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New to gaming and not sure what all this jargon people are throwing around means? Actively gaming and still not sure what non-insult thing that other guy in your lobby just said?

We have you covered – this is a glossary of common gaming terms you may come across. If you’re looking for more hardware-specific stuff, you may also want to check out our PC Hardware Glossary.

AAA Game

A game developed and published by a large studio with a massive multi-million dollar budget. A game being AAA in production value does not actually mean it’s a AAA experience, though – this term is used to refer more to money and marketing than the actual quality of a game. AAA titles usually have great graphics due to their high budgets, though.

Examples: Call of Duty, Assassin’s Creed, Far Cry

Action Game

“Action” is a very widely-encompassing genre, but broadly-speaking, action games are focused on controlling no more than a few characters in real-time action sequences. Many sub-genres of action games exist, but a few particularly notable genres include beat-em-up and stylish action.

Notably, shooters are considered a separate genre from action in a gaming context. Most action games focus on melee combat as a stable and aren’t played in first person.

Examples: Devil May Cry, Streets of Rage

Adventure Game

Examples: Grim Fandango, Escape From Monkey Island, The Walking Dead (and other Telltale games)


An aimbot refers to a cheater, usually an automated bot and not a human player, who is using cheats to achieve perfect aim. Some aimbots will be extremely obvious, but others may be using more subtle cheats (like subtle aim correction) that are harder to catch.

Arena Shooter

Arena shooter is a sub-genre of first-person shooters focused on high player mobility, powerups, ammo pickups, and map control. If not completely absent, randomized elements are minimized, and newer game design quirks (like cooldowns on abilities) are usually not present.

Examples: Quake, Unreal Tournament

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality, or AR, is pretty much exactly what it sounds like. Using a camera or HMD (head-mounted display) and AR, you can see an altered view of the world around you. Outside of gaming, this has become very popular for social media applications. Within gaming, mobile gaming especially, AR has proven quite successful, especially with titles like Pokemon Go.

Battle Royale

A genre of MMO (massively multiplayer online) game where you and between 50 and more than 100 other players are put into a single massive battlefield to scavenge for resources and duke it out. This has become an especially popular genre of game in recent years, and chances are high you or someone you know already plays one of these games.

Examples: DayZ, Fortnite, PlayerUnknown’s Battlegrounds, Apex Legends


When you hear “bots”, you’ll most likely hear it in one of two different contexts.

In the negative context, “bots” is used as a shorthand for aimbots and other cheating bots.

In a positive or neutral context, “bots” just refers to actual bots programmed into a given game. Depending on the game, the built-in bots can be extremely sharp or mind-numbingly stupid. Outside of single-player, these bots can often be found padding out the numbers on an inactive multiplayer server.


A genre of game where more than two players work together to achieve common goals, usually against in-game enemies and opposition. This is usually considered separate from team-based games, especially team-based shooters. (You may be cooperating with other players, but no one is going to call CS:GO a co-op game.)

Examples: It Takes Two, Don’t Starve Together


When a game offers online multiplayer for more than just one platform.

For example, Super Smash Bros. Ultimate on Nintendo Switch is NOT cross-platform, since it’s a Nintendo-owned property. You can get it running on PC with emulation, but this still doesn’t permit playing with actual Switch owners.

Fortnite IS a cross-platform game, though. You can play it on compatible smartphones, every current-gen gaming console, and PC, and with other people playing on other platforms. A cross-platform game is an ideal choice when you want to play games with friends who don’t have the same PC specs or console you do.

DLC (Downloadable Content)

Downloadable Content, or DLC, is mostly what it sounds like. However, most DLC is usually content that you have to pay extra for, and this can vary from a few dollars to the price of another full game.

Content included in DLCs can range from minor cosmetic alterations, to new playable characters, to full game expansions. Be sure to do your research before buying DLC – it isn’t all made equal!

DRM (Digital Rights Management)

DRM, or Digital Rights Management, refers to software meant to limit piracy and other forms of copyright infringement. Most game clients are a form of DRM. Steam is DRM, for instance.

However, some forms of DRM can be negative effects on in-game performance, and sometimes DRM can even make certain games unplayable after enough time. (i.e., a game with always-on DRM where the servers go down). For this reason, sites like GOG exist to sell DRM-free games.


A piece of software that imitates a piece of hardware. In a gaming context, this means software that allows your PC or console to run games made for another console. Emulators have a lot of benefits that original hardware doesn’t, including the ability to run at higher resolutions and framerates.


The scene of competitive gaming, as popularized by Dota 2, League of Legends, Counter-Strike, and other games. Broadly-speaking, eSports can be referred to just about any competitive game and its community, but thus far, successful eSports seem limited to MOBAs and FPS.

Fighting Game

A screenshot of Mortal Kombat 11 – note the presence of two healthbars at the top of the screen, a staple of the genre.

A game where the focus is on two players having intense 1v1 fights, usually on a 2D plane. Some games may add more players or more characters-per-player (i.e. each character having 3 characters to tag in and out). Fighting games are notorious for their mechanical depth and dedicated communities.

Examples: Street Fighter, Tekken, Marvel vs. Capcom, Guilty Gear, Super Smash Bros.

F2P (Free To Play) FPS (Performance Metric)

FPS as a performance metric refers to Frames Per Second, where more is better. This is tied closely to refresh rate, but the two aren’t exactly the same. You can find out more about how FPS and refresh rate impact your experience here.

A screenshot of a net_graph from Team Fortress 2, displaying current FPS and ping

FPS (First Person Shooter)

Depending on the context, FPS can also refer to a shooting game played from a first-person perspective. Most modern shooters are FPS, but stuff like top-down shooters used to be a lot more common, especially in arcades.

Gamepad Hero Shooter

A team shooter, usually first-person, that takes influences from MOBAs. These influences can usually be seen in the form of distinct roles (Tank, Healer, DPS) and cooldowns instead of ammo as a limiter of damage output.

Examples: Overwatch


Used to refer to two separate phenomena.

The main (and more accurate usage) of the term “lag” is seen when playing online games. If the netcode or networking conditions are poor, players will experience delayed or dropped inputs, as well as visual stuttering and other issues. This is what most people mean when they say “lag.”

The other usage of the word “lag” is seen on the hardware level, especially when FPS drops below a steady average. If your game is running at a low or jittery framerate, the entire experience will feel less responsive or … laggy!

