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In this article, we will explore the details of RESTful architecture, the merits of Fast API, and how to create a simple API with Fast API. But before that, we shall discuss some basics of APIs like their functionalities, uses, and architectures, and then we will move on to more exciting stuff related to REST and Fast API.

What are APIs?

Imagine you went to a restaurant with your partner for a dinner date, and you want to place an order. How would you do it? Call the waiter and place an order. Now, what happens at the backend? The waiter goes to the chef and gives the order details. When the dishes are ready, he brings them to you.

Well, you just learned the way APIs typically work. In technical terms, the API is an intermediary between two software components to communicate with each other. API stands for Application Programming Interface. An interface between two entities.

APIs interact via a communication medium. As the internet is the most popular communication medium, an API refers to a web API. But APIs existed even before the web. So, not every API is a web API. The web APIs typically use HTTP to request response messages from the server, and these response messages could be of any supported format like XML, JSON, CSV, etc.

As the use of APIs grew, the need for standard data exchange between web services grew. In this way, APIs written in different languages can interact with each other. There are several protocols and architecture developed to address the problem. The most popular of them are SOAP and REST.

The SOAP stands for Service Object Access Protocol and uses HTTP and SMTP to communicate between different systems. The response messages are typically in XML format. On the other hand, REST (Representational State Transfer) APIs aren’t protocols but an architectural style. As long as an API follows the architecture constraints, we are good to go.


As REST is not a protocol but an architecture, developers do not need to worry about built-in rules while creating one, unlike SOAP. REST is lightweight, fast, and flexible. The communication medium is HTTP. The message responses can be of various formats such as JSON, XML, plain text, and HTML. JSON is the most popular as it is language agnostic. The REST architecture specifies some guidelines. API adhering to these guidelines is a REST API. These guidelines are,

Client Server design: A client-server architecture decouples the user interface from the storage interface. This decoupling of clients and servers helps them to evolve independently.

Cacheable: This constraint requires the response data from the server to a request made by a client must be labeled as cacheable or not. If the data is cacheable, the client will have the privilege to reuse it later.

Uniform Interface: A uniform interface ensures data transfer in a standardized format instead of specific to an application’s needs.

Layered system: A layered system allows the architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers. The components cannot see any layer beyond their immediate layers.

Code on demand: It allows the clients to extend their functionalities by downloading code blocks from servers as applets or scripts.

So, these are the six constraints that make an API a RESTful API.

One can develop REST APIs with any programming language. Examples are Javascript (Node js), Go lang (Gin, Martini), Ruby(Roda, Sinatra), Python (Flask, Django, FASTapi), Java (spring boot), PHP (Laravel), etc.

For this article, we will be focussing on Python’s FASTapi.


Fast API is a Python web framework for creating APIs and web services. It got released in 2023 as an open-source Python web framework. Being a relatively new Fast API has garnered much reputation among developers. Tech behemoths like Microsoft, Uber and many more have started using Fast API in their tech stacks.

The unique selling point of Fast API is in its speed. Python is often dubbed a slow programming language and sometimes unsuitable for developing applications where execution speed is the prime need. But Fast API, as its name suggests, is the fastest Python framework, on par with Go and Node js. All thanks to ASGI (Asynchronous Server Gateway Interface). ASGI allows FAST API to support concurrency and async code. It fundamentally separates Fast API  from Flask web framework, which supports WSGI (Web Server Gateway Interface).

So, what is ASGI and WSGI? WSGI handles the requests from clients synchronously. Each request has to wait until the previous one is complete. Thus, making the entire process slow. But ASGI handles the requests asynchronously. Any request does not need to wait for the completion of the previous one. Hence, making execution faster. The Flask, Bottle, and Django are some examples of WSGI-based frameworks. Fast API is an ASGI-based framework.

Now, let’s point out some of the prime aspects of Fast API.

Excellent Performance: Like we already discussed, Fast API is the fastest Python web framework in the market now.

Concurrency Support: Fast API supports concurrent programming.

In-built documentation: Swagger UI GUI allows automatic browser-based documentation of API.

In-built data validation: Fast API uses Pydantic for data validation, which saves a lot of time. It returns a JSON with the reason for any wrong data type.

We now have some initial ideas for Fast API. Now, we will move to the part where we do all the code stuff.

