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If you have not used, tried or even heard of Dropbox, probably you are still living in the stone age. Dropbox is one of the best (if not, the best) online file storage solution for all platforms, including your iPhone and Android phone. You can easily and quickly sync your desktop files to the cloud and access it from other computers. Other than file storage, Dropbox also allows you to share your files publicly (just place your files in the Public folder) or share a folder with friend(s).
Here’s how you can create a share folder and share it with your friends.
First of all, if you have not used Dropbox, download and install the desktop client, register a Dropbox account and get yourself started.
Open your file manager and navigate to the Dropbox folder. Create a new folder that you want to share (let’s call it the Share folder).
This will open your default browser and launch the Dropbox Web interface.
Once the folder is shared, Dropbox will immediately sync it to your desktop. You should now see a new icon on the share folder.
The recipient will receive an email that looks like the following:
That’s it.What you can/cannot do with the share folder
You can’t share a folder from within your Public folder
You can’t share a folder inside another shared folder. The folder is already shared
Anyone you’ve invited to a folder can then add, delete or change files within that folder
Anyone you’ve invited to a folder can then invite others to join the folder
Only the creator of the shared folder can remove people from the folder
If two people both open and edit a file in a shared folder at the same time, Dropbox will save both of their changes, but in separate files. It does not try to automatically combine or merge changes.
Damien Oh started writing tech articles since 2007 and has over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He is proficient in Windows, Linux, Mac, Android and iOS, and worked as a part time WordPress Developer. He is currently the owner and Editor-in-Chief of Make Tech Easier.
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You're reading How To Create A Share Folder In Dropbox
If you use Outlook to communicate with your colleagues, you’ve probably wanted to repeatedly email a specific group whose membership changes often. For example, you may need to email all of your customer service reps every day, but due to high turnover, the list may change often.
Table of Contents
For the most part, the terms “contact group” and “distribution list” are interchangeable. Microsoft began using the phrase “contact group,” presumably because it’s a little more intuitive than “distribution list.”
However, there is a real distinction between the two in organizations that are using Microsoft 365. Admins of Microsoft 365 can convert existing Outlook distribution lists to “Groups,” which, in turn, gives group members access to shared libraries and collaboration spaces like Microsoft Teams, Yammer, and Planner.
While your IT department probably rules over your organization’s Outlook distribution lists—especially the dreaded and often poorly-maintained all-staff list, you can still create your own contact groups in Outlook.
Below, we’ll walk you through how to create contact groups in Outlook for both the browser version and the desktop app.How to Create a Contact Group in Outlook Online
Creating a contact group in the browser version of Outlook is easy.
Log into your account at chúng tôi or select Outlook from the app launcher if you’re already logged into Microsoft 365. If you don’t see Outlook in the app list (you will), select All apps.
In the left pane, under Groups, select New group.
In the popup, give your new group a name and description and select Create. (If your organization has enabled it, you might be prompted to create an email address for the group. In that instance, for ease of use, try to make the email address identical to the group name.)
Now, add members to the group. Search for people by name or by email address. Select the search result for the person you want to add to the group, and they’ll appear under “This person will be added.”
Repeat step 4 until you’ve added everyone you want to the group. Then select the Add button.
Send an email to the group you’ve created by selecting New message.
In the To field, begin typing the name of the group you created, and select it from the list that appears.
Easy peasy. But what if you need to add or remove people from the group? Read on.How to Edit a Contact Group in Outlook Online
Microsoft has made it easy to edit a contact group without ever leaving Outlook Online. Some steps might be slightly different depending on how your organization has configured Microsoft 365, but the steps below should get you there.
Select Settings. (Depending on how Outlook is configured for your organization, you might see an option to Add members straight from the More icon.)
In the Group Settings panel that appears on the right, select Edit group.
If you’ve added members to the group, select the Add button. Otherwise, choose Close.Another Way to Edit Contact Groups in Outlook Online
Depending on how Outlook is configured, you may also be able to edit contact groups by following these steps:
Go to the People section of Outlook (to the right of the Calendar icon).
