Trending December 2023 # How To Create And Use Boxplot In Pandas? # Suggested January 2024 # Top 14 Popular

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Introduction to Pandas boxplot

Pandas boxplot work is utilized to make a crate plot from dataframe segments. A boxplot is a technique for graphically portraying gatherings of numerical information through their quartiles. The container reaches out from the Q1 to Q3 quartile estimations of the information, with a line at the middle (Q2). The hairs stretch out from the edges of the box to show the scope of the information. The situation of the hairs is set of course to 1.5 * (IQR = Q3 – Q1) from the edges of the case. Exception focuses are those past the finish of the stubbles.

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Syntax of Pandas boxplot

Given below is the syntax of Pandas boxplot:

pandas.boxplot(by=None,column=None, fontsize=None,ax=None, grid=True, rot=0, layout=None,figuresize=None, return_type=None, **kwds)


The column represents any section name or rundown of names or vector. It can be any legitimate info.

By represents section in the DataFrame to Pandas. One box-plot will be done per the estimation of segments in by.

Ax means all the axis in the Pandas matpolib library.

Font size is basically the size of the label in a string.

Rot means the pivot point of names (in degrees) as for the screen facilitate framework.

Grid is a Boolean factor and it represents the visualization of the boxplot if it is assigned as true.

Figure size represents the size of the image in order to create the matpolib.

Layout basically represents how the rows and columns are placed in the boxplot.

Return_type basically returns the following objects back to the dataframe.

‘Axis’ restores the matplotlib axis the boxplot is drawn on.

‘Dictionary’ restores a word reference whose qualities are the matplotlib lines of the boxplot.

‘Both’ restores a namedtuple with the axis and dictionary.

When gathering with by, a series planning section to return_type is returned.

In the event that return_type is none, a NumPy cluster of tomahawks with a similar shape as the format is returned.

Finally, the keyword arguments are used to import matpolib in Pandas.

How to Create and Use boxplot in Pandas?

Given below shows various examples of how these boxplot functions work in Pandas:

Example #1

To create and use a boxplot.


import pandas as pd import numpy as np np.random.seed(1234) df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(15,4), columns=['A1', 'A2', 'A3', 'A4']) boxplot = df.boxplot(column=['A1', 'A2', 'A3'])


Example #2

Using boxplot function to create distributions which is organized by the third variable.


import pandas as pd import numpy as np df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(15, 2), columns=['A1', 'A2']) df['S'] = pd.Series(['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'F', 'F', 'F', 'F', 'F']) boxplot = df.boxplot(by='S')


Here, we as before import pandas and numpy libraries as pd and np respectively. Then we create the random seed dataframe and assign the coordinates and finally define the columns. Now, we ass another variable ‘S’ and distribute the boxplot values with the column values. The program is thus implemented and the output is as shown in the above snapshot.

Example #3


import pandas as pd import numpy as np df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(15,3), columns=['A1', 'A2', 'A3']) df['S'] = pd.Series(['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'F', 'F', 'F', 'F', 'F']) df['R'] = pd.Series(['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'F', 'E', 'F', 'E', 'F']) boxplot = df.boxplot(column=['A1', 'A2'], by=['S', 'R'])


In the above program we see that after importing the pandas and numpy libraries, we create a dataframe with random seed and add the coordinates of the boxplot. Here, we define two strings ‘S’ and ‘R’ and finally add columns. Now, we use boxplot function to distribute and organize these columns along with the strings. The program is implemented and thus the output is as shown in the above snapshot.

A boxplot gives a quartile-based perspective on the information. It is drawn utilizing a case with limits of the crate at the lower quartile and upper quartile of the appropriation. The middle worth is set apart inside the crate.


Hence we would like to conclude by stating that the boxplot in Pandas is the visual portrayal of the delineating gatherings of numerical information through their quartiles. boxplot is additionally utilized to distinguish the anomaly in the informational index. It catches the rundown of the information proficiently with a basic box and bristles and permits us to think about effectively across gatherings. boxplot sums up an example of information utilizing 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles. These percentiles are otherwise called the lower quartile, middle and upper quartile.

