local directory and under to a server, we see options to load data from cloud servers. for loading CSV files we select Text file options, for excel and SQL files we choose their respective options.

Connect Tableau to the data file:

the Drag Sheets Here area, as shown in the above gif.

After loading we can perform data cleaning, data preprocessing, feature extraction to some extent.

Understanding different Sections in Tableau

Up until now, we have Tableau loaded with global-superstore data and now we can see Tableau work-page. Tableau work-page consist of different section. Let’s understand them first before plotting our graphs.

Source: Local

Menu Bar: Here you’ll find various commands such as File, Data, and Format.

Dimension Shelf: This shelf contains all the categorical columns under it. example: categories, segments, gender, name, etc

Measure Shelf: This shelf contains all numerical columns under it like profit, total sales, discount, etc

Page Shelf: This shelf is used for joining pages and create animations. we will come on it later

Filter Shelf: You can choose which data to include and exclude using the Filters shelf, for example, you might want to analyze the profit for each customer segment, but only for certain shipping containers and delivery times. You may make a view like this by putting fields on the Filters tier.

Marks Card: The visualization can be designed using the Marks card. The markings card can be used to change the data components of the visualization, such as color, size, shape, path, label, and tooltip.

Worksheet: In the workbook, the worksheet is where the real visualization may be seen. The worksheet contains information about the visual’s design and functionality.

Data Source: Using Data Source we can add new data, modify, remove data.

Current Sheet: The current sheets are those sheets which we have created and to those, we can give some names.

New Sheet: If we want to create a new worksheet ( blank canvas ) we can do using this tab.

New Dashboard: This button is used to create a dashboard canvas.

New Storyboard: It is used to create a new story

Creating Visuals in Tableau

Let’s begin with the real data visualization using Tableau-

Tableau supports the following data types:

Boolean: True and false can be stored in this data type.

behavior when applied to valid date or DateTime fields.

Number: These are values that are numeric. Values can be integers or floating-point numbers (numbers with decimals).

String: This is a sequence of characters encased in single or double quotation marks.

Geolocation: These are values that we need to plot maps.

Follow these steps:

drag the dimension and measure in row and column input field and it will automatically suggest a graph best fitted on data.

you can also remove the axis just by dragging and dropping them under the marks card (remove field).

From the above image, you might have observed that the default aggregation on the measure is sum but you can change the aggregation to sum, avg, min, max, etc, you can also customize the axis name, orientation, size, show-hide axis as shown in the above image.

Enhancing The Analysis:

In order to create a beautiful interactive visual, you must understand the following features:

a. Marks card

Marks card is very important for plotting graphs. In marks card we have:

Colour button which is used to give different colors to different categories and measures,

Size button is used to give size which depends on how big a value is. The bigger the value means bigger the size of a particular mark

Tooltips, here you can add information like ( profit, quantity, sales, discount, category, state, etc.) which will be visible on hovering over the graph

The Details button allows you to display more information without affecting the table’s structure. which is used to show details about particular points. dragging a field on details buttons will show the details of that point, and this feature is majorly used for maps to show more details of a particular point.

b. Filter

After creating some plots you might want to use different filters, to do so follow these steps:

On the filter shelf, you can drag any measure or dimension whichever you want to apply a filter on.

As you drop the field a box will appear, now you can select any particular category, or top-n rows according to measure values or you can write some rules to select top rows or by using some parameters.

c. Hierarchy

You can quickly establish hierarchies with Tableau to keep your data organized.

Hierarchy is basically nesting the same type of related data together. Tableau calendar data is an example of a hierarchy.

d. Parameter

A parameter is a workbook variable like a number, date, or string that can be readily managed by the user to replace a constant value in a calculation.

In the above image, our goal was to choose the top N countries having maximum sales but here we wanted to let the user select how many top countries they want to list. To accomplish so, we’ll need to create the following parameters:

Select a data type from the Data Type drop-down menu, in my case, I have chosen to int range from 1–100 list and the current value will be 5.

Here we wanted to choose top-N countries based on the sales. drag country field to filter shelf and choose top tab and then choose variable1 in by field section and choose SUM(SALES).

