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In older versions of Windows, you were forced to reinstall the entire operating system if you wanted to convert legacy BIOS or Master Boot Record (MBR) to UEFI or GUID Partition Table (GPT). However, a new and simple tool called MBR2GPT was introduced in Windows 10. It lets you convert legacy BIOS to UEFI with just two commands.

Here is how you can convert legacy BIOS to UEFI in Windows 10. If you’re a Windows 11 user, you shouldn’t do anything, as UEFI mode is enabled by default on your device.

Do not skip any of the prerequisites of legacy BIOS to UEFI conversion mentioned below, as it can lead to system failure and even hardware issues in some cases.

Why Convert Legacy BIOS to UEFI?

You probably have some inkling why you’d want to change from the legacy BIOS to UEFI, but just to confirm, here’s what you need to know. Both BIOS and UEFI perform the same function on your PC – namely under-the-hood software integrated into your motherboard chip that lets you control various important low-level things.

Your BIOS/UEFI lets you control things like boot order, connected hardware, fan speeds, the physical lights on your computer and system time. Modern motherboards even let you undervolt and overclock your CPU! It’s powerful stuff.

UEFI is basically the new BIOS, performing the same job but better. With UEFI, you get faster boot times (ostensibly), higher drive capacities, better update methods and driver support, and a 64-bit mode (where BIOS is only 16-bit).

In other words, switching to UEFI is a bit of an upgrade and worth doing. Note that even modern computers (including Windows 11) tend to still call the motherboard software the BIOS, even if it’s technically UEFI.

Prerequisites for Legacy BIOS to UEFI Conversion

There are many secondary requirements listed below for a flawless conversion. If you ignore any of these prerequisites, your Windows hardware may fail leading to a black screen. (Read the FAQ to know what options are available for you in case you encounter this problem.)

While there will be no data loss while converting legacy BIOS to UEFI, please back up your system as a precaution.

Always verify whether your Windows system is capable of supporting UEFI in the first place. Generally, all motherboards launched after 2014 are UEFI secure boot capable but that’s not always the case. So you should verify the eligibility for your device specifically.

To do so, use the Run command with the shortcut Win + R and type msinfo32 to launch the System Information window. In its right-hand side panel, check your BIOS Version/Date. If it says UEFI, your device is eligible for legacy BIOS to UEFI conversion. However, if it only gives the name of your BIOS version, the device does not have UEFI firmware settings. Trying to convert the legacy BIOS will lead to hardware failures.

    You should be using Windows 10 v1703 or higher. If you are not sure, press Win + R, type winver and press Enter. On the second line, you should see “version 1703” or higher.

      The disk you are trying to convert should not have more than three partitions. If you have more than three partitions on the Windows 10 installation drive, either merge or delete the excess partitions. Otherwise, you’ll encounter a “Disk Layout Validation Failed” error, which is fixable but best avoided.

      If you are using BitLocker to encrypt your system, decrypt the drive and disable BitLocker protection before starting the conversion process. With BitLocker protection turned on, Windows 10 cannot convert your drive from legacy BIOS to UEFI.

      After converting, you may have to change your motherboard firmware settings from legacy BIOS to UEFI. Depending on your motherboard manufacturer, the procedure to switch from one to the other will be different. Have your motherboard manual handy to make things easier for you.

      Don’t proceed with the legacy BIOS to UEFI conversion if your Windows device is already on UEFI with secure boot enabled. We’ll show you how to check for this below.

      If you want to know more, we have a full guide on the differences between UEFI and BIOS.

      Do I Need to Convert Legacy BIOS to UEFI in Windows 11?

      If you’re using Windows 11, it means your device is past the milestone in switching from legacy BIOS to UEFI. This is because migrating to a UEFI secure boot is a mandatory Windows 11 compatibility requirement. There is no separate provisioning of legacy BIOS in Windows 11.