MMO (Massively Multiplayer Online)

MMO is short for Massively Multiplayer Online and describes multiplayer experiences where dozens of players can be active at the same time. Not all MMOs are MMORPGs, but a lot of the most popular – like World of Warcraft – are.

Examples: World of Warcraft, Guild Wars, Every Battle Royale or MMORPG


Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game. It is a combination of MMO and RPG.

MOBA (Multiplayer Online Battle Arena)

A team-based genre of competitive games, usually focused on destroying structures in enemy territory and played from a top-down perspective. With computer-controlled units a la real-time strategy and character customization a la RPGs, MOBAs offer a great deal of complexity while still being shockingly easy to understand for wider audiences.

Examples: Dota 2, League of Legends


A term used to refer to the code that handles online multiplayer gaming. Broadly-speaking, bad netcode will be more prone to disconnections, dropped inputs, and other issues, whereas good netcode will have minimal, if any, noticeable issues.

P2W / PTW (Pay to Win)

A game can be free-to-play, but it is made difficult to win until you spend money to buy weapons, power up, additional health points, gears, accessories, etc.


A genre of game where the focus is on jumping through and exploring various locations and obstacle courses.

Examples: Super Mario, Celeste


When a game made for one system is made again for another, usually with minimal changes. If there’s a significant difference in power between the original system and the new system, this port may cut down on graphical features and content to run well. See Doom Eternal on Nintendo Switch as examples.


When a game made for one system is rebuilt from the ground up for another, with little if any reused assets. Not to be confused with””” a port or a remaster.

Example: Link’s Awakening (Switch)


When a game made for one system is made again for another, usually with improvements to existing assets and systems. Most remasters don’t offer a massive visual upgrade over the original game, but a few might.

Example: Metal Gear Solid HD Collection, Spyro Reignited Trilogy


Stands for “Read Only Memory” and refers to the ROM chips that stored the data in retro game cartridges. When someone talks about “ROMs,” they’re usually talking about digital copies of these games. You may also see “ISO” used in a similar context but for disc-based games.

RPG (Role-Playing Game)

A game where the focus is primarily on character customization, story, and turn-based combat. A popular sub-genre of RPG is the “ARPG,” or Action RPG, where combat is played in real

time while still taking into account all the customization and statistical possibilities permitted by the game. Over time, RPG elements have found their way into more and more genres, creating many unique games.

Examples: Final Fantasy, The Witcher, Fallout

RTS (Real-Time Strategy)

Games where you control units in real-time tactical battles, against either enemy players or in-game enemies. Usually controlled from a large-scale top-down perspective.

Examples: Starcraft, Age of Empires


Refers to aim or camera control sensitivity. Use a tool like chúng tôi to keep this consistent between games.


In the gaming context, “Streaming” refers to streaming a game from one machine to one or more other machines. This can be for the purpose of Twitch streaming to viewers or, say, using Remote Play Together with a friend. If you pay for Google Stadia or GeForce Now, you’ll be playing games streamed from their servers rather than your own machine.

Tactical Shooter

A (usually first-person) team shooter with a heavy focus on realistic gunplay between small teams of players.

Examples: Counter-Strike, Valorant

TPS (Third-Person Shooter)

A shooter that controls from a behind-the-back third-person perspective.

Examples: Gears of War, Fortnite


A screen with a 21:9 aspect ratio, providing an ultrawide viewing experience. Not ideal for or supported by all games but very popular nonetheless.

VR (Virtual Reality)

Image Credit: Filipe Leite on WikiMedia Commons

Christopher Harper

I’m a longtime gamer, computer nerd, and general tech enthusiast.

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Ai Glossary: 25+ Terms For Beginners (2023 Edition)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is developing exponentially fast. It is going to revolutionize most industries by offering a level of automation and precision no human could ever achieve. This means lots of new opportunities and applications we’ve never even thought of.

🎨 For instance, did you know an AI art generator won an art competition full of talented artists?

Even though not everyone needs to worry or care about AI, it’s worthwhile to learn some basic concepts and words associated with this field of computer science.

This is a beginner-friendly glossary of popular AI terms and concepts. Most terms on this list are basic AI jargon you might hear in news, at dinner tables, or at work. Make sure to keep up with the conversations by reading these terms!

Make sure to also read my complete guide to Artificial Intelligence!

Anyway, let’s jump into the list of AI words!

1. AI

Artificial Intelligence or AI mimics the human intelligence process by using computer programs.

The idea of an AI program is that it learns similarly to humans. For example, an AI can drive a car, recognize images, detect images, and much more.

AI has become one of the 21st-century buzzwords. Notice that the term Artificial Intelligence is nothing but maths and probabilities under the hood.

You commonly hear people saying AI doesn’t use code. But this is far from the truth. All AI programs are written by data scientists and software developers using coding languages, such as Python. But the programs are crafted in a way that they are capable of making decisions on their own. So the actions taken by AI software are not hard-coded into the system.

2. API

API stands for an application programming interface via which developers can access data and pre-made code solutions.

In the artificial intelligence space, many companies and startups use APIs via which they can access third-party AI solutions. This can make building impressive AI applications super easy.

The concept of APIs explains why all of a sudden startups and individual developers seem to have some kind of AI superpowers.

This is why APIs are awesome. Instead of spending millions and millions in research, anyone can start an AI business with little to no cost.

For example, most of the impressive AI writing tools use OpenAI’s GPT-3 language under the hood via an API. When doing this, a company is just an intermediary between a customer and the AI provided by a third party.

These days, anyone with little technical skills can build impressive AI software over a weekend using the right type of API.

3. Big Data

Big data refers to large data sets that are too huge to be processed in traditional data processing manner. Big data is a mix of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data that organizations collect. Typically, businesses use big data to mine information from data to make better business decisions.

One example of using big data is machine learning and artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence solutions rely on data. To train a powerful AI model, you need to run it through lots of data.

Big data is typically characterized by three V’s:

Volume. Big data consists of large volumes of data in multiple environments.

Variety. Big data systems store a broad variety of data.

Velocity. The velocity describes the rate at which data is generated, collected, and processed.

4. Chatbot

Chatbots or AI chatbots are a popular application of artificial intelligence. Many businesses use AI chatbots to streamline customer support services.