In the left pane in the Groups section, select Owner to display the groups you have created.
Select the group you want to edit from the list.
Select Manage group members.How to Create a Contact Group in Outlook’s Desktop App
Creating a contact group in the desktop version of Outlook is even more straightforward than it is in the online version.
Launch Outlook, and select the People icon near the lower-left corner (where you switch between email, tasks, people, and calendar).
Next, from the toolbar, select New Contact Group. (If your organization is using Microsoft 365, you may also see a New Group button. For our purposes, we’ll use New Contact Group to facilitate group emails.)
In the Contact Group window that appears, give your contact group a name, and then select Add Members and choose where you want to get your new members from. Options might include From Outlook Contacts, From Address Book, or New Email Contact.
Contact groups appear as entries in the Outlook address book, so you’ll be able to find them in that alphabetized list.How to Edit a Contact Group in Outlook’s Desktop App
Now let’s edit an existing contact group in the desktop version of Outlook.
Launch Outlook, and select the People icon near the lower-left corner.
Find and select the group you want to edit in your contact list.
In the pane on the right, select Edit. That will bring you back to where you can manage the group by adding and/or removing members.
Whether you’re using the online version of Outlook or the desktop app, it’s definitely worth it to take a few minutes to create Outlook distribution lists you’ll use repeatedly. You’ll be glad you did.
Definition of Kubernetes Daemonset
Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersWhat is Kubernetes Daemonset?
A Daemonset is a dynamic object in kubernetes which is managed by a controller. The user can set the desired state that represents the specific pods which need to exist on every node. The compromise in the control loop can compare the current practical state with the desired state. If the practical node, doesn’t fit the matching pod, then the controller of the Daemonset creates a new one automatically. This automated process has all recently created nodes and existing nodes. The pods developed by the controller of Daemonset are neglected by the Kubernetes scheduler and present as the same node itself.What are the Use Case for Daemonset?
The use case for Daemonset are as follows,
As the use case is complex, the user can deploy many possible Daemonsets for a typical kind by a variety of flags, CPU requests, and memory units for different types of hardware.
Daemonset can enhance the performance of the cluster by pod deployment to execute maintenance activities and support services for every node. The background processes like monitoring apps in Kubernetes and other services must be present along with clusters to offer timely and relevant services.
It is mostly adapted for long-running services like collection of logs, monitoring of node resources, storage in clusters, and pods related to infrastructure. It is standard for Daemonset to run on a single daemon throughout all the nodes in the cluster. The multiple Daemonset can manage one type of Daemonset by applying different labels. This label can identify rules in deployment based on the behavior of individual nodes. Daemonsets is deployed on the background tasks which the user can execute on all the possible nodes but it doesn’t need any intervention. The user can have Daemonset for every type of daemon to execute on all nodes. The user can also execute multiple Daemonset for every single daemon type. But can use various configurations for diverse hardware models and resource requirements.How to Create a Daemonset?
To create a Daemonset the following steps are involved.
The Daemonset is developed in a YAML file with few parts.
It requires apiVersion
It requires the type or kind of the behavior for Daemonset
It needs the metadata for the Daemonset
It needs spec_template for pod definition which the user needs to execute on all nodes.
It needs spec_selector to manage the pods for Daemonset and this kind must be label specific in a template of pods. The selector name defined in the template is applied in the selector. But this name cannot be changed once the Daemonset is created without leaving the pods created prior in the Daemonset.
The spec_template-spec-node selector is used to execute only the nodes subset which suits the selector
Spec-template-spec-affinity is used to execute on nodes subset which has affinity match.
Once the configuration is completed, Daemonset is created in the cluster.Methods to communicate with pods Kubernetes Daemonset
The user can transfer data from other pods to a pod of Daemonset executed on the node. The user can transmit data metrics to pod monitoring in two ways,
The pod spec in Daemonset has specifiy host port to uncover it on the node. Then it can interact directly with the IP of node which is executed on it.