      In rather simple words, Windows 11 doesn’t support legacy BIOS at all. If you want to install Windows 11 on an older Windows 10 device, you should first check whether that computer supports UEFI mode or not, and it should have a GPT partition, not MBR (check the following section for more details on this).

      You can check this from a “Windows Security” option where “Secure boot” is displayed as On. Microsoft recommends you keep it that way to deter any malicious software from loading when the device is booting.

      The secure boot settings can also be verified from the BIOS options (called UEFI Firmware Settings) accessible in Windows 11 “Advanced startup.” After the BIOS screen shows up, navigate to the Boot Options tab. According to Microsoft, UEFI should be shown as the “first or only option.” This is especially true for Dell, HP, and Lenovo laptops. However, some other manufacturers may have continued to retain both UEFI and legacy/CSM.

      How to Check Whether You Are Using Legacy BIOS

      Before you switch from legacy BIOS to UEFI in Windows 10, check whether you are actually using legacy BIOS. After all, there is no use converting if you are already on UEFI.

        In the Properties Window, go to the “Volumes” tab. If you see “Master Boot Record (MBR)” next to “Partition style,” you are on Legacy BIOS.

        If, on the other hand, it says “GUID Partition Table (GPT)” as in the image below, then you’re already on UEFI and don’t need to do anything more!

        How to Convert Legacy BIOS to UEFI

        Once you’ve confirmed you are on legacy BIOS and have backed up your system, you can convert Legacy BIOS to UEFI.

          Validate the disk you are trying to convert. Type the below command and press Enter.

          mbr2gpt

          /

          validate

          If you see the “Validation completed successfully” message, proceed to the next step. If you see any errors, your disk or system may not meet the conversion requirements.

          If you have problems validating at this point, enter the following command. We highly recommend you use this add-on code to not lose data.

          mbr2gpt

          /

          validate

          /

          allowFullOS

            After validating the disk, execute the below command:

            mbr2gpt

            /

            convert

            As soon as you execute, Windows 10 will start the conversion process, i.e., add all the required UEFI boot files and GPT components, then update the Boot Configuration Data.

              Restart your system, launch your motherboard firmware settings screen and change it from legacy BIOS to UEFI. The procedure to change from Legacy BIOS to UEFI depends on your motherboard manufacturer. Consult the manual for the exact steps.

              After booting into Windows 10, you can verify whether or not you are converted. Just as before, open the disk properties window from the Disk Management tool and go to the “Volumes” tab. Here, you should see “GUID Partition Table (GPT)” next to “Partition style.”

              How to Fix the MBR2GPT “Disk Layout Validation Failed” Error

              While changing your hard drive from MBR to GPT, you may sometimes receive the error message: “MBR2GPT Disk layout validation failed for Disk#,” with the number # referring to your boot disk.

              There are two reasons for this error: more than three partitions and no available space in C drive, the boot disk.

              To solve the “Disk Layout Validation Failed” error, go to “Create and format hard disk partitions” from the search menu and check whether you have more than three partitions in the boot disk, Disk 0.

              You need to “merge and delete” some of these extra partition volumes to bring down the number of partitions to three or less. Do create a backup of any important data in the extra partitions.

                The second reason for the error is the Disk 0 drive not having enough space for an MBR to GPT conversion. To resolve this, you need to shrink its volume to anything between 200 MB to 2 GB.

                Note: if your device is already on a GPT layout, these options will be greyed out.

                Frequently Asked Questions Why am I seeing a black screen after changing legacy BIOS to UEFI?

                If you’re seeing a black screen after changing over from legacy BIOS to UEFI, it means you did not complete one or more prerequisites we have listed above.

                Having a black screen after restart may or may not indicate hardware failure. If your Windows device is healthy, you should be able to access its “safe mode” by pressing the Power button followed by what is known as a “Boot key.” Common boot keys include F2, F6, F12, Del, and Esc. They vary among laptop/PC manufacturers and you should check your precise laptop/PC model to know its boot key.