Now slide the parameter value and observe the difference.

e . Calculated field

Tableau gives us the option to create a calculated field where we can create our own new field( column). Tableau comes with many functions like if-else, switch, case, date diff, level of dimension which is extensively used for our visualization

To segment data

level of details(LOD)

To change a field’s data type, for example, from a string to a date.

To aggregate data

handling date time

To filter results

To calculate ratios

Creating Calculated Field:

Here our goal is to calculate delivery days using order date and ship date:

Give the Rule to calculate delivery days in the rule box. here we will use the DATEDIFF function to subtract two dates.

Type Rule: delivery days = DATEDIFF(‘day’, [shipdate],[order date])

now drag the delivery days field in rows or cols.

since calculated field is the most powerful features of Tableau.

f. Format

Data Analytics in Tableau

In the Analytics tab, we have several analytical tools like forecasting, clustering, trend line, Average line, constant line, etc. let’s see in action.

Source: Local

Steps to perform Analytics:

From the Analytics tab on the left side, you can choose various options.

Dragging and dropping a constant line on a particular X, or Y-axis draws a line at a given constant value.

The trend line is not the same as forecasting. The trend line only tells us if the overall trend is increasing or decreasing.

Maps in Tableau

We can easily draw maps in Tableau if we have geographical data aka a location field (country, city, state, etc). Tableau has 2 types of maps, symbol map, filled map.

Source: Local

Steps to create Maps:

Drag Country field in the worksheet, it will draw a symbol map.

Dropping city on Details will show the names of cities on the map.

you can also decide the colors of different states based on the sales amount on the filled map.

sort them by giving their specific country, city , state, pin-code etc.

Colors: You can adjust colors of visualization based on categories and on the magnitude of measure values.

Source: Local

From the above image you see that the color of bars has decided by the profit amount, more profit means more bluish in color, more loss means more reddish in color

adjusting colors is so simple in Tableau:

Drag a dimension or measure in the color shelf under the marks card.

Now you see colors are now visible as a legend.

you can choose a wide variety of colors, modes of coloring like stepped or continuous bar and

you can edit the range of colors as well.

Tooltip: When we hover over a particular point on the graph we see a box showing up details about that particular point, this is basically a tooltip. we can add information to show as a tooltip, let’s see an example.

As you can see dragging a field on the Tooltip button adds details in the tooltip which can be seen on hover, we can also customize the text, color, font of the tooltip.

Designing a Dashboard in Tableau

Combining multiple views with filters, interactivity, legends on the same page is simply our dashboard. it helps us to see all views on the same page with fully interactive features. Let’s see an example.

Steps to create a dashboard in Tableau:

Adjust the layout of the dashboard. you get fixed or automatic sizes based on the screen size to choose from.

On the left-hand side, you can see that our all graphs (viz) are visible so you simply need to drag and drop them into the dashboard.

You can drag as many as sheets you want to include in our dashboard.

dashboard. If you find managing spaces and layout difficult in the dashboard try floating sheets.

You can also apply filters on different visuals present in our dashboard. More information on the dashboard may be found here.

Storytelling in Tableau

The story in the Tableau is narrated walkthrough of one or more sheets or dashboards. each view in the story is called a Story Point.

In storytelling, we take a visual and write a narration about the insight that has found from visual

Creating a story is the same as creating a dashboard, just drag our visual on the story page and give narration. You can add as many visuals as you want along with narration.

Source: Local

Actually creating story points in Tableau is easy. You can see an example of creating a Story Point and experience Tableau’s free on-demand training at the same time! Go to Tableau’s training page.

Saving your Tableau Work:

Tableau comes with autosave features so you don’t need to worry if you couldn’t save your work manually.

You can save your work in various ways:

Tableau Desktop

Tableau Server

Tableau Public


The Undo Button Is Your Friend

Pay Attention to Visual Cues

Save Early and Often

Final Thoughts on Tableau

This is all you need to know about Tableau in order to create good-looking charts and dashboards. I tried to cover as much as I could although it’s not the ending. You can learn more about formatting, calculated field, pages, animation, extensions, etc. in order to go in-depth with Tableau you must practice different kinds of data and it will help you analyze and present data efficiently and in a nice manner. I highly encourage you to go through the free learning material given by Tableau.

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and are used at the Author’s discretion.


