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Definition on XML Date

XML Date is defined as a data type to specify the date in the XML Documents. According to W3C XML Schema, a date is a period of one day in its time zone. The date rule could be customized according to the requirements where sometimes it is necessary to do some date operations or parse dates to a specific format provided time zone should be specified if not local time is used. And the date format is defined by date pattern Strings by assigning letters from A to Z.

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In this article, we have used a Class XML Gregorian Calendar for the data Utilities.


The XML format for Date is given in the following formats


Where the data type specifies Year, Month, and Day. It’s a finite-length sequence of characters with yy-mm-dd. The four-digit numeric represents a year, the negative value is restricted, and the year 0000 is neglected. And there is a symbol ‘- ‘separator between this format; finally, two-digit numerals signify month and date.

The element declaration is illustrated as

The current date on Xpath is defined as

xs:date fn:current-date() How does Date function work in XML?

Generally, this Date function includes Data types like

xs:dateTime (CCYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss)

xs:date (CCYY-MM-DD)

xs:time (hh:mm:ss)

xs:gYearMonth (CCYY-MM)

xs:gYear (CCYY)

xs:gMonthDay (–MM-DD)

xs:gMonth (–MM–)

xs:gDay (—DD)

and XML formatter prefers to use Simple Date Format, and it is not thread-safe. Also, this constructor is not supported in all the local files. The format comes like this:

public SimpleDateFormat(String pattern, DateFormatSymbols formatSymbols)

The Gregorian Calendar is specified as


2011-11-21 +02:00

2011-11-21 Z




The value of the datetime given is parsed by the XML parser, which converts the datetime value declared in the input XML to the value of the local time zone format. Thus, even a daylight-saving option could be made.

Using the Current date() function to display the current date of that day. This function is called without passing any parameters. As a result, it returns the date manipulated from the System time, i.e., gives out a constant value. Let’s see a simple working code of the XSD file.

<xsl: stylesheet version=”2.0″ The current date today is:

And in Xpath, we have like

And Few functions on Date are dateTime (), year-from-dateTime (), year-from-date(date), month-from-date(date) , day-from-date(date).

Next, for the sample XML schema, the customization of XML date and time is specified as

public class Client { @XmlElement(name = "dob") @XmlSchemaType(name = "date") protected XMLGregorianCalendar dateOfBirth; public XMLGregorianCalendar getDateOfBirth() {return dateOfBirth;} public void setDateOfBirth(XMLGregorianCalendar value) {this.dateOfBirth = value; } } Examples

Now let’s see how this function works well in XSLT and java.

Example#1 – Simple XML file displays the date

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import java.time.LocalDateTime; import java.time.ZoneId; import java.time.ZonedDateTime; import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter; import java.util.Date; import java.util.GregorianCalendar; import javaxxml.datatype.DatatypeConfigurationException; import javaxxml.datatype.DatatypeFactory; import javaxxml.datatype.XMLGregorianCalendar; public class Educ { private final static String TIMESTAMP_PATTERN = "MM/dd/yyyy hh:mm a z"; private final static DateTimeFormatter DATE_TIME_FORMATTER = DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern(TIMESTAMP_PATTERN); public static void main(String[] args) throws DatatypeConfigurationException { GregorianCalendar c = new GregorianCalendar(); c.setTime(new Date()); XMLGregorianCalendar xc = DatatypeFactory.newInstance() .newXMLGregorianCalendar(c); ZonedDateTime zon = xc.toGregorianCalendar().toZonedDateTime(); System.out.println( DATE_TIME_FORMATTER.format(zon) ); ZonedDateTime zond = zon.withZoneSameInstant(ZoneId.of("UTC")); System.out.println( DATE_TIME_FORMATTER.format(zond) ); } }