Install Requirements

First, We will install all the requirements to run Fast API applications. Like any Python project, we will create a virtual environment where we will install all the dependencies and libraries for the project. The reason for using a virtual environment is Python is not very good at resolving dependency issues. Installing packages to the operating system’s global python environment might conflict with system-relevant packages. So, we create virtual environments.

We can do that by running simple scripts.

python -m venv fastapi

We created a virtual environment named ‘fastapi’ in the current directory. Then we will launch it by typing the following code.


It will activate our virtual environment. The next step is to install the required libraries.

Install Fast API with pip command. Open up your shell and type in the following code.

python -m pip install fastapi uvicorn[standard]

So, we installed the fastapi and uvicorn server in our virtual environment. We will see what it does in a few moments.

Creating Simple API

Create a python file for your project. And type in the below codes. You may do it in any IDE.

from fastapi import FastAPI app = FastAPI() @app.get("/") async def root(): return {"message": "to be or not to be"}

In the above code snippet, we imported the FastAPi class from the fastapi module we just installed.

Then we created an app object of the class FastAPI.

The @app.get(“/”) is responsible for path operation, which is a decorator. It indicates that the below function is responsible for handling requests that go to the “/” path using the get operation.

The get operation is one of the HTTP operations along with Post, put and Patch, etc.

Next is the async function root, which returns a dictionary.

Note: The difference between the async/await function and a normal function is that in an async function, the function pauses while awaiting its results and let other such functions run in the meantime. For more reading on asynchronous functions, visit here.

In the above code, we can also write a regular function.

Next, in the shell, type in the below script.

uvicorn main: app --reload

In the above, script main is the name of the Python file, and the app is the name of the FastAPI instance we created in our code. The reload is for developing purposes. When you hit ctrl+s after changing your code, it will automatically update it in the uvicorn server. We don’t have to run the above shell command anymore.

The output of the above script is

←[32mINFO←[0m: Will watch for changes in these directories: [‘D:’] ←[32mINFO←[0m: Started reloader process [←[36m←[1m24796←[0m] using ←[36m←[1mWatchFiles←[0m ←[32mINFO←[0m: Started server process [←[36m28020←[0m] ←[32mINFO←[0m: Waiting for application startup. ←[32mINFO←[0m: Application startup complete.

{"message":"Hello World"} Path Parameters

As per Open API standards, a path parameter is the variable part of a URL path. It points to a specific resource location within a collection. See the below code for a better understanding,

from fastapi import FastAPI app = FastAPI() @app.get("/user/{user_id}") async def read_item(user_id:int): return {"user id": user_id}

The path parameter value goes to the read_item function. Notice we have mentioned the type of user_id, which means user_id has to be an integer. By default, the value is a string.

{"user id":100}

You can provide anything other than a string, and the output will be

{"detail":[{"loc":["path","user_id"],"msg":"value is not a valid integer","type":"type_error.integer"}]}

The Pydantic is responsible for all the under-the-hood data validation

The swagger Ui

Query Parameters

Any parameters other than the path parameters are query parameters. These are the most common types of parameters. The query is the set of key-value pairs that go after the ? in a URL, separated by & characters. Consider the below example.

from fastapi import FastAPI app = FastAPI() @app.get("/items/{item_id}") async def read_user_item(item_id: str, needy: str): item = {"item_id": item_id, "needy": needy} return item {"detail":[{"loc":["query","needy"],"msg":"field required","type":"value_error.missing"}]} {"item_id":"foo-item","needy":"needy"}

Swagger Ui

Request Body

A client sends data to API through a request body and receives a response body in return. The clients don’t need to send requests. API must return a response body to the clients.

We will declare our data model as a user_details class that inherits from the Pydantic base model. We will then use Python data types to define attributes. See the below example.

from fastapi import FastAPI from pydantic import BaseModel from typing import Union app = FastAPI() class user_details(BaseModel): user_id : str user_name : str income : int age : Union[int, None] = None'/users/') async def user_func(user : user_details ): tax = (user.income/100)*30 return f'Mr/Ms {user.user_name}, user Id {user.user_id} will pay a sum of {tax} as income tax' else: return f'Mr/Ms {user.user_name}, user Id {user.user_id} will pay a sum of {0} as income tax'

The request body user_details is the child class of Pydantic’s BaseModel. We then defined attributes such as user name, Id etc. In the user_func function, we declared the user as user_details type just as we did in path and query parameters.

Inside the function, we can access all the methods directly.

We can also use path, query, and request body together.