                Once the Safe mode menu items are visible, attempt a factory image restore of your Windows computer. This will revert your Windows device to the exact configuration in which it was shipped by the manufacturer. You can also try a simpler System Restore if it works for you.

                If you cannot access the Safe mode using Power button and boot keys, it definitely indicates hardware failure. This leaves you no other choice but to have the device repaired by a competent PC hardware expert.

                How do I resolve the “0x514; MBR2GPT failed to enable backup/restore privileges” error on Windows 10?

                Some users have experienced an “administrator not found on the system” error while performing the MBR to GPT conversion on a command prompt even though they were signed into the computer as administrator. To deal with this problem, ensure that you are running the elevated Command Prompt which is the Administrator mode. It can be easily accessed from the Start menu.

                Image Credit: Unsplash

                Sayak Boral

                Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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                You're reading How To Convert Legacy Bios To Uefi In Windows

                How To Convert Mbr To Gpt Without Data Loss In Windows 11/10

                The GUID Partition Table (GPT) was introduced as a part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). GPT provides more options than the traditional MBR partitioning method that is common in Windows 10/8/7 PCs. If you have a large-sized Hard Drive, then you could want to convert MBR to GPT. This is because MBR disks support only four partition table entries. If one wants more partitions, one needs to create a secondary structure known as an extended partition.

                So for any hard drive over 2TB, we need to use a GPT partition style. If you have a disk larger than 2TB size, the rest of the disk space will not be used unless you convert it to GPT. The number of partitions on a GPT disk is not constrained by temporary schemes, such as container partitions defined by the MBR Extended Boot Record (EBR).

                Here is an image of the basic disk that explains the GPT format.

                Remember there will also protective MBR area for backward compatibility. For more information on GPT, refer to chapter 5 of Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) specification (version 2.3) defines the GPT format.

                Convert MBR to GPT without Data Loss

                One of the main challenges that we face while converting MBR to GPT is that conversion is possible from MBR to GPT only if there are no partitions or volumes present in the disk – which makes it impossible to convert without data loss. I still don’t know why Microsoft hasn’t offered a simpler solution to this problem.

                How do I change from MBR to GPT in Windows 10?

                Luckily there are some of these solutions that will help you in converting MBR to GPT without data loss.

                Convert MBR to GPT using Diskpart

                Convert MBR to GPT without data loss using Gptgen

                Convert MBR to GPT without losing data using a third-party freeware

                Use MBR2GPT Disk Conversion Tool.

                Before you start, it is, in any case, always a good idea to BACK UP YOUR DATA first to a safe place.

                1. Convert MBR to GPT using Diskpart

                Backup all your data and then use the DISKPART command.

                Open command prompt, type DISKPART, and press Enter

                Then type in list disk  (Note down the number of the disk that you want to convert to GPT)

                Then type in select disk number of disk

                Finally, type in convert gpt.

                2. Convert MBR to GPT without data loss using Gptgen

                You can convert MBR to GPT without losing data – using a command-line utility called gptgen.

                Gptgen is a tool designed to non-destructively convert hard disks partitioned in the common, “MSDOS-style” MBR scheme (including extended partitions) to use a GUID partition table (GPT).

                It’s a pervasive tool but a bit complicated to run. According to the tool’s ‘read me’ file, the syntax of the tool is “gptgen [-w] \.physicaldriveX”,

                Here X is the drive number reported by the Disk Management console or the “list disk” command of the DISKPART utility.

                The -w switch makes gptgen write the generated GUID partition tables to the disk – otherwise, the primary table will be written to a file named “ chúng tôi “, and the secondary table to “ chúng tôi “, in the directory that the program was invoked from.

                You can then use dd to write the tables to the disk.

                3. Convert MBR to GPT without losing data using Partition Assistant

                The last method is using a tool called AOMEI Partition Assistant Lite Edition. It’s a free multifunction partition management software. This tool’s feature can help you convert a disk with data into GPT or MBR style without data loss.