Example#3 – Showing java code to convert Date Object to String Value Using Gregorian Calendar

import java.time.LocalDateTime; import java.time.ZoneId; import java.time.ZonedDateTime; import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter; import java.util.Date; import java.text.DateFormat; import java.text.SimpleDateFormat; import java.util.GregorianCalendar; import javaxxml.datatype.DatatypeConfigurationException; import javaxxml.datatype.DatatypeFactory; import javaxxml.datatype.XMLGregorianCalendar; public class Rule { public static void main(String[] args) throws DatatypeConfigurationException { GregorianCalendar gca = new GregorianCalendar(); gca.setTime(new Date()); XMLGregorianCalendar xgc = DatatypeFactory.newInstance().newXMLGregorianCalendar(gca); System.out.println(convertXmlGregorianToString(xgc)); } public static String convertXmlGregorianToString(XMLGregorianCalendar xgc) { DateFormat datef = new SimpleDateFormat("MM/dd/yyyy hh:mm a z"); GregorianCalendar gCalendar = xgc.toGregorianCalendar(); Date dd = gCalendar.getTime(); String dStr = datef.format(dd); return dStr; } } 


The above java code converts an XML file document into java code by converting their data objects to display date. It uses simple packages like Date Format and Simple Date Format.


Example#4 – Using a Style sheet to give out the date.


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Here we have used an XML file with various elements, and XSLT is created,


Example#5 – Xml date using C#


using System; using System.IO; using System.Xml; public class test { public static void Main() { Int16 cid = 3252; String oID = "3524f5"; DateTime orderDate = new DateTime(); orderDate = DateTime.Now; Double price = 20.95; XmlTextWriter writer = new XmlTextWriter (Console.Out); writer.Formatting = Formatting.Indented; writer.WriteStartElement("order"); writer.WriteAttributeString("date", XmlConvert.ToString(orderDate, "yyyy-MM-dd")); writer.WriteAttributeString("time", XmlConvert.ToString(orderDate, "HH:mm:ss")); writer.WriteElementString("orderID", oID); writer.WriteElementString("custID", XmlConvert.ToString(cid)); writer.WriteElementString("price", XmlConvert.ToString(price)); writer.WriteEndElement(); writer.Close(); } }


The above code automatically generates the current date from the System, which is shown below. The XML is written using the writer methods, where it starts from the root element ‘order.’



Therefore this article shows how to apply Date Format value types in java and also taught us the customization formats by changing the different settings as explained in the working sections.

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This is a guide to XML Date. Here we discuss how the XML date function works well in XSLT and java, along with different examples and its code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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How Do Variables Work In Xslt With Examples?

Definition of XSLT Variable

XSLT variable is defined as special tags used to declare a local or global variable that we make use of to store any values. The declared variables are referenced within an Xpath expression. Once it is set we cannot overwrite or update the variables. The scope of the element is done by the element that contains it. While we are setting a variable it could be done as global and local variables. The top-level element declared in the file is named as a global variable and the local variables are assigned within the template section.

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Following is the syntax declaration of the variable element.

How do variables work in XSLT?

The following templates assign the variable which includes both text and parameter values. The output is generated by referring to the value of the variable.

A variable takes a lot of types of values like integer or declared within XPath type expressions.

With Integer

With String

With Input document

For instance, let’s take a scenario like we need to output the book title of a respective Document in various places. We can do with the XSL variable and the book title is changed provided the changes done in one preferred location in the XSLT file. For example, we may need to use the value of current-time twenty times. Instead of passing a call to current-time(), we can call once and the corresponding value is stored in a variable.


Below example create a demo on two files  XSL and XML  with their elements and their child elements in the XML file and matches them with the XSL variable name. Let’s get started with the first demo.

Example #1 – Here is our XML file taking Book details

Following this file we have XSL style sheets with a template match by assigning a variable name to the values.


Here an XML file is converted into a new XML file by assigning a variable name simultaneously  I have incremented the variable many times when need with the new variable.  The above code uses a global variable and could be accessed throughout the chúng tôi supports three modes of Output methods XML, HTML and Text. Here I have used HTML to show. Well, we can see the output like this:


Example #2

XML file

Xslt file


As a result of adding this stylesheet and applying this rule of variable assignments, the output is generated. The resulting Output is given as follows:


Example #3

Xml file

XSL file

Here is a page


The above code uses three variable names and all the values are been assigned.