One common example of chatbots is when visiting a web page and a chat box opens up. If you type something, you’ll get an immediate response. This response is not written by a human, but by an AI chatbot.

An AI chatbot uses natural language processing techniques, such as sentiment analysis to extract information about the messages it receives. Then it uses a natural language processing model to produce an output that it predicts will best serve the recipient.

Chatbots are a central application of AI. They are getting better and better quickly as AI develops. These days it’s sometimes impossible to tell whether you are talking to a bot or to a human.

5. Classification

In machine learning, classification means a modeling problem where the machine learning model predicts a class label for some input data.

A great example of classification is spam filtering. Given an input message, the task of the machine learning model is to classify whether the message is spam or not.

Another example of classification is recognizing handwritten images. Given an image of a character, the machine learning model tries to classify the letter it sees.

To build a successful classifier, you need a big dataset with lots of examples of inputs and outputs via which the model can learn to predict the outcomes.

For example, to build a handwritten character recognizer, the model needs to see a vast array of examples of handwritten characters.

6. Composite AI

Composite AI refers to a combination of AI techniques for accomplishing the best results.

Remember, AI is a broad term that governs subfields like machine learning, natural language processing, deep learning, neural networks, and more.

Sometimes the solutions aren’t achievable by using a single technique. This is why sometimes the AI solutions are built using a composite structure where multiple subfields of AI are combined to get the results.

7. Computer Vision

Computer vision is one of the main subfields of artificial intelligence. A computer vision program uses image data to train a computer to “see” the visual world.

To make computer vision work, the program has to analyze and learn from digital images and videos using deep learning models. Based on the data, a computer vision program can classify objects and make decisions.

You might be surprised that the earliest experiments with computer vision AI were made back in the 1950s. During this time, the first neural networks were used to determine the edges of objects in images to categorize them into circles and squares. During the 1970s, a computer interpreted handwritten text with optical character recognition.

These four factors have made computer vision thrive:

Mobile devices with built-in cameras.

Increase in computational power.

Computer-vision-focused hardware.

New computer vision algorithms like CNN networks.

8. DALL-E 2

DALL-E 2 is an impressive text-to-image algorithm that has gained massive attention in the recent past.

To put it short, DALL-E 2 works such that it takes a text input and outputs an image that describes the input. At the time of writing, DALL-E 2 isn’t publicly available. Instead, it has a waiting list with tens of thousands of accepted participants.

On a very high level, DALL-E 2 is just a function that maps text to images. But under the hood, it’s a lot more than that.

Unlike previous attempts in generating images from text, DALL-E 2 takes it to the next level. I recommend checking some of the pictures it has been able to produce. For instance, here is a Tweet from one of the creators of DALL-E 2:

DALL-E 2 uses artificial intelligence to convert text to images. To produce images, DALL-E 2 uses two techniques:

Natural language processing for analyzing the intent of the input text.

Computer vision creation for outputting an image that best matches the intent.

9. Data Mining

Data mining refers to finding patterns in data to predict outcomes. In other words, it’s the process of turning raw data into useful and actionable information.

Data mining involves lots of techniques businesses can use to:

Cut costs

Reduce risks

Increase profit

Enhance customer relationships

And more.

Data mining is also called “knowledge discovery in databases”, which is a lengthier yet more descriptive naming for the action. It’s a process of figuring out hidden connections in data and predicting the future with them.

The data mining process roughly follows these five steps:

Define business objectives. This is the phase of identifying the business problem and asking a lot of questions. During this phase, analysts sometimes have to conduct some research to better understand the business context.

Data preparation. When the problem is defined, data scientists determine the data set that helps answer the questions of the problem. During this phase, the data is cleaned up so that for example duplicates, missing values, and outliers are removed.

Data analysis. Data scientists try to look for relationships in the data, such as correlations, association rules, or other types of patterns. This is the phase that drives toward drawing conclusions and making decisions based on the data.

Result evaluation. After aggregating the data, it’s time to evaluate and interpret the results. During this phase, the results are finalized in an understandable and actionable format. With the results, companies can come up with new strategies and solutions to achieve their objectives.

10. Data Science

Data science is a broad study of vast volumes of data. A data scientist uses modern tools, techniques, and algorithms to:

Find unseen patterns

Discover insightful information

Make better business decisions

Data scientists use machine learning algorithms to create predictive models to extract information from the data.

The data being analyzed can come from different sources and have a variety of different formats. The data can be structured or unstructured.

Sometimes the data is already found in a data storage or database.

Usually, the data also needs to be obtained from somewhere, such as by scraping the web.

Here are some key concepts related to data science:

Machine Learning





Before learning data science, you should be familiar with these concepts and know how to use them.

11. Deep Learning

A computer doesn’t understand what is learning as we humans do. To make a computer learn, it has to mimic the human-intelligence process of learning. This is where deep learning is used.

Deep learning is a machine learning subfield. Deep learning algorithms are used to teach computers how to learn by example.

A famous deep learning application is self-driving cars.

The deep learning algorithms that run under the hood can are taught to recognize objects on the road in real-time. These objects include:

Road signs


Traffic lights

Traffic lanes

Other vehicles

Also, the voice control services are a result of clever deep-learning algorithms.

To make a deep learning algorithm work, you have to feed it a lot of labeled training data. The algorithm uses the data to train itself to recognize patterns.

For instance, with enough training data, you can teach a deep learning algorithm to recognize objects from images.

12. Ethical AI

Ethical AI refers to AI that refers to ethical guidelines related to fundamental values, like:

Individual rights




The idea of ethical AI is to place importance on ethical aspects in specifying what is legitimate/illegitimate use of AI. The organizations that use ethical AI have stated policies and review processes to make sure the AI follows the ethical guidelines.

Ethical AI does not only consider things permissible by law but also thinks one step further. Another way to put it is if something is legal, it doesn’t mean it’s ethical AI.

For instance, an AI algorithm that manipulates people in self-destructive behavior that is legal doesn’t represent ethical AI.

13. Hybrid AI

Hybrid AI is a combination of human insight and AI, such as machine learning and deep learning.

This type of AI is still in its early development phase and has a bunch of challenges. But experts still believe in it.

Another description of Hybrid AI is that it’s a combination of symbolic AI and non-symbolic AI.