Using the same pod selector, the service is created as a Daemonset and then it is used to reach the Daemonset. The limitation of this service is that a Daemonset of a pod is random to receive the request. This implies that the request may pass over the network instead of hanging on a similar pod as the requested pod.
In NodeIP with Known port, the Daemonset pods use the hostport, and so the pods are connected through node IPs. The client understands the use nodeIP list and is also aware of the port conventions.
DNS develop headless service and explore Daemonset using endpoint to retrieve reports from DNS
In-Service, it creates the service with a similar pod selector and uses it to reach the daemon of the random node.Conclusion
Hence, the feature of Daemonset is used to check that few or all the pods are executed and scheduled on every available node. It executes the copy of the desired pod throughout all the nodes. So when a new node is joined to the cluster of Kubernetes, the new pod is added to the recently attached node.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to Kubernetes Daemonset. Here we discuss Definition, What is Kubernetes Daemonset? How to create a Daemonset?. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –
Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) used to be the quintessential information hubs of the 90s. These were geographically local machines that users could connect to as a way to access information, obtain files and even communicate with other BBS users. Over the years, however, the know-how that you needed to even connect to one made it challenging for a regular user to participate in a BBS, making it lose its luster and appeal in favor of the more global Web.
Despite that, it is still possible to create your own BBS server using Linux. There are numerous projects, such as EnigmaBBS, that use modern languages and technologies to recreate the BBS experience of the 90s.What Is a BBS and EnigmaBBS?
At its core, a BBS is a suite of programs that allow multiple users to access a computer over a remote network. These computers, in turn, often contain programs that a system operator made to highlight a feature of their BBS. For example, most BBS machines in the 1990s provided games that are unique to their server.
EnigmaBBS is a modern adaptation of the traditional BBS software. It aims to recreate the original ’90s BBS experience with modern coding standards and technologies. EnigmaBBS also contains a number of features, such as WebSockets and SSH, which allow you to easily host and use a BBS.
Unlike traditional BBS, EnigmaBBS provides a platform for easy communication with other similar services through FidoNET. This approach enables you to seamlessly interact with other servers without the need to explicitly connect to each other.
Lastly, EnigmaBBS fully supports third-party Door Games through DoorParty, Exodus and CombatNet, so loading games through it is as simple as providing the dropfile for that particular game. It is possible to turn EnigmaBBS to a dedicated BBS gaming server for your friends and family.Installing EnigmaBBS
Create a separate user account for the BBS server to make sure that it will not have any access to your personal files. To get started, run the following commands:
Run su enigma to switch to the new user account.
Download the EnigmaBBS installation script: an all-in-one script that fetches, compiles and installs all the necessary tools to create a copy of the BBS. Run the following commands:
g++python p7zip lhasa arj lrzsz python-is-python3
EnigmaBBS will begin by downloading all the packages that it needs to compile NodeJS. From there, it will download all the necessary packages to install the BBS software.Generating Your EnigmaBBS Configuration
Next, open a new terminal window to make sure that the machine will detect all of the programs that you just installed.
Since we’re using Ubuntu, we pressed the “New Tab” button in the current terminal window.
Go to EnigmaBBS’s root directory. This is the folder that contains all the files and details for your BBS server. Run the following command to access it:
/enigma-bbs Creating a New Configuration File
Once inside, you can now create your BBS server’s configuration file with this command:.
/oputil.js config new
EnigmaBBS will ask where you want to place your configuration file. For the most part, you only need to press Enter here to ensure that you can find all of the configuration files in their default directories.
You’ll be asked to name your new EnigmaBBS instance. We named ours “Hello, world!”
Provide a name for your first message conference, similar to a category in a forum website. We pressed Enter twice to use the default “Local” name.
The script will ask you to name your first message area. Similar to a message conference, this is a way to further categorize the messages in your BBS. Once again, we pressed Enter twice to use the default values.
Set the amount of logs that the program should keep while running. By default, EnigmaBBS recommends that you only keep diagnostic information in the server. Despite this, you can choose to either increase or decrease the amount of logging in your server, which can be especially useful if you are diagnosing a problem. We’ve picked the default “Info” level for our server.Connecting and Using Your New BBS
With your basic configuration done, you can start your EnigmaBBS server. Unlike other webservers, running a BBS instance is incredibly easy.