XSL variables are very useful in many circumstances.

Variables help in avoiding long typing of XPath expression in case of complicated instructions.

XSL Being a Formatting language used for many XML Applications by providing elements and variable names with local or global declarations where they exclusively focus on formatting Objects.


XSLT is gaining much importance in business logic and produces a few best practices in achieving a good result in XSL. Therefore in this article, we have seen how variables are declared with the example.

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How Does Credit Limit Work With Example?

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Introduction to Credit Limit

When a lender offers you a credit card or line of credit, it specifies the maximum amount of credit that can be drawn by availing the credit card or line of credit. This maximum amount of credit is known as the Credit Limit (CL).

Typically, the lending institutions decide the CL based on the information provided by you as an applicant. A CL is a significant factor for personal liquidity as it can influence your credit score and, in turn, impact your ability to access future credit.

How Does Credit Limit Work? Example

Let us take the example of David, who has recently acquired a credit card facility from a bank ABC Inc. The CL of the credit card is $5,000, which means that David can spend up to $5,000 with this credit card. Let us assume that David spent $ 3,000 at the start of the current month. Determine the available CL if

David paid $1,500 at the end of the current month

David didn’t pay anything


Therefore, if David paid $1,500 at the end of the month, we can calculate the available credit limit.

Available Credit Limit = Credit Limit – Expense During the Month + Payment During the Month

Available CL = $5,000 – $3,000 + $1,500

= $3,500

On the other hand, if David didn’t pay anything, then the available CL can be calculated as,

Available Credit Limit = Credit Limit – Expense During the Month + Payment During the Month

Available CL = $5,000 – $3,000 + $0

= $2,000

How to Increase Credit Limit?

Use the credit facility: If you use the credit facility frequently and make the bill payments in full and on time, then it is likely that the bank may increase your CL.

Provide updated income statement: If your income increases, you should provide the updated income statement (latest payslips) to the bank and request to enhance the existing limit. The bank will be willing to increase the CL in such a scenario.

Apply for a new credit facility: If your existing bank is unwilling to increase your CL and you have a healthy credit history, you can also apply for a new credit facility, which might come with a higher CL.

Make all the bill payments on time: If you make all the bill payments regularly and on time, your credit score will be healthy, and any lender will see you as a low-risk borrower. So, you must be patient and wait, as the bank may automatically offer you a higher CL.

How is Credit Limit Calculated?

Typically, lending institutions take into account the following factors while calculating the CL:

Credit History: Your credit score is one of the most critical factors in calculating your CL. If you can maintain a clean credit history (no defaults or delayed payments), you can retain a good credit score, resulting in a higher CL and lower borrowing rate. On the other hand, if you have several defaults indicating reckless credit behavior, likely, banks may even reduce the existing credit limit. [Note: No credit history can also harm a prospective borrower as the lenders end up with no credit track record to rely on.]

Debt-To-Income Ratio: The lenders also evaluate your income to assess the amount of debt that you can afford to repay. However, a higher income doesn’t guarantee a higher CL, as the banks are more interested in your debt-to-income ratio. The banks also look at the number of debts and your debt servicing history. Effectively, a higher debt-to-income ratio results in a lower CL and vice versa.

Credit Limit Offered By Other Lenders: At times, the banks also take cognizance of the CL offered by the other banks while calculating the CL of their facility. So, the limit of your other facilities can also be one of the factors in deciding the credit limit.

What is a Good Credit Limit?

In the UK, the average CL lies in the £3,000 to £4,000, while some higher-income earners with a healthy credit history enjoy a credit limit of more than £10,000. On the other hand, the average credit limit in the US is around $22,750. It can be inferred that the definition of a reasonable credit limit varies across locations, and there cannot be any single correct answer to this question.


A CL is the maximum credit a lender extends to a borrower.

Lenders calculate the credit limit based on the borrower’s credit history, debt-to-income ratio, and existing credit limits.

Low-risk borrowers are offered higher credit limits and vice versa.

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How Does Loan Syndication Work With Example?