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How To Create And Use Formulas In Tables In Word

In this article, I’m going to talk about how you can use formulas inside tables in Word. There are only a handful of formulas you can use, but it’s enough to get totals, counts, round numbers, etc. Also, if you are already familiar with Excel, then using the formulas in Word will be a piece of cake.

Table of Contents

Insert Formulas into Word Tables

Once your table has been inserted, go ahead and add in some data. I’ve just made a really simple table with a couple of numbers for my example.

This will bring up the Formula dialog with a default of =SUM(LEFT).

Let’s talk about the formula. Just like Excel, a formula starts with an equals sign, followed by a function name and arguments in parenthesis. In Excel, you only specify cell references or named ranges like A1, A1:A3, etc., but in Word, you have these positional terms you can use.

In the example, LEFT means all cells that are to the left of the cell in which the formula is entered. You can also use RIGHT, ABOVE and BELOW. You can use these positional arguments with SUM, PRODUCT, MIN, MAX, COUNT and AVERAGE.

In addition, you can use these arguments in combination. For example, I could type in =SUM(LEFT, RIGHT) and it would add all the cells that are to the left and right of that cell. =SUM(ABOVE, RIGHT) would add all numbers that are above the cell and to the right. You get the picture.

Now let’s talk about some of the other functions and how we can specify cells in a different manner. If I wanted to find the maximum number in the first column, I could add another row and then use the =MAX(ABOVE) function to get 30. However, there is another way you can do this. I could also simply go into any cell and type in =MAX(A1:A3), which references the first three rows in the first column.

This is really convenient because you can put the formulas anywhere you want in the table. You can also reference individual cells like writing =SUM(A1, A2, A3), which will give you the same result. If you write =SUM(A1:B3), it will add A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, and B3. Using these combinations, you can pretty much reference any data you like.

You can use IF statements, AND and OR operators and more. Let’s see an example of a more complex formula.

Here’s another example using the AND function. In this example, I am saying that if both the sum and max value of A1 to A3 is greater than 50, then true otherwise false. True is represented by a 1 and False by 0.

If you type in a formula and it’s got an error in it, you’ll see a syntax error message.

This will bring up the same Formula editing dialog that we’ve been working with since the beginning. That’s about all there is to inserting formulas into Word. You can also check out the online documentation from Microsoft that explains each function in detail.

How To Use And Create Ssrs Parameters?

Definition of SSRS Parameter

It states that when a User can specify a particular number in the textbox, the SSRS Report Parameters will filter the report data based on the user-specified value. In other terms, Report Parameters allow the user to filter SSRS Reports automatically. The ability to offer a parameter with multiple values is one of the features of SQL Server Reporting Services.

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Introduction to SSRS Parameter

SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) uses parameters to make presentations more interactive. Parameters can be used for anything from query requirements to Tablix controls to regulating the appearance of entities on a report. They can also be generated from a set of constant values or the outcomes of a data set query. Any interactive reporting tool relies heavily on parameters.

The report’s parameters allow people to communicate with it. We can pass the parameters in four different ways.

Parameters that were requested

Parameters that have been cascaded

Parameters with multiple values

Parameters that have not been queried

How to Use SSRS Parameters?

Enabling the users to choose one, couple, many, or even all values from a list at execution is a terrific way to give them freedom. It even features a built-in method for quickly selecting and deselecting all possible options. Once we plan to publish a single report that several locations or departments can use, this is a common scenario that would profit from it.

The following are cases of report parameters:

To choose the report data by selecting required parameter values.

To Change Report Appearance – Using expression-based attributes, employ parameters to change report appearance, such as conditionally hiding report items and conditionally changing text color.

How to Create SSRS Parameter?

If a user copies or saves the report with the parameter shown in the header, the parameter choices taken at the beginning are maintained. This creates value to an account and makes it easier for others to grasp – especially if it’s a more detailed report with multiple parameters. Reports are easier to create using parameters, and the user experience is more functional and adaptable.

Let us make a parameter that takes a user-specified value from a textbox and uses it to filter the report data by Class. Then, when we select Add parameters, a Report Parameters Properties window will appear, wherein we must provide the parameters’ details, which are as follows.