@app.put("/users/{user_add}") async def create_item(user_add: str, user: user_details, x: Union[str, None] = None): result = {"user_add": user_add, **user.dict()} if x: result.update({"x": x}) return result

The function parameters will be recognized as follows:

If a parameter is declared in the path URL, it will be a path parameter. (user_add)

If the parameter is of a singular type (like int, float, str, bool) it will be interpreted as a query parameter. (x)

If the parameter is declared to be of the type of a Pydantic model, it will be a request body. (user)

ML Model as a Web Service

Now that we know the nuts and bolts of fast API, we will create a predictive model and deploy it as a web service. All we need to do is putting all the pieces we learned so far together.

As discussed earlier, create a virtual environment, install necessary libraries, and create two Python files. One for model creation and the other for fast AP

The codes for our model

import pandas as pd df = pd.read_csv('D:/Data Sets/penguins_size.csv') df.dropna(inplace=True) #removing Null values df.drop('island', axis=1, inplace=True) #label encoding from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder enc = LabelEncoder() for col in df.select_dtypes(include='object'): df[col] = enc.fit_transform(df[col]) #train test split from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split y = df.species df.drop('species', axis=1,inplace=True) X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(df, y,test_size=0.15) #model train from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier model = RandomForestClassifier(), y_train) y_pred = model.predict(X_test) from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score acc = accuracy_score(y_pred, y_test) print(f'The accuracy of model is {acc}') #save model from joblib import dump dump(model,'penguin_model')

It is a simple model where we used a penguin dataset. After training the data, we saved the model using Joblib so that we will be able to use the model later in our fast API. Let’s create our API.

1. Import necessary libraries and load the saved model

from fastapi import FastAPI from pydantic import BaseModel from joblib import load model = load('penguin_model')

2. Define the input class

class my_input(BaseModel): culmen_length_mm: float culmen_depth_mm: float flipper_length_mm: float body_mass_g: float sex: int

3.  Define request body'/predict/') async def main(input: my_input): data = input.dict() data_ = [[data['culmen_length_mm'], data['culmen_depth_mm'], data['flipper_length_mm'], data['body_mass_g'], data['sex']]] species = model.predict(data_)[0] probability = model.predict_proba(data_).max() if species == 0: species_name = 'Adelie' elif species == 1: species_name = 'Chinstrap' else: species_name = 'Gentoo' return { 'prediction': species_name, 'probability': float(probability) }

Now run the Python file where we defined our model. After successful execution, you will see a Joblib model in the same directory. Now run the application through uvicorn as we discussed earlier.

uvicorn app_name:app --reload

It’s working.


Fast API is a new addition to Python web frameworks. Despite being a new entrant, it is already gaining traction in the developer’s community. The execution speed of async programming with Python’s easiness is what sets it apart. Throughout the article, we touched on several topics essential to get you started with Fast API.

 Here are the key takeaways from the article.

Restful APIs are the APIs that follow REST architectural constraints (client-server, cacheable, stateless etc)

Fast API is the fastest and easiest for API design among all the Python web frameworks.

Prime aspects of Fast API are in-built data validation, In-built documentation, concurrency, and performance.

Throughout the article, we went through some key concepts of Fast API, such as path parameters, query parameters, request body etc. And built an API to serve an ML model.

So, this was all about Fast API initial steps. I hope you enjoyed the article.

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Getting Started With Kubernetes Quickstart

Definition of Kubernetes Quickstart

In this tutorial, we will discuss more the quick start guide for using Kubernetes, for we may require prerequisite to start the setup of Kubernetes. But before we dive into the setup of Kubernetes let’s first understand what Kubernetes is, it is an open-source platform which helps us to manage and contained service, a workload that enables both for us declarative and automation configuration for us. It is also extensible and portable. Also, we have good support for its tools, service because it is widely available. Also, Kubernetes has the fastest growing ecosystems, in the coming section of the tutorial, we will discuss in more detail the working, implementation, and quick start to setup Kubernetes, al the prerequisite that are required to start with in detail for better understanding and clarity.

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Overview of Kubernetes Quickstart

As we have already seen the overviews for Kubernetes in the last section, but before starting first understand the below;

1) We have to have a few prerequisite in place in order to start with the Kubernetes, let’s take key points and steps which are required for key quick start.

2) We need a machine which is running on macOS or Linux.