A web search is a perfect example of Hybrid AI. Let’s say a user types “1 EUR to USD” into a search engine:

The search engine identifies a currency-conversion problem in the search phrase. This is the symbolic AI part of the search engine.

The search engine then runs machine learning algorithms to rank and present the search results. This is the non-symbolic part of the search engine.

14. Image Recognition

Image Recognition is a subfield of Computer Vision and AI.

Image Recognition represents methods used to detect and analyze images to automate tasks.

The state-of-the-art image recognition algorithms are capable of identifying people, places, objects, and other similar types of elements within an image or drawing. Besides, the algorithms are able to draw actionable conclusions from the detected objects.

15. Linear Algebra

Linear algebra is the key branch in mathematics when it comes to artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms.

Linear algebra deals with linear equations, vector spaces, and matrices. Another way to put it is that linear algebra studies linear functions and vectors.

Although you traditionally use linear algebra to model natural phenomena, it’s the key component of making machine learning algorithms work.

16. Machine Learning

Machine Learning is one of the most well-known subfields of AI.

Machine learning is a field of study that focuses on using data and algorithms to simulate human learning. Machine learning programs rely on big data to learn patterns and relationships in them.

Behind the scenes, machine learning is nothing but a lot of basic linear algebra.

The simplest form of machine learning algorithm takes data and fits a curve to it to predict future values.

The process of the machine learning algorithm can be broken into three key parts:

Decision process. The algorithm makes a prediction or classification. Using input data the algorithm produces an estimate of patterns in the data.

Error function. The error function considers the “goodness” of the prediction made by the model. If you have known examples, the error function can compare the prediction to these examples to assess the accuracy.

Model optimization process. Depending on the outcome of the prediction made by the algorithm, you might need to adjust it. This is to reduce the error produced by the algorithm when comparing a prediction and a real example.

17. MidJourney

Image credit: MidJourney

MidJourney is a new AI art generator that turns text into an image. And not just any image, but a realistic, creative, or abstract masterpiece unlike we’ve never seen before!

MidJourney has become viral in the recent past thanks to its amazing AI art creations.

To use MidJourney, give it a text input from your deepest imaginations and it will turn it into an image.

Notice that at the time of writing the tool is still in beta mode and accessible through invitation.

MidJourney represents the new wave of AI text-to-image software. MidJourney has already won a real art contest!

But MidJourney is definitely not the only powerful AI art tool. Other similar solutions, such as DALL-E and Stable Diffusion are also making their way to the top of the game.

The best part about these AI art tools is that they are evolving so rapidly. You can expect them to only get better over time.

Make sure to check the best AI art generators—you’ll be impressed!

18. Model

Model is a commonly used term in machine learning—the key subfield of AI.

A model or machine learning model is a file that recognizes specific types of patterns from data. To create a machine learning model, you have to write an algorithm and train the model with it and big data.

The machine learning model learns from data and you can use the model to predict outcomes of future values.

For instance, you could make a machine learning model that predicts the highest temperature of the day given the temperature in the morning. You could train the algorithm with a linear regression model and a bunch of weather data points from the past.

19. Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one of the key subfields of AI. With NLP, a computer program can process text and spoken language in a similar fashion to us humans.

NLP makes it possible for humans to interact with computers using natural language.

Natural Language Processing combines:

Computational linguistics

Statistical modeling

Machine learning models

Deep learning models

When used in a clever way, a combination of these studies give rise to computer programs that are capable of understanding the full meaning of the text or spoken language. This means the programs can sense the intention and sentiment too!

NLP is useful in translations, responding to voice commands, text summarization, and more.

20. Neural Network

A neural network is a subfield of deep learning, which is one of the key subfields of AI.

A neural network mimics the brain’s pattern recognition process. It’s a simulation of how biological neurons communicate in the human brain.

A neural network is formed by:

An input layer

One (or more) hidden layer

An output layer

The layers consist of nodes (artificial neurons). The previous layer’s nodes are connected to the nodes in the next layer. Besides, each node carries a weight and a threshold.

If the output of a node exceeds the threshold, the node is activated and it sends data to the next layer.

This is similar to how the neural activity in our brain.

When building a deep learning algorithm, a developer runs the training data through a neural network. The algorithm then learns to classify the training data based on neural network activations.

21. OpenAI

OpenAI is an AI research lab and company.

OpenAI is one of the key players in the field. The company has developed a bunch of AI-powered programs and algorithms unlike seen before.

The two best-known examples of OpenAI’s AI algorithms are:

DALL-E. This AI algorithm allows for generating outstanding images based on text input.

GPT-3. This cutting-edge natural language processing model allows for creating human-like text based on a short input. It can write news, poems, short stories, or even books.

The best part of these AI models is that they are available to the general public.

Anyone can access GPT-3 and develop a super powerful text-generation app with a few lines of code. This happens through the GPT-3 API that OpenAI provides.

At the time of writing, DALL-E is not yet in general availability, but it is accessible via a waiting list and an invitation.

22. Optical Character Recognition

Optical character recognition or OCR (text recognition) extracts textual data from images, scanned documents, and PDFs.

The OCR algorithms work by:

Identifying all the letters in an image.

Putting the letters to words.

Putting the words into sentences.

OCR can use AI to create even more impressive methods for extracting text from images. Sometimes the AI-powered OCR is called ICR for Intelligent Character Recognition.

ICR can identify languages from writing or extract information in different styles of handwriting.

A typical OCR software helps save time and cut costs when it comes to turning physical documents into digital format. Instead of doing the work manually, you can take a picture and use OCR to scan its contents.

Make sure to read my article about the best OCR software.

23. Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is a relatively new term in the field of AI.

Prompt engineering refers to writing carefully thought text inputs for AI algorithms to generate the desired outcome.

The term prompt engineering is relevant when using:

AI text-to-image generators

AI text generators

For example, an AI text-to-image generator might produce rather unimpressive results if the text input is not descriptive and specific enough.

To use AI to generate impressive images, videos, or text, you need to be careful when giving input.

For instance, you might need to drop a name of an artist, era, painting style, and such. You also might need to insert some technical terminology in the prompt to give the imagery a specific type of look.

Prompt engineering might be the career of the future.

24. Singularity

In the field of AI, singularity refers to the event where the AI becomes self-aware and starts to evolve on its own out of control.

But don’t worry just yet. The modern-day AI isn’t very smart compared to the human brain.