Run the following command:.
This will boot up EnigmaBBS and expose it to your local network. To connect to it, however, you’ll need to either use a telnet client or SSH. We used the former.
Similar to starting up EnigmaBBS, connecting to it through telnet is quite straightforward, as Ubuntu ships with a BBS-compatible telnet client out of the box. Connecting to your local instance only requires that you run a single command:telnet localhost
Once you are connected, EnigmaBBS will print a splash screen along with three options: “Login,” “Apply” and “Logout.”Creating the Sysop User
By default, EnigmaBBS reserves the first user account in the server as the Sysop user.
To create your administrator account, select “Apply” in the splash screen.
Provide a username and other information about yourself. We used “ramcesr” as our username.
One important thing to note is that you do not need to provide any real information in most of the fields in this page. For example, you can provide an email that does not exist, and EnigmaBBS will still create the account. This can be helpful in situations where do not want to leave any contact information in the BBS.Sending and Reading Your First Message
EnigmaBBS will immediately redirect you to your account’s main menu, where you can interact with various features of your BBS instance.
Press M, then P to tell EnigmaBBS that you want to create a new message post.
Press Enter on the next screen to write the subject of your message. We wrote “Hello world!”
Press Enter again to write the body of your message.
Press Esc, then “Save” to submit your message to the BBS.
Viewing messages in EnigmaBBS is also relatively simple. Press M, then L in the Main Menu to list all the new messages in the current message conference.Communicating with a Different BBS
As mentioned above, EnigmaBBS also allows you to seamlessly communicate with other BBS servers. It can be especially useful if you want to introduce additional activity in your BBS instance.
Turn off your EnigmaBBS instance by either pressing Ctrl + C or closing its terminal window.
Edit your server’s configuration file. You can find this HJSON file under the “config” folder of the EnigmaBBS root directory.
Find the “chatServers” option. This controls the Multi-Relay Chat function of EnigmaBBS. Look for this option by pressing / and typing “chatServers.”
Change the “enabled” value from “false” to “true.”
Save this file and restart EnigmaBBS.
Access the Multi-Relay Chat by typing MRC and pressing Enter in the Main Menu.
A new windows will load where EnigmaBBS will connect you to a chatroom with other BBS servers.Creating a Web Content Server
Aside from sending messages, EnigmaBBS is also a highly flexible piece of software that can be extended to do whatever you want. For example, it is possible to create a content server that will display all the messages and files in the BBS.
Open your server’s “config.hjson” file.
Look for the “contentServer” function, a block that contains all the necessary settings that you need to set to create a Web-based content portal. We pressed / in Vim and typed “contentServer” to jump to that particular section.
Provide a domain name for the web server that you are creating. We wrote “localhost” since we only intend to run this server in the local network.
Save the “config.hjson” file and restart your BBS server to apply the new settings.
Once done, you can then visit the BBS web portal by typing
in your web browser.Frequently Asked Questions The EnigmaBBS installation script is not working
This is most likely because you are using a different shell in your system. By default, the EnigmaBBS install script uses Bash to compile the necessary programs. The script relies on Bash-specific functions to perform the installation properly. One way to solve this issue is to run the Bash shell from your current terminal by running: /bin/bash. Doing this will change the prompt in the screen indicating that you are now using Bash. From there, you can run the installation script again.EnigmaBBS is reporting a MODULE_NOT_FOUND error
This happens when there is a difference between the library versions that EnigmaBBS expects and what it can find in your computer.
To fix this, you need to do three things: First, you need to run rm -rf /home/$USER/enigma-bbs/node-modules to remove all the objects that EnigmaBBS just compiled.
Then add the official NodeJS repository to your package manager in Ubuntu by running the command:
Once done, install the appropriate version of NodeJS as well as rebuild all the objects for EnigmaBBS by running this single command:
sudo apt install nodejs && nvm install v14.19.3 && npm install && npm rebuild.Is it possible to change the default port of EnigmaBBS?