3) Also before start we require few tools which are as below;

2) golang

3) python

4) make

5) Docker

6) Pyyaml

7) gcc compiler

8) pip

So above tools we require before we start with the Kubernetes, it is an overviews for this w will have closer look at the whole setup in detail in the coming section of the tutorial, for better usage and easy setup of Kubernetes on machine.

Configure SPIRE Server

We need to execute the below sets of commands which are as follows;

1) Create namespaces using the below command;

kubectl apply -f spire-namespace.yaml

2) Verify the namespace by executing the below commands;

kubectl get namespaces

3) configure SPIRE as below;

e.g. :

kubectl apply -f chúng tôi -f chúng tôi -f server-cluster-role.yaml Kubernetes Quickstart Configuration file format

Now in this section we will discuss in more detail the format that we have to follow once we start the setup for Kubernetes on our machine, we have to maintain a configuration file that should follow the below points, let’s have a closer look at it;

1) First when we are trying to define the configure file we have to specify the stable version of the API which is needed.

2) After this we should store our configuration file in the version control, before we trying it to push to cluster. This will enable us and help us to easily and quickly revert the changes if we want to. This also helps us to aids the cluster restoration and re-creation.

3) We can write our configuration file using any of the formats such as JSON or YAML, but always recommended to use YAML rather than JSON, because YAML format is more readable and user-friendly also. But both of these formats that is JSON and YAML can be used interchangeably.

4) We should always try to group the related objects inside the single file, to inverse the readability, because we can easily maintain one file, tan to look for several files.

5) Also look for kubectl commands, which can be called directly from the directory.

7) Also give objects descriptions using the annotations, it will allow and enable better introspection for us.

We have looked at the sample configuration file, which can help you to set up your own configuration file see below;


apiVersion: veriosn here kind: type metadata: name: your name labels: app: your name tier: your name role: yourname spec: ports: - port: your port 6379 targetPort: your port 6379 selector: app: same as above tier: same as above role: same as above Download the Install Delegate

In this section, we will going to see the installation of Delegate and will try to launch it to the cluster. For this, we have to follow a few steps let’s take a closer look at it,

1) First step is to login in to Harness.

5) Name you can give as – k8s-delegate exactly same.

6) We will choose the Primary Profile.

8) Open command prompt and try to ma the Delegate path on your machine.

9) Now extract the folder that we have downloaded, after that navigates to the harness-delegate-kubernetes folder that we have extracted just now.

Create a Harness Application and Service

Follow below steps to create Application and Service;

For Service:

4) It will create the Service for you.

Your Target Kubernetes Cluster

By the use of this, we can represent our infrastructure like, dev, production, QA, Stage, etc. Use below steps to configure this;

1) Breadcrumb will navigate you to Environments.

2) Here we can add Environments, Fill in the details such as Name, Description type, etc.

4) Now go to infrastructure Settings and provide details like, Name, Description, Type, Release Name, etc.

5) Submit it.

Conclusion – Kubernetes Quickstart

As we have seen all the steps and format for the file also to setup our Kubernetes on our machine follow whole article and steps to get a better understanding and clarity, also it is easy to setup if we try to follow the steps as it as mentioned.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Kubernetes Quickstart” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

Getting Started With Culturally Responsive Teaching

The world of education is buzzing with talk of being more culturally responsive, but what does that mean, and how important is it really?

When I talk about culture, I’m talking about norms, beliefs, and behaviors that are passed down from one generation to the next—the things that explain why a student might answer a question the way he does or why another might not feel comfortable looking you in the eye when you’re speaking to her. These aspects of culture are among the most misunderstood in the teacher-student dynamic and are often the things that cause students to get into the most trouble in the school discipline system. Culturally responsive teaching (CRT) attempts to bridge the gap between teacher and student by helping the teacher understand the cultural nuances that may cause a relationship to break down—which ultimately causes student achievement to break down as well.

In her book Culturally Responsive Teaching and the Brain, Zaretta Hammond writes that “by third grade, many culturally and linguistically diverse students are one or more years behind in reading.” CRT is one of the most impactful tools for empowering students to find their way out of that achievement gap. This alone makes being culturally responsive one of the most important things you can learn at this moment.

Getting Started

The first step in being culturally responsive is to do an internal audit—yes, you read that right, an audit: truly digging deep inside of ourselves and recognizing and naming those things we don’t want to look at or talk about. The experiences we’ve had along our journey in life have formed stereotypes which have then turned into implicit bias. These unintentional, unconscious attitudes impact how we relate to our students and their parents, and how we choose curriculum, assess learning, and plan lessons. Harvard University’s Project Implicit has an online test you can take to examine your implicit bias.