Even though singularity is not a reasonable present concern, it’s definitely something we have to be careful about in the future. The rapid developments in computing and technology might make AI dangerous or destructive.

The developments of AI must focus on making AI our friend, not our enemy.

25. Speech Recognition

Speech recognition is a popular application of artificial intelligence.

The idea of speech recognition or automatic speech recognition (ASR) is for a computer program to pick up on the spoken words and turn them into text.

Many speech recognition services use AI algorithms to process spoken language. They utilize the composition of audio and voice signals to process speech.

There are many speech recognition algorithms, including natural language processing techniques and neural networks.

The ideal AI-based speech recognition system learns as it goes. This makes the tools more accurate over time.

26. Strong AI

Strong AI is a theoretical level of artificial intelligence where the AI is as intelligent as humans and is self-aware. Moreover, a strong AI system would be able to solve problems, learn new skills, and plan the future—like we humans do.

Strong AI is commonly known as artificial general intelligence or AGI for short.

It’s up for debate if we’ll ever reach this level of AI. Some optimistic researchers claim this type of AI is not further than a couple of decades away from us. Others say it will never be achieved. Only time will tell.

27. Turing Test

The turning test is a test that determines whether a machine has human-like intelligence.

If a machine can have a conversation with a human without being detected as a machine, the machine has passed the Turing test—or shown human intelligence.

The Turing test was proposed by Alan Turing back in 1950.

Even with the impressive and rapid developments in the field of AI, no machine has ever passed a Turing test. But it’s getting closer.

The main motivation and theories of AI all evolve around the concept of passing a Turing test. This is why you commonly hear people talking about the Turing test or passing it.

28. Weak AI

Weak AI is an approach to AI research and development in which AI is considered to only be capable of simulating the human intelligence process.

Weak AI systems aren’t actually conscious.

Weak AI is bound by the rules developed for it and cannot autonomously go beyond those rules.

A great example of weak AI is a chatbot. It appears to be conscious and answers intelligently. But it cannot go beyond that.

As a matter of fact, all modern-day AI solutions are examples of weak AI.

Weak AI is also commonly called narrow artificial intelligence.


So there you have it—a whole bunch of AI jargon you might hear every day!

To put it short, AI or artificial intelligence is a rapidly developing subfield of computer science. AI is already used in impressive applications and it can carry out tasks unlike ever before. Only time will tell what the future holds for AI and us living with it.

Thanks for reading!

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Basic Terms, Merits And Creating Of Agile Epic

What is Agile Epic

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Understanding the Basic Terms and Concepts Used while Creating An Agile Epic

Stories/User Stories: The stories are also called user stories, which are the end-user demands or requirements. An epic is divided into smaller stories based on the customer requirement.

Features: A feature is defined as large functionality responsible for delivering values like revenue, customer engagement, customer satisfaction, etc., to the business. A feature can consist of multiple themes and user stories.

Initiatives: Initiatives are defined as a pool of epics with a common objective that drives the teams working in the organization.

Themes: Themes can be defined as the goals of an organization. These themes are primary areas to be emphasized upon to achieve the organization’s goals.

How is an Agile Epic Created?

Creating an epic is a pedestal and complicated task which encompasses certain pivotal steps. It is best to create epic during the quarterly achievement of the agile team.

The following points must be considered while creating an agile epic:

Recording/Reporting: Reporting in the epic is all about drafting the agile epic for project managers and team associates to keep track of the project.

Description: The description step is about describing the process or mechanism of achieving the current or proposed state of the project/product. It comprises all the stories of the epic.

Epic Culture: This determines the size of the epic team based on the organization’s culture.

Timeframe/Timeline: It is clear from the name itself that time must adhere. It is important to deliver to finish the stories of the proposed agile epic on time. It should neither take too long nor too short a time to complete the epic.

Merits of Creating an Epic

A hefty chunk of the project is broken into smaller stories which is helpful while achieving the organizational goals. Breaking the project into smaller stories makes it convenient to work upon.

Epics are great for tracking the project progress or the complex features of the project as the project is divided into several smaller modules or sprints.

Epics are helpful for tracking multi-projects and multiple teams without hampering or affecting the work of any. It simplifies the mechanism of handling the project by distributing the task evenly and as per the priorities.

Epics are extremely helpful while tracking large ideas in backlog refinement. It eliminates or helps to reduce the unnecessary multiple items from the product backlog.

The agile epics is a great help to reduce ambiguity in ideas and to memorize or pinpoint an ambiguous idea with a product backlog item until the outcome of the product is identified by the agile team members.

Epics help to conceptualize and establish a hierarchy for achieving the desired outcome initiating from the core idea of the project.

It helps to limit the story size within the sprint management quarters to avoid any obstacle or hindrance.

Common Mistakes/Drawbacks Made During Epic Management

The epic teams tend to overcomplicate the epics as they visualize the epic as a large number of stories which is purely their misconception.

The ambiguity between the ideas and sometimes the complex mechanism creates complications between the spics and stories and confuses them with the product backlogs, which ultimately affects the epic hierarchy. This makes the story and epic tracking a complicated task.

The ambiguity of ideas creates a great deal of uncertainty and waste of useful estimates as the items are unclear due to haziness.

The haziness of ideas results in vague effort in the form of whether something is an epic or a user story and time spent tracking information about a backlog item that is intended to be a placeholder for future discussions.

Epic is a great mechanism to monitor the project progress comprising complex features. Epic plays the role of a placeholder that can hold multiple stories with a common objective and stories with a specific scope. The epics are divided into several stories or sprints, and a few sprints together complete one epic. The project progress can be easily monitored by calculating the completion percentage of the stories which is performed by the client or the stakeholder. In a nutshell, epic plays a key role in agile project management during the planning phase as it helps to achieve the desired business goals. Dividing the hefty chunk of the project into smaller stories helps the team to focus on the important areas based on the urgency of the stakeholder.

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This has been a guide to Agile Epic. Here we discussed the concepts, merits, common drawbacks, and understanding of agile Epic. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

Microsoft Excel Shortcut Keys And Their Functions

Keyboard shortcuts in Microsoft Excel

However, we believe keyboard shortcuts tend to make using Excel much easier than the traditional method, so with that in mind, we have decided to list what we deem as the best Microsoft Excel shortcuts you can use right now.