Yes. The BBS server uses port 8888 for telnet connections because most Linux distributions disable the default telnet port and do not allow any traffic through it. Despite that, you can still change the port that EnigmaBBS uses by changing a few settings in the “config.hjson” file.
Look for the port: variable under “loginServers,” then change it to any number that does not conflict with any running service in your system.
Image credit: Unsplash All screenshots by Ramces Red
Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.
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When you create a chart in Excel and the source data changes, you need to update the chart’s data source to make sure it reflects the new data.
In case you work with charts that are frequently updated, it’s better to create a dynamic chart range.
A dynamic chart range is a data range that updates automatically when you change the data source.
Below is an example of a chart that uses a dynamic chart range.
Note that the chart updates with the new data points for May and June as soon as the data in entered.
There are two ways to create a dynamic chart range in Excel:
Using Excel Table
In most of the cases, using Excel Table is the best way to create dynamic ranges in Excel.
Let’s see how each of these methods work.
Using Excel Table is the best way to create dynamic ranges as it updates automatically when a new data point is added to it.
Excel Table feature was introduced in Excel 2007 version of Windows and if you’re versions prior to it, you won’t be able to use it (see the next section on creating dynamic chart range using formulas).
Pro Tip: To convert a range of cells to an Excel Table, select the cells and use the
To convert a range of cells to an Excel Table, select the cells and use the keyboard shortcut – Control + T (hold the Control key and press the T key).
In the example below, you can see that as soon as I add new data, the Excel Table expands to include this data as a part of the table (note that the border and formatting expand to include it in the table).
Now, we need to use this Excel table while creating the charts.
Here are the exact steps to create a dynamic line chart using the Excel table:
Select the entire Excel table.
Go to the Insert tab.
In the Charts Group, select ‘Line with Markers’ chart.
The above steps would insert a line chart which would automatically update when you add more data to the Excel table.
Note that while adding new data automatically updates the chart, deleting data would not completely remove the data points. For example, if you remove 2 data points, the chart will show some empty space on the right. To correct this, drag the blue mark at the bottom right of the Excel table to remove the deleted data points from the table (as shown below).
While I have taken the example of a line chart, you can also create other chart types such as column/bar charts using this technique.
As I mentioned, using Excel table is the best way to create dynamic chart ranges.
However, if you can’t use Excel table for some reason (possibly if you are using Excel 2003), there is another (slightly complicated) way to create dynamic chart ranges using Excel formulas and named ranges.
Suppose you have the data set as shown below:
To create a dynamic chart range from this data, we need to:
Create two dynamic named ranges using the OFFSET formula (one each for ‘Values’ and ‘Months’ column). Adding/deleting a data point would automatically update these named ranges.
Insert a chart that uses the named ranges as a data source.
Let me explain each step in detail now.
Below are the steps to create dynamic named ranges:
Go to the ‘Formulas’ Tab.
The above steps have created two named ranges in the Workbook – ChartValue and ChartMonth (these refer to the values and months range in the data set respectively).
If you go and update the value column by adding one more data point, the ChartValue named range would now automatically update to show the additional data point in it.
The magic is done by the OFFSET function here.
In the ‘ChartValue’ named range formula, we have specified B2 as the reference point. OFFSET formula starts there and extends to cover all the filled cells in the column.
The Same logic works in the ChartMonth named range formula as well.
Now all you need to do is insert a chart that will use the named ranges as the data source.
Here are the steps to insert a chart and use dynamic chart ranges:
Go to the Insert tab.
With the chart selected, go to the Design tab.
In the Series value field, enter
(note that you need to specify the worksheet name before the named range for this to work).
In the ‘Axis Labels’ dialog box, enter
That’s it! Now your chart is using a dynamic range and will update when you add/delete data points in the chart.
A few important things to know when using named ranges with charts:
There should not be any blank cells in the chart data. If there is a blank, named range would not refer to the correct dataset (as the total count would lead to it referring to less number of cells).