Culturally responsive teachers also have to be aware of the sociopolitical context schools operate in and dare to go against that status quo. Students need to understand the system that is working around them in schools. Give them context and don’t be afraid to talk about the tough subjects that may not be addressed in your school. In addition to Hammond’s Culturally Responsive Teaching and the Brain, another great resource is Affirming Diversity by Sonia Nieto. The most important part of this work is a willingness to do something different to get different results, with the goal of increasing academic achievement.

For your audit, take some time to ask yourself hard questions and reflect on past and current practices. Are you operating from a place of critical care within your classroom—a place that marries high expectations with empathy and compassion?  Are your students, regardless of socioeconomic status or background, being held to high standards? Has your past interaction with a particular race of people impacted your ability to communicate with parents? Identify those places in your instructional planning where you might have allowed your implicit biases to prevent you from pushing your students to achieve at optimal levels. Answering questions like these might be hard, but in order to create change, you have to identify and unearth the roots of your teaching practice.

Next Steps

Now that you have conducted an internal self-audit, your curriculum will need one as well. What books are students reading? Do they have a voice in what they read, where they sit, how they interact with each other?

Empowering students to take ownership of not just their learning but the environment itself is another critical component of CRT. One strategy for fostering a student-centered environment is having students create a classroom agreement that answers the question: “How will we be together?” Allowing students to answer this question will give you a window into how their cultures dictate the ways in which they want to feel respected, heard, safe, and included in the classroom and in their interactions with one another and with you. This reinforces the idea not only that they belong but that the way they show up at school every day, with all of their outside experiences in tow, has value.

Finally, put some thought into your lesson planning. You have taken the time to reflect and really look into your own biases that may have been getting in your way. You have revamped your classroom environment to reflect your students’ voices, their various cultural needs, and their choice. Now let’s have some fun. For example:

Encourage students to make a social media campaign that champions their favorite cause, and have them bring evidence of their results to class to discuss the role social media plays in social change.

Use current songs that students might love to analyze the use of literary techniques and imagery in music videos. Taylor Swift’s “Wildest Dreams” is a great one. Better yet, instead of assigning a song, ask students for their suggestions.

Watch and discuss documentaries like Race: The Power of an Illusion.

Zaretta Hammond shared three simple strategies you can use to make lessons in any subject more culturally responsive.

Our students need us now more than ever, and we have to roll up our sleeves and do what we must to close the achievement gap. Culturally responsive teaching is one step in the right direction. The outcome is a student body that loves learning, excels academically, and has teachers who respond to their needs.

Being culturally responsive encourages students to feel a sense of belonging and helps create a safe space where they feel safe, respected, heard, and challenged.

How To Get Started With Tinder

As one of the leading dating apps since its launch in 2012, Tinder has a large following. It has become a part of popular culture all over the world and has even appeared in movies and television shows. Let’s get back to basics and talk about how to use Tinder.

How to create a Tinder account

After installing Tinder, the first thing you must do is create an account. Let’s quickly go over the steps.

1.) Launch the Tinder app. From the login screen, tap LOG IN WITH GOOGLE, LOG IN WITH FACEBOOK, or LOG IN WITH PHONE NUMBER. We’re using the Facebook method for this guide.

2.) If you’re connecting with Facebook, allow Tinder access to your profile.

3.) Under My number is, enter your device’s phone number.

4.) Tinder will send a confirmation code to the specified phone number. Enter that code under My code is.

5.) Tap I AGREE on the Tinder “Please follow these House Rules” page.

6.) Select your gender under I am a. If you don’t see your identified gender, tap MORE and select from the list.

7.) Under My sexual orientation is, choose the sexual orientation that best matches you.

8.) Under Show Me, select WOMEN, MEN, or ANYONE.

9.) Under My school is, enter the name of your school.

10.) Under Interests, select up to five different things you’re interested in. This will show up on your profile and help you match with people of similar interests.

11.) Tap ALLOW LOCATION on the Enable Location page. This will allow the Tinder app to use your device’s GPS location so you can match with people in the same vicinity.

12.) If you want to block anyone, you can do so. However, you are limited to people in your device’s contacts list.