                NOTE: It appears that now the free version of Partition Assistant does not allow converting MBR to GPT.

                To convert a disk to MBR/GPT disk:

                Select the disk to convert;

                4. Use MBR2GPT Disk Conversion Tool

                To convert MBR to GPT using the built-in chúng tôi tool:

                Execute the following command to validate that the drive meets the requirements:

                mbr2gpt /validate

                Execute the following command to convert the drive from MBR to GPT:

                mbr2gpt /convert

                Restart your computer.

                Do note that MBR2GPT can only be used from the Windows Preinstallation Environment. To use it from your Desktop, you have to use /allowFullOS to override.

                Read more about the new MBR2GPT Disk Conversion Tool in Windows 10. Using this built-in tool, you can safely and non-destructively convert a Windows 10 computer from legacy BIOS to UEFI disk partitioning.

                TIP: Take a look at this post which covers various MBR2GPT failed errors on Windows 11/10, explaining the causes and providing step-by-step solutions for each situation.

                MBR2GPT disk layout validation failed

                MBR2GPT cannot find OS partition

                MBR2GPT cannot find room for the EFI system partition

                MBR2GPT non system disk

                MBR2GPT cannot install new boot files

                How Can I Convert MBR to GPT without Reinstalling Windows?

                To convert MBR to GPT without reinstalling Windows, you must use a third-party software, such as AOMEI Partition Assistant. Once the conversion is done, you will have to enable UEFI boot mode before booting your computer, or else your computer might fail to boot. Windows Disk Management doesn’t offer any way to convert without loss of data.

                Should I Use MBR or GPT for Windows 10?

                GPT is better than MBR when it comes to setting up a drive. GPT is more modern and a robust standard that all computers are moving toward. If you are looking for compatibility with old systems, then you may have to continue with MBR.

                Read: How to Prevent Data Corruption in Windows computers

                Is it Worth Converting MBR to GPT?

                If you are moving to a modern system, then yes, it is worth it. The file system offers more security, supports a larger partition size and disk size using disk to GPT disk. However, Windows doesn’t offer a conversion without a format or data loss of the primary partitions, so it’s better to use third-party software that can do it.

                Can MBR work with UEFI?

                Yes, UEFI supports backward compatibility using the legacy mode, but it is possible that the modern OS, such as Windows 11, may not support MBR anymore. So while it may work with the old system, it will not work with the future Windows versions.

                What is the Limitation of MBR vs. UEFI?

                How To Use Preview To Convert Images In Os X

                If you’re a blogger like me, there’ll be many times when you’ll need to convert an image from one format to another. One of the useful tools that most professionals use is Photoshop. The thing is, Photoshop is really expensive, and so are a number of other programs that can perform this function. If you are using Mac, you can easily use the built-in tool – Preview – to convert images. Here’s how.

                Most of you might already know of and have used Preview before, but for those who don’t, Preview is Apple’s default utility for viewing images and PDF files on your Mac. One of the options it includes is the ability to export an image to a different file format.

                To do this, simply open the image you want to convert in Preview, and follow the steps below:

                1. Open up the File menu. From the drop-down menu, choose “Export.”

                2. From the “Format” menu select the format you want to convert your image to.

                By default, the format window will only include options for JPEG, JPEG-2000, OpenEXR, PDF, PNG (default selection), and TIFF. However, by holding down the “Option” key, it will bring up a number of other formats including GIF, ICNS, Microsoft BMP, Microsoft ICON, Photoshop, SGI, and TGA.

                If you want to convert a batch of images together, you won’t want to do it one by one. Instead, to batch convert all of the photos together, follow the steps below:

                1. Select all the images you want to convert. To do this, either hold-down “Shift” or “Command” while selecting the photos.