Here is a list of all the important Keyboard Shortcuts in Microsoft Excel and their functions to help you get the best out of Excel.

General Program Shortcuts in Excel

When it comes down to manipulating workbooks, getting help, and navigating the interface, the shortcuts below should help a great deal.

Ctrl+N: All about creating new workbooks.

Ctrl+O: This is for opening an existing workbook.

Ctrl+S: Use this shortcut to save a workbook.

F12: If you want to open the Save As dialog box.

Ctrl+W: When it’s time to close a workbook.

Ctrl+F4: Close Excel completely.

Shift+F11: If you want to insert a new worksheet then use this shortcut.

Ctrl+Z: Easily undo a previous action

Ctrl+Y: Easily redo a previous action.

Ctrl+F2: Want to switch to Print Preview? This shortcut will get the job done.

F1: Launch the Help pane.

Alt+Q: When you want to go to the “Tell me what you want to do” box.

F7: Check for bad spelling.

F9: For those who want to calculate every worksheet in all opened workbooks.

Shift+F9: Perform calculations of all active worksheets.

Alt or F10: Press this key if you want to turn off key tips.

Ctrl+F1: Do you want to show or hide the Ribbon? Press this key.

Ctrl+Shift+U: Collapse or expand the formula bar.

Ctrl+F9: Press this key to minimize the workbook window

F11: For creating bar charts based on data you’ve selected on a separate sheet.

Alt+F1: This one is for creating an embedded bar chart based on select data on the same sheet.

Alt+F: Want to open the File tab menu? This key will do it.

Alt+H: If you want to go to the Home tab, then select this key.

Alt+N: Open the Insert tab

Alt+P: Navigate to the Page Layout tab

Alt+M: Navigate to the Formulas tab

Alt+A: Navigate to the Data tab

Alt+R: Navigate to the Review tab

Alt+W: Navigate to the View tab

Alt+X: Navigate to the Add-ins tab

Alt+Y: Navigate to the Help tab

Ctrl+Tab: Easily switch between open workbooks

Shift+F3: Press these keys to insert a function

Alt+F8: Do this if you want to create, run, edit, or delete a macro

Alt+F11: Do you want to open the Microsoft Visual Basic For Applications Editor? Press these keys.

Moving Around in an Excel Worksheet or Cell using Keyboard Shortcuts

These shortcuts make it easier to navigate a cell or worksheet.

Left/Right Arrow: Do this if you want to move one cell to the left or right

Ctrl+Left/Right Arrow: These shortcuts are for moving to the farthest cell left or right in the row

Up/Down Arrow: Move a single cell up or down

Ctrl+Up/Down Arrow: Do this if you want to move to the top or bottom cell in the column

Tab: Visit the next cell

Shift+Tab: Navigate to the previous cell

Ctrl+End: Navigate to the most bottom right used cell

F5: Navigate to any cell by pressing and typing the cell coordinate or cell name.

Home: Navigate to the cell to the far left in the current row

Ctrl+Home: Go to the beginning of a worksheet

Page Up/Down: Move one screen down or up in a worksheet

Alt+Page Up/Down: Move one screen to the left or to the right in a worksheet

Ctrl+Page Up/Down: Move to the next or previous worksheet

Keyboard shortcuts to select Excel Cells

Use these shortcuts to easily select one or more cells.

Shift+Left/Right Arrow: Extend the cell selection to the right or left

Shift+Space: Highlight the entire row

Ctrl+Space: Highlight the entire column

Ctrl+Shift+Space: Highlight the entire worksheet

Keyboard shortcuts to edit Excel Cells

Want to edit cells with keyboard shortcuts? Use these options.

F2: Edit a single cell

Ctrl+X: Do this if you want to cut the contents of a cell, selected data, or selected cell range

Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Insert: Press these keys if you want to copy the contents of a single cell, selected data, or selected cell range

Ctrl+V or Shift+Insert: Paste contents of a copied cell

Ctrl+Alt+V: Open the Paste Special dialog box

Delete: Easily remove the contents of a cell

Alt+Enter: Add a hard return within a single cell

F3: Paste a cell name, but ensure the cells are named in the worksheet

Alt+H+D+C: Delete an entire column

Esc: Cancel entries made in a  cell or the formula bar

Keyboard shortcuts to format Excel Cells

Ctrl+B: Easily add bold to contents and remove it if needed

Ctrl+I: Add or remove italics to the contents

Ctrl+U: Add or remove underline to the content

Alt+H+H: Choose a fill color

Alt+H+B: Insert a border

Ctrl+Shift+&: Useoutline border

Ctrl+Shift+_: Terminate outline border

Ctrl+9: Hide all selected rows

Ctrl+0: Hide all selected columns

Ctrl+1: Launch the Format Cells dialog box

Ctrl+5: Remove or apply strikethrough

Ctrl+Shift+$: Add currency format

Ctrl+Shift+%: Add percent format

What is Ctrl F2 in Excel?

In Excel, pressing Ctrl + F2 opens the “Print Preview” window, which allows you to see how your worksheet will look when printed. This window displays the worksheet as it appears on a printed page, including any margins, headers, and footers you have set up. You can change the margins, scaling, etc., and then print the document.

Read: Microsoft Excel Document not saved error

What is the function of Ctrl-A, Z, and Y in Excel?

Ctrl + A is all about selecting all content. Ctrl + Z  focuses on undoing an action. Ctrl + Y, then, is when the user wants to redo an action. While the first one helps when you want to apply to format or delete in bulk, the second comes in handy to get back to the previous state. Lastly,  Ctrl + YRedoes the last undone action using the Ctrl + Z shortcut. Useful in case of accidental changes.

Motorola Moto G6 Problems And Their Fixes

Motorola has been among the mobile companies that have been moved from one owner to another quite too often. But after landing in the hands of Lenovo, the company has been striving to deliver not just great smartphones, but also offer excellent software support. With the release of the Moto G6 and its variants, the Moto G6 Play and Moto G6 Plus, the company is back in the news offering more features at a lower price point.

However, no matter how great a mobile device is, it is a piece of technology after all, and always susceptible to issues and errors. The Moto G6 series may have just released, but it isn’t free from such common problems regarding the battery performance, connectivity, and display issues either. Lucky for you, we’ve sieved through the support forums to find the pertaining issues and here’s how to fix all of them.