13.) Under We Value Your Privacy, tap I ACCEPT to finish the setup process and start using Tinder.

How to set up your Tinder profile

After creating your account, the next thing you want to do is set up your profile. You want to give other viewers a reason to want to connect with you — and you can’t do that if your Tinder profile is empty!

Go to the Profile tab at the far right of the bottommost toolbar and tap EDIT PROFILE.

Add visual media to your profile using the + or ADD MEDIA buttons. These include photos and videos.

In the About Me section, add a bio.

Under Interests, you can edit your interests.

In Relationship Goals, you can choose to show what you’re looking for from Tinder.

Under Lifestyle, you can add more unique traits about yourself.

For Job Title and Company, you can choose to display more professional elements of your person.

Under School, you can add or change your educational background.

The Living In section is for adding your location. This can help people make a decision if you’re close by.

You can choose to connect your Instagram account.

Under My Anthem, you can choose your favorite song — or “anthem.”

You can choose to connect Spotify to your account and showcase your top artists.

Under I Am, you can edit your gender.

Under Sexual Orientation, you can add or change your sexual orientation.

Control Your Profile is for Tinder Plus users, allowing you to hide your age and distance. The fact that privacy controls are relegated to an area only accessible by paying subscribers seems scummy to me, personally.

How to use Tinder

In terms of primary functions, Tinder is pretty barebones. Things are kept simple when it comes to matching, though there is a lot of “fluff” that can add to the experience. These would be things like Super Likes, Top Picks, Gold Hearts, and the subscription packages.


Swiping is how you “like” someone’s Tinder profile. As it’s a dating app, a connection — or “match” — is only made if the like is reciprocated. If two people like each other, they match, and they can converse within the app.

To like someone, press anywhere and drag to the right; this is called swiping right. Alternatively, you can tap the green heart button on their profile.

To dismiss someone — or “nope” them — press anywhere and drag to the left; this is called swiping left. Alternatively, you can tap the red x button on their profile. Finally, there is a thing called a Swipe Surge, which essentially means you can join a group of users swiping in real-time so that matches happen faster. It’s up to you whether or not to join one.


No, but it can be used for short-term fun. Many take Tinder more seriously than others, so you must inquire with your match to know what their intentions truly are.

When someone swipes right on you on Tinder, sometimes their name (with a blurred-out photo) will appear in your Matches section. They may also appear more frequently in your Tinder feed. Otherwise, the only way to truly know if someone swiped on you is to purchase Tinder Gold.

On Bumble, there are different profile prompts. The most prominent difference is that women must initiate the conversation. If they don’t, there won’t be a match. There are also time limits on Bumble.

It can, because you can see who swiped right on you. If you so choose, you can instantly match with them by swiping right on their revealed profile.

How To Get Started With Macos Notes App

Among all of the tools Apple has provided as default apps on its iOS and macOS platforms, Notes is one of the most liked. While the note-taking space is wildly competitive, there is something about the Notes app that makes it a must-use for all macOS owners. Whether you want to create a to-do list, write down some random thoughts or upload an attachment, the Notes app is more than capable. Read on to learn some tips and tricks to mastering macOS notes app.

Starting a New Note

1. Launch the Notes app from your Dock or from the application menu inside Finder.

3. Write your note. All notes save as you write, so there are no additional steps required to save your progress.

Edit a Note Make a Checklist

2. Write in your first item.

3. Press the Enter key on your keyboard and a new checklist item will appear.

4. Continue until you have added all your items.

Format Your Notes

1. Launch the Notes app and add a new note.

3. Inside this menu you have a variety of functions available including bulleted and numbered lists, title/heading/subheading text sizing and more.

5. In addition to this, you also have a “Format” option in the Mac menu bar. You will find the same set of options as the “Aa” button as well as options to change font size, the type of font, create a table, indent text and more.

Create a Folder

1. In the Notes app, you can create a folder in one of two ways.

4. To move notes into the new folder, select them and drag them into the new folder.

Pin a Note Lock a Note

4. Note that you cannot lock any note that is shared among multiple people or has an attachment.

Add an Attachment to Notes

1. Launch the Notes app.

2. From the desktop: drag a file into a note.

Import Text Files into Notes

1. Importing text files into the Notes app is a great way to combine all of your loose notes and documents into one central location. The app can import any file in TXT, RTF, RTFD, HDML or Evernote XML format.

3. Select the files you want to import. You have the option to “Preserve the folder structure on import” so notes stay properly organized.