What is Loan Syndication?

The term “loan syndication” refers to the lending process in which a group of lenders funds a loan for a single borrower. This arrangement often occurs when the loan amount is too large for a single lender or the risk associated with the loan exceeds the risk appetite of any single lender. Thus, multiple lenders join hands to form a syndicate and provide the requested capital to the borrower.

Key Takeaways

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It refers to the arrangement in which a group of lenders joins hands to fund the loan requirement of a single borrower.

It usually occurs when the loan amount is too large for a single bank or exceeds a bank’s risk appetite.

In this arrangement, the lead bank takes on the role of the coordinating entity, while the remaining lenders, known as participating banks, collectively share the risk.

There are three major types – underwritten deal, best-effort deal, and club deal.

Features of Loan Syndication

Some of the main features of loan syndication are as follows:

The need for large loan amounts primarily drives the loan syndication arrangement, making it a key motivation behind such arrangements.

The borrower and the group of lenders establish a single comprehensive agreement, eliminating the necessity for separate agreements between the individual banks and the borrower.

The agreement explicitly outlines and pre-determines the loan amount allocated to each participating bank, ensuring transparency and avoiding confusion regarding their financing obligations. 

Loan syndication typically involves reputed corporate entities with strong creditworthiness, reflecting their ability to access substantial funds through this mechanism. 

The loan syndication tenure generally spans 3 to 15 years, depending on the loan’s nature and the agreement between the borrower and lenders. 

In loan syndication, all participating lenders actively share the credit risk. They ensure that in the case of borrower default, the losses are collectively distributed among them.

How Does Loan Syndication Work?

Now let us look at how loan syndication works in the real world:

In the pre-mandate stage, the borrower approaches a lender or invites competitive bids from multiple lenders.

Based on rounds of discussions, the borrower appoints the arranging bank or lead bank.

The lead bank prepares the Information Memorandum for the loan, which typically includes the executive summary, terms & conditions, industry overview, detailed assessment, investment considerations, financial structure, and other key information about the loan.

The lead bank then invites other banks to participate in the loan syndication.

After finalizing the participating banks, the participants sign the confidentiality agreement.

After completion of the loan documentation, the contract is prepared while the loan amount is disbursed.

Finally, the loan must be monitored regularly through an escrow account in which the borrower must deposit the revenue. The escrow account serves the purpose of repaying the loans and fulfilling other statutory dues.

Example of Loan Syndication Types of Loan Syndication

There are three major types. They are:

Underwritten deal: In this type of loan syndication, the lead bank guarantees to arrange for the entire loan. The lead bank must finance the funding shortfall if the loan isn’t fully subscribed. Given the risk the lead bank assumes, it charges a higher service fee.

Best-effort deal: In this type of loan syndication, the lead bank doesn’t commit to arranging the full loan amount and underwrites it on a best-effort basis. If the loan remains under-subscribed despite multiple attempts by the lead bank, the borrower is compelled to accept a lower loan amount.

Club Deal: In this type, the loan amount is smaller (up to $150 million), and all the participants have an equal share.

Advantages of Loan Syndication

Given that it lowers the lending risk, the alliance of lenders can provide the loan at competitive terms, such as prepayment facilities, without the standard penalty.

Borrowers benefit in terms of flexible loan structure and reduced effort to disbursement.

When a group of lenders agrees to fund a company’s business growth, it gives a facelift to the company’s reputation and boosts its market credibility.

First, forming a loan syndicate requires much time as the lenders must go through extensive documentation.

The management of multiple lenders is an arduous task for a borrower. Even a small issue with a single bank can complicate things and impact the credit lines unfavorably.


Loan syndication benefits both lenders and borrowers. Lenders can share the risk, reducing their exposure, while borrowers benefit from a streamlined process that saves them time and effort.

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How Does Mongodb Unique Works With Examples

Introduction to MongoDB Unique

MongoDB’s Unique Constraint makes certain that the fields indexed in it, do not store duplicate values for the same field, i.e., making sure the uniqueness of fields. By default, MongoDB enforces this unique constraint on the “_id” field, while inserting new data. One of the major responsibilities is to ensure no duplicate data has been stored in a single key. We also have restrictions here, like MongoDB will be unable to establish a unique index on any specific field, in case if the collection somehow has already stored any data that would breach the feature of unique constraint for the index.