Name: Supply a suitable parameter name.

Prompt: type a short message that will appear as a label in front of the text area.

Because the class name is a Text data type, leave the data type at default Text.

SSRS Parameter Add Reports

Here we shall create an example on Order Wise Sales Report

Step 1: Creating a Datasets

The Query list is given here:

Step 2: When we execute the query, the result is here. Here is the order details table:

To make this above table into a relational, we must write a question as below, and the preview list is given here:

Step 4: Let’s see a Step-by-step Implementation of Parameters in a Report.

Adding a table is given here:

Step 5: Adding Parameter values with available values. It’s difficult for users to recall which values are acceptable for a report; report developers frequently present a list of options to choose from. Go to the Known Values page for the parameter. As indicated in the screenshot, specific values tell the parameter to select a deal, and also, the option is set to None sometimes, which means that no list is presented.

Now when we preview the report, we can see a list of countries from which to choose, as shown below:

Multivalue SSRS Parameter

Within the parameter list, one can select several options. Both queried and non-queried reports can have multi-valued elements. The multi-value parameter allows us to pass one or more values to the information in addition to the input data. It also has a “Select All” feature for selecting all model parameters. In SSRS, we’ll now develop an example of a multi-value parameter.

We should first facilitate multiple values for a parameter to allow randomized, multiple-value selections in its drop-down menu.

-Select Allow multiple values from the drop-down menu.

Next, ensure that the “Allow multiple values” check option is selected in the parameter attributes.

To the query, add a WHERE clause like this: WHERE COUNTRY IN (@Country)

Several of the reports we produce in the future will also include more. Either the dataset will contain numerous predicates in the WHERE clause, or variables will be used to customize how the report appears.


We learned how to use parameters in various ways in this post, including a list of available values from a query, multiple selections, defaults, and much more. As a result, we’ve focused on the primary point: parametrized reports give us greater flexibility and improve the user experience. Multiple value parameters are a powerful resource in SSRS; utilizing one with an object filter is very simple if one knows how and where to implement the parameter values.

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This is a guide to SSRS Parameter. Here we also discuss the definition, introduction, and how to use and create SSRS Parameter along with multi-value. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Difference Between Series And Vectors In Python Pandas

Pandas is a well-known open-source Python library that provides a wide range of capabilities to make data analysis more effective. The Pandas package is mostly utilised for pre-processing data activities, including cleaning, transforming, and manipulating data. As a result, it is a highly useful tool for analysts and data scientists. The two most popular data structures in Pandas—Series, and DataFrame—as well as the comparison of Series and vectors, are discussed in this article.

Python Pandas Series

Labels must be a hashable type but do not need to be unique. The object has a variety of methods for working with the index and supports integer and label-based indexing.

It has the following parameter −

Data − Any list, dictionary, or scalar value can be used as data.

index − The index’s value ought to be both distinct and hashable. It has to be the same size as the data. If no index is provided, np.arrange(n) will be used by default.

Dtype − It alludes to the series’ data type.

copy − It is utilized to copy info.

Creating a Series

We can create a Series in four ways −

Using the pd.Series function from the Pandas library import pandas as pd import numpy as np # Create a series from a list s = pd.Series([1, 3, 5, chúng tôi 6, 8]) print(s) Output 0 1.0 1 3.0 2 5.0 3 NaN 4 6.0 5 8.0 dtype: float64

This will create a Pandas Series with the values 1, 3, 5, NaN, 6, 8.

Creating a Series directly from a NumPy array import numpy as np import pandas as pd # Create a NumPy array data = np.array([1, 3, 5, chúng tôi 6, 8]) # Create a series from the array s = pd.Series(data) print(s) Output 0 1.0 1 3.0 2 5.0 3 NaN 4 6.0 5 8.0 dtype: float64

Both of these methods will create a Pandas Series with an index that is a range of integers starting from 0. You can also specify your own index values when creating the Series.

Creating a Series From Scalar Values

Making a Series with Scalar values is the last approach we’ll examine today. In this case, you may provide the data with a single value and have it repeated for the duration of the index.