                3. Once Preview is open, you’ll note that all the images will be shown in a list next to the displayed image, similar to the screenshot below:

                Shujaa Imran

                Shujaa Imran is MakeTechEasier’s resident Mac tutorial writer. He’s currently training to follow his other passion become a commercial pilot. You can check his content out on Youtube

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                Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

                Sign up for all newsletters.

                By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

                How To Convert Mbr To Gpt In 3 Simple Ways

                How to Convert MBR to GPT

                While Windows does offer a native solution to switch between MBR and GPT, you have to delete all data from the disk to be able to use it. Luckily, we do have ways to do this without data loss, and today, I’ll show you exactly how to. So without further ado, let’s take a look at how to convert the disk partition style in your PC from MBR to GPT. But before that, we’ll also take a look at what is MBR and what is GPT, and how they affect the way you use your computer.

                What is GPT and MBR?

                MBR (Master Boot Record) and GPT (GUID Partition Table) are two different partition styles for hard disks, and both are widely used for disk partition management in Windows computers. The latter is the relatively new technology and is slowly replacing the legacy one because it’s faster, more secured and can natively address larger storage disks. While MBR disks use the standard BIOS partition table, GPT disks use UEFI.

                How is GPT Better Than MBR? What to Remember While Converting From MBR to GPT or Vice Versa

                If you want to convert the boot disk in your PC from MBR to GPT, make sure your motherboard supports UEFI. That’s because motherboards with legacy BIOS don’t support GPT partition as boot drive.

                Another important point to note is that while there are multiple free and paid utilities that help you convert from MBR to GPT, most of the free methods to convert between the two formats will result in data loss. However, there are one or two ways to get it done for free without losing data, and today we will show you exactly how to do that.

                Method 1: Convert MBR to GPT Using Disk Management (Data Loss)

                Note: Backup all your data before using this method.

                Method 2: Convert MBR to GPT Using DiskPart (Data Loss)

                Note: Backup all your data before using this method.

                Open Command Prompt as Admin. (Search ‘cmd’ in the Windows search bar and below the Command Prompt option, select ‘Run as Administrator’).

                In the command prompt window, type in ‘diskpart’ (without quotes) and press Enter. Next, type in ‘list disk’ and press Enter.

                From the disks listed by the utility, select the disk you want to convert using the ‘select disk X’ command, where ‘X’ is the number assigned to the disk you want to convert. Now delete all data from your chosen disk by running the ‘clean’ command. You’ll get a message saying “DiskPart succeeded in cleaning the disk”.

                Finally, type in ‘convert GPT’ and press Enter. Wait a few seconds for the command to be executed. You’ll have successfully converted the disk from MBR to GPT.

                Note: Running the clean command will delete all partitions or volumes on the disk.

                Method 3: Convert MBR to GPT Using Gptgen Without Data Loss

                First off, download and install an utility called ‘gptgn’ (Free). Remember the installation directory.

                Run the ‘list disk’ command as described earlier. To convert the partition table of your target disk from MBR into GPT, type-in the command: ‘gptgen.exe -w \.\physicaldriveX‘ (without quotes) and press Enter (Note that ‘X’ denotes the disk you want to convert).

                Once the command is executed, you will successfully convert MBR to GPT without data loss. You might get a warning saying that there’s no guarantee of successful conversion, but select the option to proceed anyways.

                Other Methods to Convert MBR to GPT Without Data Loss

                If the above processes seem too cumbersome, you can use other, more user-friendly ways to convert your disks from MBR to GPT. All major disk partition software, including Easus Partion Master, AOMEI Partition Assistant, MiniTool Partition Wizard and others, offer you the ability to convert MBR to GPT without losing data, but not with the free version. So if you’re willing to pay up, they might be the easiest way to switch between the two without data loss.

                Frequently Asked Questions Q. How Do I Convert MBR to GPT Using Rufus?