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Now that we have understood what Unique Constraint in MongoDB, let us learn the standard syntax to write this Unique method.

db.collection_name.createIndex( {field_name : 1} , {unqiue : true} )

How UNIQUE Constraint works in MongoDB?

The Unique Index allows the insertion and storing of the values in a document into a collection IF there is no other document in the same collection with the same index key and value. The unique constraint can be implemented on compound indexes. This helps MongoDB to implement uniqueness when combining the index key values.  Unique Constraint over separate multiple documents is possible in MongoDB, and it is an essential function in avoiding storing of same values for the indexed key in a different document.

Unique Constraint in MongoDB will allow only a single document with the same value for the indexed key. If we attempt to insert the same value for a single indexed key, it will result in an error.

Query #1


This returns every document in the collection.

Query #2

db.code.insert( { name:”kumar”, city:“Pune”, code:19 } )

This is an attempt to insert a record with the same code.




Explanation: Here, we have implemented the unique index for “code” key, and so when we try to store a document with existing code, it results in “duplicate key error”.

Unique Constraint for Null Value

When we store any document, we store values for the respective keys, and it is stored as per indexing. But in case, if we attempt to store a document that has no specific value or data for a key, for any uncertain key, the document will be stored, and the empty value will be stored as a null value in that document.  In MongoDB, only on the document is allowed to be stored with a single index field missing.

Examples to Implement UNIQUE Constraint in MongoDB

Implementing Unique Contraint on separate documents to not store the same value for the indexes key, in two different documents.

Example #1

We will attempt to insert and store documents with duplicate values. We have a collection named educba, which we will check with find method: db.educba.find()




As you can see in the above image, we have a collection named educba, and the document has one default unique “_id” and two more keys. We will now implement the unique constraint on the “Name”, which will make it unique, duplicate insertion proof.


db.educba.createIndex( { “Name” : 1 } , { unique : true } )



db.educba.insert({ Name : "Sulaksh" ,  City : "Pune" })


First Query:db.educba.insert({ Name : "Sulaksh" ,  City : "Pune" })

The above query will be successfully inserted.  Then we attempted to insert the same query, i.e. same document with the same values, but it resulted in an error that states, “terms”: “E11000 duplicate key error collection: test.educba index: Name_1 dup key: { : ”Sulaksh” }””. This makes our unique constraint applied over the Name field successfully.

Example #2


db.educba.createIndex( {email : 1},{unique : true} )


We will not attempt to insert a document with a different name but an email id that already exists in another document. Expectations are that the insertion operation will not work and through us an error of duplicate value. We have another document with a slightly different name: Sanket1, for the test purpose, and now we will attempt to update the document with an email: [email protected]


db.educba.update( { “Name” : ”Sanket1” } , { $set : {email : “[email protected]” }})

Above query will aim to search a record with Name: Sanket1 and will update the record with adding an email id to the document, here $set will add a field for the document.


As you can see in the above screenshot, when we attempted to update a record with the different Name field, the email was the same as one existing document. It threw us a write error, which means an error occurred while writing the document. The error states “duplicate key error collection: test. educba index: email_1 dup key”. The error points to the issue and makes things clear for us to understand.  Like in our case, the email with the value of “[email protected]” is duplicated, already stored, so it will not store again due to unique indexing on the email field. In case you want to know, I’ve used the update with $get to add another field for existing records.

Use Case for this example: Is the New User Registration where we have to ensure that a single mail id is not used to create multiple accounts.


Implementing Unique Constraint will restrict the database from storing duplicate values for the same indexed key to wrap it up. This feature helps in storing documents with uniqueness. We learned and understood the syntax followed by the working of it. Then we implemented the unique constraint with example and understood the same along with screenshots, respectively.

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How Does Annotation Work In Kubernetes?