You need to follow the naming convention when using the sheet name in chart source. For example, if the sheet name is a single word, such as Formula, then you can use =Formula!ChartValue. But if there is more than one word, such as Formula Chart, then you need to use =’Formula Chart’!ChartValue.
You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:
When you want to display different data sets visually, you can create a combination chart. If you want to show something like sales with costs or traffic with conversions, a combo chart in Microsoft Excel is ideal.
We’ll show you how to create a combo chart in Excel as well as customize it to include the elements you need and give it an attractive appearance.
Table of ContentsHow to Create a Combo Chart in Excel
You have a few ways to create a combo chart in Excel. You can convert an existing chart, select a quick combo chart type, or set up a custom chart.
Convert an Existing Chart to a Combo Chart
If you already have a chart showing your data, like a bar chart or even a pie chart, you don’t have to delete it and start from scratch. Simply turn it into a combo chart.
Select your current chart and go to the
Change Chart Type
in the Type section of the ribbon.
When the chart window opens, pick
on the left.
Then, select one of the combo chart layouts at the top and customize the series at the bottom.
and you’ll see your new chart replace the original one.Select a Quick Combo Chart Type
Excel offers three combo chart types that you can pick from for your data.
Select your data set and go to the Insert tab.
In the Charts group, choose the Insert Combo Chart drop-down arrow to see the options. Pick from a clustered column with a line chart, a clustered column and line chart with a secondary axis, or a stacked area and clustered column chart.
Create a Custom Combo Chart
If you don’t have an existing chart and prefer to customize the series and axis for the combo chart from the start, you can create a custom chart.
Select your data set and go to the
Insert Combo Chart
drop-down arrow and pick
Create Custom Combo Chart
When the chart window opens, you’ll see four combo chart types at the top. Select one of these as the base for your custom chart.
At the bottom, you’ll see your data series, chart types, and options to pick a secondary axis. As you make your adjustments, you’ll see a nice preview of the combo chart directly above.
While a column chart and line graph work well together, you can choose a different chart type for each data series if you like. Select the drop-down box below
to the right of the series you want to change and select the new chart type.
By default, the first data series displays on the primary axis. However, you can change this or simply add a secondary axis using the
check boxes on the right side.
When you finish creating your custom combo chart, pick
to save it and place it on your worksheet.How to Customize a Combo Chart
Once you choose and insert your combo chart, you may want to add more elements or give the chart some pizzazz. Excel offers several features for customizing a chart.Go to the Chart Design Tab
For basic appearance features and chart elements, select your chart and go to the Chart Design tab.
Starting on the left side of the ribbon, you can use the Add Chart Element drop-down menu to add and position items like the chart title, data labels, and legend.
To the right, use the Quick Layout menu to change the layout to include and position elements without having to do so one-by-one.
In the Chart Styles section, you can use the Change Colors drop-down menu to pick a different color scheme or the Styles box to choose a whole new design.
With the remaining options on the ribbon, you can switch columns and rows, change the chart data selection, pick a new chart type, or move the chart to another sheet.
Open the Format Chart Area Sidebar
Use Chart Options or Text Options at the top of the sidebar depending on which item you want to change. You can then use the tabs directly beneath to make your changes.
Chart Options: Change the fill and border styles and colors, add effects like a shadow or soft edge, and set the size or position for the chart.
Text Options: Change the fill or outline styles and colors, add effects, and position or align the text.Use the Chart Buttons (Windows Only)
One more way to make adjustments to your chart is to use the buttons that display on the right side of it. These are currently only available in Microsoft Excel on Windows, not Mac.
Chart Elements (plus sign): Like the Chart Elements drop-down box on the Chart Design tab, you can add, remove, and position items on the chart.
Chart Style (paint brush): Like the Chart Styles section on the Chart Design tab, you can pick a different color scheme or style for your chart.
Chart Filters (filter): With this button, you can check or uncheck the details in your dataset that you want to display on your chart. This gives you a quick way to view only specific chart data by hiding other details temporarily.
Now that you know how to create a combo chart in Excel, look at how to make a Gantt chart for your next project.
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