                Rufus is a software that helps format and create bootable USB flash drives, such as USB keys/pen-drives, memory sticks, etc. You can also use it to assign partition style during the setup process.

                Q. How Do I Boot Into UEFI mode?

                Q. Is NTFS MBR or GPT? Q. Is GPT or MBR Better?

                Q. Can Windows 10 Install on MBR Partition?

                Yes, it can. However, MBR comes with some inherent shortcomings that you need to remember before installing Windows 10 on an MBR disk. We’ve discussed those in detail earlier in this article.

                Q. Will Converting to GPT Delete Data?

                There are both lossy and lossless ways to switch between the two file systems, and we’ve discussed both in this tutorial.

                Q. How Can I Convert C: Drive to GPT?

                To convert your computer’s current boot drive from MBR to GPT, you’ll need to employ one of the lossless methods. You can use either third-party utilities like GTPGN or the paid version of commercial programs like, Easus Partion Master.

                Q. How Do I Know if a Disk Partition is GPT or MBR? Q. Does My Laptop Support GPT?

                As mentioned earlier, whether your device supports GPT or MBR depends on whether it runs UEFI or legacy BIOS. To check which type of motherboard firmware your PC uses, follow the instructions in our detailed article on this subject.

                Q. How Do I Make my SSD GPT?

                You can follow the methods described in the tutorial above to convert your SSD partition layout to GPT. They work for both SSDs and mechanical hard drives.

                Q. Can You Use GPT Without UEFI?

                No, you can’t. GPT was introduced as part of the UEFI initiative. So to use it, the motherboard must support UEFI. If your motherboard does not support UEFI, you can’t use GPT partitioning style on the hard disk.

                Q. How Do I Get Rid of GPT Partition?

                You can convert GPT partitions to MBR much the same way you convert MBR to GPT. You can change the partition style as long as the disk is empty and contains no volumes. Before conversion, backup all data on it and close any programs that are accessing the disk.

                Convert MBR to GPT Without Data Loss

                While all three methods detailed above will help you convert your disk from MBR to GPT, the third one will do so without any data loss – and for free. So in case you’re searching for ways to covert your storage disk(s) from MBR to GPT, try out one of the above methods and let us know how that went.

                How Can I Convert Bytes To A Python String?

                In this article, we will show you how to convert bytes to a string in python. Below are the various methods to accomplish this task −

                Using decode() function

                Using str() function

                Using codecs.decode() function

                Using pandas library

                Using decode() function

                The built-in decode() method in python, is used to convert bytes to a string.

                Algorithm (Steps)

                Following are the Algorithm/steps to be followed to perform the desired task –.

                Create a variable to store the input byte string data.

                Print input data.

                Use the type() function(returns the data type of an object) to print the type of input data.

                Use the decode() function to convert the input bytes to a python string.

                Print output data.

                Print the type of output data after conversion of input bytes to a python string using the type() function.

                Example

                The following program converts the input bytes to a python string using the decode() function –

                inputData

                =

                b’TutorialsPoint’

                print

                (

                ‘Input data:’

                ,

                inputData

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                inputData

                )

                )

                result

                =

                inputData

                .

                decode

                (

                )

                print

                (

                ‘Output data:’

                ,

                result

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                result

                )

                )

                Output

                On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

                Input data: b'TutorialsPoint' Output data: TutorialsPoint Using str() function

                The str() function returns the string format of the object i.e converts it into string form.

                Algorithm (Steps)

                Following are the Algorithm/steps to be followed to perform the desired task –.

                Create a variable to store the input byte string data.

                Print input data.

                Use the type() function(returns the data type of an object) to print the type of input data.

                Use the str() function to convert the input bytes to a python string by passing the input data, ‘UTF-8’ as arguments to it.

                Print output data.

                Print the type of output data after conversion of input bytes to a python string using type() function.