→ Battery drain issue

While it isn’t ideal to start facing battery issue right out of the box, it wouldn’t be entirely unheard of if you started facing battery drain issues on your new device. You should first check and verify the battery drainage, BTW. Considering that the Moto G6 is running Android 8.0 Oreo right away, you can not only expect a great performance chart but some bugs every now then. Some users have reported that their Moto G6 suffers from at least 15% – 20% battery drain overnight, while others have reported charging issues.


Head over to the Settings – Battery to find out which apps are consuming the most power. Uninstall those apps, or update them to the latest version as the bug may have been ironed out by now.

Disable features such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and NFC unless you’re actively using them.

The Battery saver mode comes built into Android 8.0 Oreo, so go ahead and activate it in Settings – Battery – Battery Saver.

Since the device is brand new, you should make sure that all of the apps are up to date, including the pre-installed Google apps. Do so by heading over to Google Play Store – My apps & games – Update All.

Clearing out the cache of the entire device can help get rid of corrupt app files, so go ahead and wipe the cache partition.

If none of the above solutions work out, the final one is to perform a factory reset on the Moto G6, as given below.

Did the above fix the battery outage problem for you? if not, check more solutions here.

→ Display scrolling and input lag

Even on other Android OEM devices such as the Essential Phone, the screen stuttering issue and display scrolling lag were heavily documented. It seems some reports of a similar issue have surfaced on the Moto G6 as well, with users being affected with input lag when using the touch display and unresponsiveness when scrolling.


Make sure that there isn’t any water or fluid no your fingers or on the screen when using the device.

If you have installed a thickened screen protector, it could sometimes interfere with the screen’s capacity to recognize input.

Simply reboot your device by performing a soft reset.

It could sometimes be the effects of a third-party app that could cause scrolling and input lag. You can resolve this by rebooting the Moto G6 in Safe Mode and diagnosing the issue.

Once again, the final solution as always is to backup your data and perform a factory reset on the device.

Some users have also suggested getting the device replaced, and did not seem to face the issue on their replacement devices.

→ Connectivity issues

While there haven’t been many reports on Bluetooth connectivity issues on the Moto G6 around the forums, Wi-Fi issues seem to be occurring. Users of the older Moto G5 and Moto G4 had also complained about dropped Wi-Fi network connections in the past, and it seems from the feedbacks that the issue is persisting on the new device as well. So, let’s see how to fix Wi-Fi problems.

Wi-Fi issues solutions:

Toggle off the Wi-Fi switch and toggle it on again.

Unplug the router and replug it after 10 seconds.

Battery saver mode can interfere with the wireless network connectivity, so make sure it is turned off in the Settings

Removing the Wi-Fi network and adding it again can usually resolve the issue, so head over to Settings – Wi-Fi. Tap on hold on the Wi-Fi network you’re having issues with and select Forget. Now add the network back again to see if the issue is resolved.

The Smart Wi-Fi switcher on the Moto G6 can sometimes interfere with the connection. Head over to Settings – Wi-Fi – Advanced – Wi-Fi History and turn off Smart Wi-Fi switcher.

Android OS comes with the ability to turn off Wi-Fi connectivity during off-peak hours, but you can disable this by heading over to Settings – Wi-Fi – Advanced – Keep Wi-Fi on during sleep and set it to Always.

Bluetooth issues solutions:

Toggle off the Bluetooth switch and toggle it on again.

Unpairing a Bluetooth device and reestablishing the connection usually fixes Bluetooth issues as well. Do so by going to Settings – Connections – Bluetooth and press the Gear icon next to the Bluetooth device and select Forget. You can then reconnect to the device to see if the issue has been resolved.

Clearing the Bluetooth app’s Cache and Data also helps in cleaning out the broken or corrupted files which could be causing the connectivity issue. To do so, head over to Settings – Apps and ta the three-dot menu button to select “Show system apps”. Scroll down to find “Bluetooth Share”, tap on Storage and then select “Clear Data” and “Clear Cache” to reset the app.

Take a bug report and send to Motorola

Since the Moto G6 is just getting out in the market, there is the possibility of you facing issues that the usual fixes cannot resolve. In this case, you need Motorola to resolve the issue for you, but you need to send them a bug report first. You can let Motorola help you diagnose and fix the issue by enabling the Developer options and then toggle on the following options:

Enable USB debugging

Enable Bug Report shortcut

Enable Wi-Fi Verbose Logging

Once you face a specific issue, press and hold the Power button and choose Bug Report and wait 3-4 minutes until the bug report is collected. You can then share the bug report with the Moto-Lenovo Support people and get the issue officially diagnosed and fixed.

Related: Redmi Note 5 Pro vs. Moto G6 and Moto G6 Plus

Common questions regarding the Moto G6

While sieving through the forums, we came across certain technical questions that users had and it seems important to address them. If you had similar queries regarding the Moto G6 and the variants Moto G6 Play and Moto G6 Plus, here’s what you need to know.

Does the Moto G6 come with the NFC chip?

Since Google Pay is quickly becoming the industry standard for mobile payment, users have been expecting the NFC chip to be included in the Moto G series. Based on current reports, it seems that the NFC chip is present on the Moto G6, but it isn’t yet confirmed if the feature is present on all the variants across all the regions.

Where is the notification LED on the Moto G6?

All the way back with the Moto G first generations, the company introduced the notification LED, but the feature had since gone missing on the successors. However, the Notification LED is absent on the Moto G6 as well, so you’ll have to do without it.

Is Project Treble supported by the Moto G6?

Software support for the Moto G series has been less than perfect ever since the beginning, but things might just change now. Moto G6 offers Project Treble support, so you can not only expect quicker OTA updates, but also plenty of custom ROMs to be developed for the devices.

Troubleshooting Guide

Soft Reset

Press and hold the Power and Volume Down button simultaneously for 10 seconds until the Moto G6 powers off. This is ideal for situations when your device screen becomes unresponsive.

Safe Mode

Press and hold the Power button and select Power off to shut down the device.

Once the device is off, press and hold the Power key until you see the logo appear.

Leave the Power button but immediately press and hold the Volume Down button and continue to hold it until the device starts up.

The device will now boot up in Safe Mode, and you can exit Safe Mode by simply rebooting the Moto G6 once again.

Hard Reset

Turn off the Moto G6, and then press and hold the Volume Up and Power button simultaneously.