Example import pandas as pd if __name__ == '__main__': series = pd.Series(data=3., index=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'], name='series_from_scalar') print(series) Output a 3.0 b 3.0 c 3.0 d 3.0 Name: series_from_scalar, dtype: float64 Creating a Series From ndarray

NumPy’s random.randint() function, which creates a ndarray filled with random numbers, is one of the easiest methods to create a

Example import numpy as np import pandas as pd if __name__ == '__main__': data = np.random.randint(0, 10, 5) series = pd.Series(data=data, index=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e'], name='series_from_ndarray') print(series) Output a 5 b 7 c 0 d 8 e 5 Name: series_from_ndarray, dtype: int64 Dataframes

On the other hand, a vector is a one-dimensional array of numerical values. In Pandas, a vector can be represented as a series with a single dtype (e.g., integer, float, or object). Vectors are commonly used in mathematical and statistical operations, and can be created using the pd.to_numeric() function or by selecting a single column from a data frame.

Using the pd, you may generate a DataFrame from several data sources, including dictionaries, 2D NumPy arrays, and series. Creating a Pandas DataFrame Using a Dictionary of Pandas Series

The index must be the same length as the Series. If the index is not specified, it will be created automatically with values: [0, …, len(data) – 1].

#Creating a DataFrame from a dictionary of Series import pandas as pd data = pd.DataFrame({ "Class 1": pd.Series([22, 33, 38], index=["math avg", "science avg", "english avg"]), "Class 2": pd.Series([45, 28, 36], index=["math avg", "science avg", "english avg"]), "Class 3": pd.Series([32, 41, 47], index=["math avg", "science avg", "english avg"]) }) print(data) Output Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 math avg 22 45 32 science avg 33 28 41 english avg 38 36 47

Following is the conclusion of difference between series and Data frame in Python Pandas



Data structure

2D table

1D array

Can contain heterogeneous data



Can contain column labels



Can contain row labels



Can be indexed by column or row labels



Can be sliced by column or row labels



Supports arithmetic operations



Supports arithmetic operations




In summary, the main differences between series and vectors in Python Pandas are −

Series can hold any data type, while vectors can only hold numerical values

Series have a label index, while vectors do not

Series can be accessed using labels or indices, while vectors can only be accessed using indices

Understanding the difference between series and vectors can be useful for selecting the appropriate data structure for your data and for manipulating and analyzing it in Pandas.

Custom Directives In Angularjs: How To Create?

What is Custom Directive?

A Custom Directive in AngularJS is a user-defined directive that provides users to use desired functions to extend HTML functionality. It can be defined by using the “directive” function, and it replaces the element for which it is used. Even though AngularJS has a lot of powerful directives out of the box, sometimes custom directives are required.

In this Angular JS Directive tutorial, you will learn-

How to Create a Custom Directive?

Let’s take a look at an example of how we can create an AngularJS custom directive.

The custom directive in our case is simply going to inject a div tag which has the text “AngularJS Tutorial” in our page when the directive is called.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]); app.directive(‘ngGuru’,function(){

return { } });

Code Explanation:

We are first creating a module for our angular application. This is required to create a custom directive because the directive will be created using this module.

We are now creating a custom directive called “ngGuru” and defining a function which will have custom code for our directive.Note:- Note that when defining the directive, we have defined it as ngGuru with the letter ‘G’ as capital. And when we access it from our div tag as a directive we are accessing it as ng-guru. This is how angular understands custom directives defined in an application. Firstly the name of the custom directive should start with the letters ‘ng’. Secondly the hyphen symbol ‘-‘ should only be mentioned when calling the directive. And thirdly the first letter following the letters ‘ng’ when defining the directive can be either lower or uppercase.

We are using the template parameter which a parameter defined by Angular for custom directives. In this, we are defining that whenever this directive is used, then just use the value of the template and inject it in the calling code.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


The above output clearly shows that our custom ng-guru directive, which has the template defined for showing a custom text gets displayed in the browser.

AngularJs Directives and Scopes

The scope is defined as the glue which binds the controller to the view by managing the data between the view and the controller.