                Example

                The following program converts the input bytes to a python string using the str() function −

                inputData

                =

                b’TutorialsPoint’

                print

                (

                ‘Input data:’

                ,

                inputData

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                inputData

                )

                )

                result

                =

                str

                (

                inputData

                ,

                ‘UTF-8’

                )

                print

                (

                ‘Output data:’

                ,

                result

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                result

                )

                )

                Output

                On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

                Input data: b'TutorialsPoint' Output data: TutorialsPoint Using codecs.decode() function

                The codecs module can be used to convert byte data types to strings as well.

                The decode() method of the codecs module decodes the binary string into normal form.

                Algorithm (Steps)

                Following are the Algorithm/steps to be followed to perform the desired task –.

                Use the import keyword to import the codecs module.

                Create a variable to store the input byte string data.

                Print input data.

                Use the type() function(returns the data type of an object) to print the type of input data.

                Use the decode() function of the codecs module to convert the input bytes to a python string.

                Print output data.

                Print the type of output data after conversion of input bytes to a python string using type() function.

                Example

                The following program converts the input bytes to a python string using codecs.decode() function −

                import

                codecs

                inputData

                =

                b’TutorialsPoint’

                print

                (

                ‘Input data:’

                ,

                inputData

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                inputData

                )

                )

                result

                =

                codecs

                .

                decode

                (

                inputData

                )

                print

                (

                ‘Output data:’

                ,

                result

                )

                print

                (

                type

                (

                result

                )

                )

                Output

                On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

                Input data: b'TutorialsPoint' Output data: TutorialsPoint Using pandas library Syntax str.decode()

                By calling the str.decode() function on a column, you can quickly convert bytes in a data frame that you are working within pandas into strings.

                By default, the Python character encoding is usually UTF-8.

                Algorithm (Steps)

                Following are the Algorithm/steps to be followed to perform the desired task –.

                Use the import keyword to import the pandas module.

                Create a variable to store the input dictionary and give some random key-value pairs to it. (Here we passed bytes as values)

                Create the pandas dataframe of the above input dictionary using the DataFrame() function.

                Convert the values of the clothes column to string(from bytes) to string using decode() function and store this result dataframe in a variable.

                Print the resultant dataframe after converting the values from bytes to string

                Example

                The following program returns the pandas dataframe after converting the values of it from bytes to string –

                import

                pandas

                as

                pd

                inputDict

                =

                {

                ‘clothes’

                :

                [

                b’shirt’

                ,

                b’pant’

                ,

                b’tshirt’

                ,

                b’cap’

                ]

                }

                dataframe

                =

                pd

                .

                DataFrame

                (

                data

                =

                inputDict

                )

                result

                =

                dataframe

                [

                ‘clothes’

                ]

                .

                str

                .

                decode

                (

                “utf-8”

                )

                print

                (

                result

                )

                Output

                On executing, the above program will generate the following output −

                0 shirt 1 pant 2 tshirt 3 cap Name: clothes, dtype: object Conclusion

                We learned how to convert bytes to Python strings using four different methods in this article. We also learned how to convert a python dictionary into a pandas dataframe. We learned how to use the decode() function to convert column values to strings.

                How To Fixbsod Error In Windows?

                The NETIO.sys BSOD appears with different error codes such as Page Fault in Nonpaged Area, System Service Exception, IRQL Not Less Equal, etc.

                This system service handles the Network Input/Output devices such as WiFi dongle, Network Card, Modem, etc. If some faulty drivers, programs, or malware hinders the functionality of netio.sys, the system will run the bug check to prevent further damage. Hence, you will see the BSOD.

                You can eliminate most BSOD errors by restarting your system. In addition, there are a few general fixes for blue screen errors, such as a Memory test, removing temporary files, etc. So, you can try those solutions before going to the specific fixes below.

                But sometimes, the system may remain in the BSOD loop, and you may not be able to reach the desktop. In such a case, you can boot your system in safe mode and perform the fixes.

                Now, let’s move on to the solutions right away.