Kubernetes Annotations

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How does Annotation Work in Kubernetes?

Annotations have key/value pairs same as labels. Annotation key consists of two parts, a prefix which is optional, and a name. These two parts are separated by a slash ‘/’. The name part is mandatory and it is not longer than 63 characters. It starts and ends with alphanumeric character ([a-z0-9A-Z]) with dashes (-), underscores (_), dots (.), and alphanumeric in between. The prefix is optional however if specified it must be a DNS subdomain and length must be 253 characters or less and ends with a slash (/) If automated system components such as kube-controller-manager, kube-scheduler, kube-apiserver, kubectl or any other third party automation) add annotations to the end-user Kubernetes objects, it must specify a prefix. There are two reserved prefixes ‘’ and ‘’ for Kubernetes core components.

We use the “annotations” keyword to add an annotation to the object. Annotations are also key/value pairs like labels as shown below:

"metadata": { "annotations": { "key1" : "value1", "key2" :  "value2", "key3" :"value3" } } Examples of Kubernetes Annotations

Let’s understand the examples of Kubernetes Annotations with Syntax.

Example 1

We have an nginx pod and we want to attach annotations like on-call person pager number, URL or name of the image registry and link of knowledge base article, etc. We can add these details under annotations under metadata primitives. There are default annotations attached by the ‘kubectl’ to every Kubernetes objects whether we attach annotations to the Kubernetes object or not. This annotation is the ‘’. Let’s create a pod using below yaml file.

apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: nginx-web-server labels: env: prod app: nginx-web spec: containers: - name: nginx image: nginx ports: - containerPort: 80

After creating the pod, we use below two commands to check the attached annotation:


Example 2 $kubectl describe pod nginx-web-server

$kubectl get pods nginx-web-server -o custom-columns=ANNOTATIONS:.metadata.annotations

Explanation: In the above example, there is no annotation attached to the pod however, there is an annotation attached to the pod and that is attached by Kubernetes core components as it has reserved prefix ‘’ and name of the annotation is ‘last-applied-configuration’ which means it holds the last configuration applied to that object. The value of the annotation is truncated in the output we get from the first command. If we want to know or extract full value, we use the second command which output only key/value pairs of annotations.

Let’s create a pod and attach the annotations ‘oncallPager’, ‘imageregistry’, and ‘kbArticle’ as we discussed above. Below is the YAML configuration file for the same: –

apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: nginx-web-server labels: env: prod app: nginx-web annotations: oncallPager: 111-222-3333 spec: containers: - name: nginx image: nginx ports: - containerPort: 80

After deploying the above pod, we use the ‘kubectl describte’ command to see the attached annotations as shown in the below snapshot: –

Let’s output only annotations and see how it looks like. Here is the output: –

Explanation: In the above snapshot, the key/value pairs are not that much clear as compare to earlier output and it will be difficult to find the key/value pairs if there are many annotations attached to a Kubernetes object.

Scenarios of Kubernetes Annotations

There are many scenarios where annotations are very useful. Some use cases are as below:

We can add application build, release, or image information build number, release ID, git branch, registry address, image hashes, etc.

We can attach name, version, and build information of client library or tool for debugging purposes.

We can add user or tool/system information from where the objects originated. For example, objects can be created by automation tools like Jenkins in CI/CD model. It is very useful information who has created the Kubernetes object.

Attaching fields managed by a declarative configuration layer as annotations help to differentiate them from default values set by clients or servers, and from auto-generated fields and fields set by auto-sizing or auto-scaling systems.

We can also attach phone or pager numbers of the responsible person or directories or link where one can find that information if something bad happens.

The link of the knowledge base article or article number can be also attached to troubleshoot known issues related to that object.

We can add pointers to logging, monitoring, analytics, or audit repositories.


Kubernetes are similar to labels as it also has key/value pairs, however, it cannot be queried by Kubernetes itself but there are many tools that are configured to query objects based on their annotations, for example, Prometheus, third party tools, etc. Huge annotations do not the impact internal performance of Kubernetes so there are no keys and values constrained like labels.

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