When creating custom AngularJs directives, they by default will have access to the scope object in the parent controller.

In this way, it becomes easy for the custom directive to make use of the data being passed to the main controller.

Let’s look at an AngularJS custom directive example of how we can use the scope of a parent controller in our custom directive.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.controller(‘DemoController’,function($scope) { $scope.tutorialName = “Angular JS”;


app.directive(‘ngGuru’,function(){ return { } });

Code Explanation:

We first create a controller called, “DemoController”. In this, we defining a variable called tutorialName and attaching it to the scope object in one statement – $scope.tutorialName = “AngularJS”.

In our custom directive, we can call the variable “tutorialName” by using an expression. This variable would be accessible because it is defined in the controller “DemoController”, which would become the parent for this directive.

We reference the controller in a div tag, which will act as our parent div tag. Note that this needs to be done first in order for our custom directive to access the tutorialName variable.

We finally just attach our custom directive “ng-guru” to our div tag.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


The above output clearly shows that our custom directive “ng-guru” makes use of the scope variable tutorialName in the parent controller.

Using controllers with directives

Angular gives the facility to access the controller’s member variable directly from custom directives without the need of the scope object.

This becomes necessary at times because in an application you may have multiple scope objects belonging to multiple controllers.

So there is a high chance that you could make the mistake of accessing the scope object of the wrong controller.

In such scenario’s there is a way to specifically mention saying “I want to access this specific controller” from my directive.

Let’s take a look at an example of how we can achieve this.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.controller(‘DemoController’,function() { this.tutorialName = “Angular”;


app.directive(‘ngGuru99’,function(){ return { controller: ‘DemoController’,

controllerAs: ‘ctrl’,

template: ‘{{ctrl.tutorialName}}’ }; });

Code Explanation:

We first create a controller called, “DemoController”. In this we will define a variable called “tutorialName” and this time instead of attaching it to the scope object, we will attach it directly to the controller.

In our custom directive, we are specifically mentioning that we want to use the controller “DemoController” by using the controller parameter keyword.

We create a reference to the controller using the “controllerAs” parameter. This is defined by Angular and is the way to reference the controller as a reference.

Note: –It is possible to access multiple controllers in a directive by specifying respective blocks of the controller, controllerAs and template statements.

Finally, in our template, we are using the reference created in step 3 and using the member variable that was attached directly to the controller in Step 1.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


The output clearly shows that the custom directive is especially accessing the DemoController and the member variable tutorialName attached to it and displays the text “Angular”.

How to create reusable directives

We already saw the power of custom directives, but we can take that to the next level by building our own re-usable directives.

Let’s say, for example, that we wanted to inject code that would always show the below HTML tags across multiple screens, which is basically just an input for the “Name” and “age” of the user.

To reuse this function on multiple screens without coding each time, we create a master control or directive in angular to hold these controls (“Name” and “age” of the user).

So now, instead of entering the same code for the below screen every time, we can actually embed this code in a directive and embed that directive at any point in time.

Let’ see an example of how we can achieve this.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.directive(‘ngGuru’,function(){ return {

}; });

Code Explanation:

In our code snippet for a custom directive, what changes is just the value which is given to the template parameter of our custom directive.Instead of a plan five tag or text, we are actually entering the entire fragment of 2 input controls for the “Name” and “age” which needs to be shown on our page.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


From the above output, we can see that the code snippet from the template of the custom directive gets added to the page.

AngularJS Directives and components – ng-transclude

As we mentioned quite earlier, Angular is meant to extend the functionality of HTML. And we have already seen how we can have code injection by using custom re-usable directives.

But in the modern web application development, there is also a concept of developing web components. Which basically means creating our own HTML tags that can be used as components in our code.

Hence angular provides another level of power to extending HTML tags by giving the ability to inject attributes into the HTML tags itself.

This is done by the “ng-transclude” tag, which is a kind of setting to tell angular to capture everything that is put inside the directive in the markup.