How To Create A Custom Gradient In Photoshop (Step By Step)

When you’re working with the gradient tool in Photoshop, being able to create a custom gradient opens up way more of the tool’s potential. So today, we’ll dive into how to do just that, along with how to save your custom gradients for later use.

But if you are not interested in creating tons of gradients from scratch, I’ll touch on a few places to find pre-made Photoshop gradients for free online too!

Let’s get started.

How To Create A Custom Gradient In Photoshop Step 1: Create Or Open The Document You Want To Apply The Gradient To

First, open or create a document of the size of your preference. You will apply the gradient to this document. In my case, I made a document of 3000 x 2000 pixels.

Then, go to the Foreground/Background swatches at the bottom of the Toolbar. The foreground swatch is the one in the front, and the background is in the back. These will be the colors of your default gradient. You can change those later within the gradient editor if you want, but it’s a good idea to do it beforehand.

Within the color picker, choose a color you like. In my case, that was the blue shade below.

Repeat the process above to change the background swatch color.

Step 2: Enable The Gradient Tool (G)

With the desired colors chosen, enable the Gradient Tool (G) in the Toolbar.

Step 3: Customize Your Gradient In The Gradient Editor

The Gradient Editor gives you many customization options. It’s a complete resource to create the gradient that looks exactly as you want.

The first section of the Gradient Editor is the Presets. The presets are grouped in folders.  

In the Basics folder, you can find the default gradient based on your foreground and background colors. You can also find a gradient that goes from the foreground color to transparent. There is also a basic gradient there that goes from black to white.

The other folders are divided into groups of colors or themes. For example, you can find folders with green shades and colors based on common cloud colors.

Moving down the Gradient Editor, you can find a gradient bar containing the foreground and background color you previously chose by default.

The arrows and blocks under the gradient bar are color stops, representing each color that composes the gradient.

Using the Smoothness slider, you can control how harsh or smooth the transition between the colors in your gradient is. The lower this parameter is, the more blended the colors will look.

Add as many colors as you want to the gradient until your gradient looks as you like. In my case, I added four colors.

Step 4: Save Your New Custom Gradient As A Preset

Your new gradient preset will appear at the bottom of the gradient presets section.

Step 5: Locate Your Custom Gradient After Saving It

After saving your gradient, you can access it at any time in the future by doing the following:

Now, scroll down the list of gradient presets to find yours. It will likely be at the bottom of the list if you’ve just saved it.

Step 6:  Apply The Gradient You Created

After you have created your gradient, applying it in a document or photo is easy.

You can control the appearance of your gradient by choosing a different style before applying it. To do this, select one of the Gradient types in the Options Bar.

The Linear gradient applies the gradient from one point to another in the area you are using it.

The Radial gradient applies the gradient in the shape of a circle.  

The Angle gradient applies a gradient with a focal point that extends itself in an angular direction.

The Reflected gradient creates a gradient that goes from the first color of the gradient to its end color. However, it also places the gradient’s end color on both sides, creating a mirror effect.

Lastly, the Diamond gradient creates a gradient in the shape of a diamond.

Where To Get Additional Custom Gradients For Photoshop

You won’t always have time to create a stunning gradient. That’s why it’s always a good idea to store extra gradients when needed.

I selected three great sources of free gradients so you can download them to use in your projects.

Brusheezy is a popular website that offers thousands of free downloadable Photoshop resources.

Even though the focus of this website is providing brushes, it also offers other resources, and gradients are among them. You can find a variety of gradients on this website, such as metallic gradients, gold gradients, and gradients sorted by themes, like floral gradients and photo aging gradients.

Ps files is dedicated to sharing Photoshop resources. You can find anything from brushes, flyers, and text effects on this website. All resources there are free to download and are uploaded by its members. You can join the website if you want and share your own resources too!

Gradients on the website have their own section. You can find many high-quality gradients there. Browsing the website, you can find stunning packages with hundreds of preset gradients.

Graphics Fuel is an excellent source of graphics, both free and premium. There you can find lots of design freebies, including PSD files and icons. Beyond that, they also publish design articles, so you can keep up with the latest trends and get more informed about the design world.

A quick search on the website can uncover some valuable gradient sources for free. For example, I found a nice collection of 24 vibrant gradients that can make your next project stand out.

Update the detailed information about Conversion Rate Optimisation : A 9 Step Process on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!