5. You can now rename the folder, move the imported files or add additional folders and organize the imported files to your liking.

Add Notes with Siri

1. On your Mac, say “Hey Siri, take a note.”

2. When Siri opens, dictate your Note, and then Siri will add it to your Notes app.

Add Notes to Reminders

1. Choose the Note you want to convert to a reminder.

3. Pick which note you want to add to the Reminders app.

4. A pop-up window will appear allowing you to edit the name or the content as well as choose which Reminders list you’d like to add the note to.

As is the case with Apple’s default apps like Reminders and Calendar, the macOS Notes app is an easy way to stay organized. The minimal learning curve makes it simple to dive in and get going to add notes, passwords, import files and more. Did you know you can also use it for scanning documents?

David Joz

David is a freelance tech writer with over 15 years of experience in the tech industry. He loves all things Nintendo.

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Voting 101: It’s Easy, Fast, And Important

Voting 101: It’s Easy, Fast, and Important Deadline for registering to vote is in two weeks

“Voting is our simple service to society,” says Kenneth Elmore, dean of students. “Voting is democracy’s bold move.” Photo by Keturah Stickann

Despite the efforts of both President Obama and Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney to reach young voters, a Gallup poll published in July found that only 58 percent of young people (18-29 years old) plan to cast a ballot in November’s election. They give a variety of reasons for deciding to sit out the election, including frustration over the poor economy and disappointment with the president’s first term.

Just four years ago, the youth vote proved crucial in catapulting Barack Obama to the White House. Obama captured 66 percent of the 18-to-29-year-old vote, defeating U.S. Senator John McCain by a more than two to one margin. The 2008 election saw the second highest youth voter turnout ever (the highest, 55 percent, was in 1972, the first year 18-year-olds were allowed to vote in a presidential election). With the race for the White House still in a dead heat, the youth vote could again decide the next president.

The deadline to register to vote is fast approaching, warns Kenneth Elmore (SED’87), dean of students, who notes, “Voting is our simple service to society. Voting is democracy’s bold move. Even better, it is available to almost every citizen.”

Are you registered to vote? Thinking about changing your voter registration to Massachusetts? Unsure of how to go about obtaining an absentee ballot? BU Today has put together a guide to help answer your questions.

Who can vote?

American citizens who are 18 years old on or before Election Day, Tuesday, November 6.

When is the deadline to register to vote?

The deadline to register to vote in Massachusetts is Wednesday, October 17. This means that your registration form must be postmarked October 17 at the latest or it will not be valid for this year’s November election.

The deadline for registering in other states varies. Find a list here and select your state from the map.

How can I register to vote?

Whether you’re planning to register in Massachusetts or in your home state, details about how to complete the process are here.

If you are a resident of Massachusetts:

Boston, MA 02201

Boston, MA 02201  Brookline, MA 02445

Cambridge, MA 02139

At the Registry of Motor Vehicles: You can register when applying for or renewing your driver’s license.

If you are from another state and want to vote there, see the question below about voting by absentee ballot.

Where do I vote?

If you are registered to vote in Massachusetts, type in your address on this page to find out where you can vote.

What is an absentee ballot, and how do I use one to vote?

Whether you’re a college student registered in another state, are from Massachusetts but can’t get home to vote on Election Day, plan to be traveling and can’t get to the polls that day, are disabled, or are a member of the military, there’s no reason not to vote. As long as you’re already a registered voter, you can obtain an absentee ballot. Here’s how:

First, download and print the U.S. Election Assistance Commission’s National Mail Voter Registration form for information on applying for an absentee ballot. Fill out the necessary information and return it to the board of elections. This works for most states.

Be aware that your application needs to be processed before your ballot is sent to you, so check the deadlines for absentee ballot applications on your state’s website and allow for adequate time.

Once you receive your absentee ballot in the mail, read the instructions carefully—they typically require using a black or blue pen.

Mail or hand-deliver the absentee ballot to your hometown elections office. Many states require that your ballot be postmarked before the polls close on Election Day. Others allow you a window of time after the polls close to send your ballot back.

In some states, you can apply for an absentee ballot and cast your vote at the same time, if you are able to visit your state two or three weeks before the election.

Most states have websites with detailed information about registering, casting an absentee ballot, and voting in person. The Dean of Students Office also has a helpful website with more information. Use them.

This is an update of a story published September 29, 2008.

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