                When you get a Blue screen error, Windows saves the details of the issue for analysis. This is stored in dump files, and most of the time, it contains the file or process that is causing the problem.

                So, you can check the dump files to pinpoint the culprit. You will need a Microsoft application called WinDbg to access the minidump file.

                Proceed to find the program, driver, or services that is interfering with the netio.sys file. When you find the cause, you can remove the program or hardware or stop the task.

                Most of the time, the Network drivers and configurations are the problems for the netio.sys BSOD. The network adapters may not be functioning properly, or the settings might be incompatible.

                So, the first thing you should do is reset network adapters and their settings. Follow the instructions below to do it.

                See if the Blue screen has gone away.

                The Input/Output drivers, such as the Network driver, use netio.sys service to help the devices communicate with the system. So, if the network drivers are corrupted or outdated or have some bugs, they may not use the service properly, hence displaying the BSOD.

                So, you need to remove the drivers and re-install them to fix the issue.

                See if the problem is solved now.

                As we mentioned earlier, the netio.sys service monitors the communication of network I/O devices in your system. If you have connected external peripherals, they may be causing the service to malfunction.

                You should remove any external devices such as flash drives, Wifi dongle, etc., and observe if the blue screen appears again.

                Sometimes you may see the netio.sys BSOD when one program tries to write on the memory address specified to another program. This can happen when a number of programs are running in the background and many applications that use the network interface open up during startup.

                Similarly, if you have installed or updated new programs recently, then it might be the reason for the error.

                So, you should disable the startup applications and enable them individually to see which one causes the issue using the Task manager. You should also stop the programs from running in the background. Let’s see how to do it.

                Restart your system and use it for a while. If the BSOD does not appear, then one of the programs may be the culprit. Enable them one by one and uninstall the program that causes the Blue screen error on your PC.

                Antiviruses scan the files coming into your PC and compare them with the ones in their database using the network traffic to detect malicious programs. So, if you are using third-party antiviruses, then they may interfere with the netio.sys service.

                In addition, if you are using multiple security software, there can be a conflict between those which could block the hardware drivers and system processes. As a result, you will see the Blue screen of death error.

                Look if you find the BSOD again.

                Most internet users install Torrent applications, such as uTorrent, BitTorrent, etc., to download files without interruption. But the network threshold settings in the torrent applications can hinder the operation of netio.sys file.

                Let’s see how to change the configuration in BitTorrent.

                See if the Blue screen still appears.

                If the netio.sys file is corrupted by malware or buggy drivers, your system will be unable to maintain communication with I/O devices. As a result, the system will perform the said bug check and display the BSOD.

                You can perform system scans to repair the damaged file. Let’s see how to do it.

                Windows stores some programs cache to a Page file in your storage drive when the physical RAM is about to be filled. If those cache file of network-related programs in the virtual memory gets corrupted and the system continuously tries to access them, you will see a Page Error in Unpaged Area (netio.sys) BSOD.

                You can clear the Page file to remove the damaged data. Let’s see how you can do it.

                Restart your system to clear the Pagefile. See if the Blue screen error is fixed.

                Sometimes the Operating system or the drivers themselves may have some bugs causing the BSOD. In such cases, Windows usually provide the fix via Windows Update.

                So, you should install all the updates available for your PC. Let’s see how you can do it.

                See if the Blue screen error has gone now. If the problem was caused by a recent update, you could uninstall it.

                You should find the problem solved.

                Some newly installed or updated drivers and programs using network services may be incompatible with your PC causing it to hinder the functionality of netio.sys.

                You can fix this issue by restoring your PC to an earlier healthy state using System Restore. Let’s see how you can do it.

                After the system reboots, see the occurrence of BSOD again.

                Resetting Windows is the last resort if the above fixes do not work for you. Let’s see one of the ways to do it.

                Notice the appearance of BSOD after resetting. You can also perform a clean installation of Windows after backing up your data.

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