Release the Power button when the logo appears, but continue to hold the Volume Up

On the Android recovery screen, use the Volume Down button to navigate down to wipe data/factory reset and press the Power button to select it.

Use the Volume Down button to select Yes — delete all user data, and then press the Power button to confirm.

Wait for the reset to finish and press the Power button when prompted with the message to Reboot system now.

Wipe cache partition

Turn off the Moto G6, and then press and hold the VolumeUp and Power button simultaneously.

Release the Power button when the logo appears, but continue to hold the Volume Up

On the Android recovery screen, use the Volume Down button to navigate down to wipe cache partition and press the Power button to select it.

Use the Volume Down button to select Yes — delete all user data, and then press the Power button to confirm.

Wait for the reset to finish and press the Power button when prompted with the message to Reboot system now.

Different Types Of Foundation And Their Uses

The structural basis that underpins a building or other structure is known as a foundation. Depending on the soil conditions, climate, and kind of construction, there are numerous types of foundations, each with specific qualities and applications. Shallow foundations, deep foundations, pile foundations, and raft foundations are a few examples of frequent foundation types.

The choice of foundation type is influenced by a number of elements, including the soil’s ability to support weight, the construction materials used, the depth of the water table, and the existence of subterranean utilities or obstructions. For a construction to be stable and secure, picking the correct foundation is essential.

What Is Makeup Foundation?

One type of face makeup is foundation, as we already said. To lay down an even foundation for the rest of your makeup, use this product all over your face. This item should serve as the foundation for your complete makeup appearance. With the right formula, you can hide flaws, even out your skin tone, reduce the appearance of defects, and produce an overall smooth and even canvas.

What Kinds of Foundations Are There? Write Its Uses.

The application of foundation makeup is not universally applicable. You can choose a formula based on your preferred consistency, desired level of coverage, and chosen finish. Following is a list of foundations and its uses explained −

Liquid Foundation − This common type of foundation comes in a liquid form and is offered in a range of coverage intensities, from light to full. It has a natural-looking finish and is simple to apply with a brush, sponge, or fingertips. Most skin types, including dry, normal, and combo skin, can use liquid foundation. It can be used to balance out skin tone, cover flaws, and offer a flawless foundation for makeup. Additionally, it comes in a variety of formulations, including oil-free, matte, and dewy options, to accommodate various skin types and preferences.

Powder Foundation − A type of foundation that is available in powder form, powder foundation is perfect for those with oily skin or those who like a matte look. It offers a subtle, natural-looking finish and is simple to apply with a brush. Moreover, powder foundation comes in a range of coverage options, from light to full. It may be applied alone or over liquid foundation for more coverage, and it’s ideal for touch-ups throughout the day.

Cream Foundation − Cream foundation is a type of foundation that is best for dry skin types or those who like a dewier finish. It comes in a cream or mousse-like texture. It can be used with a brush, sponge, or fingertips to apply and offers a smooth, moisturizing coverage. Cream foundation can be used to conceal flaws, even out skin tone, and give the complexion a dewy, radiant finish. It comes in varying coverage levels, from light to full.

Stick Foundation − Stick foundation is a kind of foundation that is simple to use on the skin and comes in a solid stick form. It’s excellent for those who desire thoroughness and accuracy in their application. Stick foundation can be used as a smooth base for makeup, to hide flaws, and to even out skin tone. It’s also practical for touch-ups while on the go and is perfect for those with combination or oily complexion. While some stick foundations are designed to have a matte finish, others have a more dewy or organic look.

Mineral Powder − Mineral powder foundation is a type of foundation that offers a natural-looking finish and is manufactured with natural minerals like zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. As it is free of harsh chemicals and scents that might irritate the skin, it is excellent for persons with sensitive or acne-prone skin. Mineral powder foundation can be applied with a brush for a natural-looking finish and comes in a range of coverage intensities, from light to full. Due to its ability to absorb excess oil and give skin a matte appearance, it is also appropriate for those with oily or mixed skin.

Tinted Moisturizer − Tinted moisturizer is a form of foundation that hydrates the skin while offering a thin, light coverage. It helps hydrate and soothe the skin, making it ideal for persons with dry or aged skin. A natural, little makeup appearance is also acceptable and can be achieved with tinted moisturizer. It’s simple to apply with your fingertips or a sponge and gives skin a dewy, organic appearance. Some tinted moisturizers provide SPF, which makes them a great option for daily usage.

BB Cream − A form of tinted moisturizer that offers coverage, moisture, and sun protection is known as BB cream, often referred to as beauty balm. It’s a multipurpose product that combines numerous steps into one to streamline your cosmetic application. SPF is typically used in BB creams to protect skin from UV rays, along with antioxidants and other skincare compounds to hydrate and brighten the skin. It offers sheer to medium coverage and is excellent for those who prefer a finish that looks natural. All skin types can use BB cream, which can be applied with either fingers or a sponge.

CC Cream − Often referred to as colour correcting cream, CC cream is a kind of foundation made to even out the colour of the skin by reducing redness, dullness, and other flaws. It offers a more focused method of coverage than BB cream and is perfect for persons with particular skin issues. Each shade of CC cream is intended to address a particular issue, such as redness, sallowness, or black spots. Moreover, it is lightweight and offers a natural-looking finish, making it appropriate for daily wear. Hyaluronic acid and vitamin C are two skincare components that are frequently found in CC creams to enhance the overall health and look of the skin.

The multi-purpose BB cream offers hydration, sun protection, and coverage. A color-correcting foundation that focuses on particular skin issues is called CC cream. Your skin type, skin issues, and personal preferences will ultimately determine the sort of foundation you select. For a natural-looking result, it’s critical to choose a shade that complements your skin tone and blend it effectively. You may get a beautiful, bright complexion by using the appropriate foundation.


Any building or structure needs foundations to stand on. To guarantee the security, sturdiness, and durability of a project, it is essential to choose the right sort of foundation. While choosing the type of foundation, architects, engineers, and builders must take into account a variety of criteria, such as the soil characteristics, load-bearing capability, building materials, water table depth, and underground obstructions.

The foundation can offer a sturdy base for a construction that lasts for many years with careful planning and design. By distributing the load of the structure to the earth below, the foundation is essential to a building’s structural stability. The inappropriate foundation type or improper foundation design can cause structural issues like settling, cracking, or even collapse.

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