Let’s take an example of how we can achieve this.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.directive(‘pane’,function(){ return {

transclude:true, scope :{title:’@’}, }; });

Code Explanation:

We are using the directive to define a custom HTML tag called ‘pane’ and adding a function which will put some custom code for this tag. In the output, our custom pane tag is going to display the text “AngularJS” in a rectangle with a solid black border.

The “transclude” attribute has to be mentioned as true, which is required by angular to inject this tag into our DOM.

In the scope, we are defining a title attribute. Attributes are normally defined as name/value pairs like: name=”value”. In our case, the name of the attribute in our pane HTML tag is “title”. The “@” symbol is the requirement from angular. This is done so that when the line title={{title}} is executed in Step 5, the custom code for the title attribute gets added to the pane HTML tag.

The custom code for the title attributes which just draws a solid black border for our control.

Finally, we are calling our custom HTML tag along with the title attribute which was defined.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


The output clearly shows that the title attribute of the pane html5 tag has been set to the custom value of “Angular.JS”.

Nested directives

Directives in AngularJS can be nested. Like just inner modules or functions in any programming language, you may need to embed directives within each other.

You can get a better understanding of this by seeing the below example.

In this example, we are creating 2 directives called “outer” and “inner”.

The inner directive displays a text called “Inner”.

While the outer directive actually makes a call to the inner directive to display the text called “Inner”.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.directive(‘outer’,function(){ return {

restrict:’E’, }});

app.directive(‘inner’,function(){ return {

restrict:’E’, } });

Code Explanation:

We are creating a directive called “outer” which will behave as our parent directive. This directive will then make a call to the “inner” directive.

The restrict:’E’ is required by angular to ensure that the data from the inner directive is available to the outer directive. The letter ‘E’ is the short form of the word ‘Element’.

Here we are creating the inner directive which displays the text “Inner” in a div tag.

In the template for the outer directive (step#4), we are calling the inner directive. So over here we are injecting the template from the inner directive to the outer directive.

Finally, we are directly calling out the outer directive.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.


From the output,

It can be seen that both the outer and inner directives have been called, and the text in both div tags are displayed.

Handling events in a directive


The syntax of the link element is as shown below


link: function ($scope, element, attrs)

The link function normally accepts 3 parameters including the scope, the element that the directive is associated with, and the attributes of the target element.

Let’s look at an example of how we can accomplish this.

var app = angular.module(‘DemoApp’,[]);

app.directive(‘ngGuru’,function(){ return {

link:function($scope,element,attrs) { });} }});

Code Explanation:

We are using the link function as defined in angular to give the ability of the directives to access events in the HTML DOM.

Here we are defining our div tag to use the ng-guru custom directive.

If the code is executed successfully, the following Output will be shown when you run your code in the browser.



One can also create a custom directive which can be used to inject code in the main angular application.

Custom directives can be made to call members defined in the scope object in a certain controller by using the ‘Controller’, ‘controllerAs’ and ‘template’ keywords.

Directives can also be nested to provide embedded functionality which may be required depending on the need of the application.

Directives can also be made re-usable so that they can be used to inject common code that could be required across various web applications.

Directives can also be used to create custom HTML tags which would have their own functionality defined as per the business requirement.

How To Create, Edit And Delete A Table Relationship In Microsoft Access

In Microsoft Access, a Relationship helps you to merge or link data from one table to another. Relationships allow the user to create Queries, Forms, and Reports. When tables are created for each topic in a database, you must place common fields into the table related and form a relationship with them for information to be brought together again.

Create, Edit, Delete a Table Relationship in Access

There are three types of Relationships:

One-to-One Relationship: One-to-One Relationship is the simplest kind of Relationship and the least common because the information related is stored in the same table. It links one table to a single record in another table; Primary Keys links tables. One- to- One Relationship can connect a table with many fields together and separate a table for security reasons.

A One-to-Many relationship: One-to-Many Relationship is the most common Relationship; it links each record in one table to several records in another table. Only one of the fields been linked can be the Primary Key, and the Primary Key must have one record for many records in another table.

Many-to-Many relationships: Many-to-Many Relationship requires a Junction Table, which includes the Primary Key column of the two tables you want to connect.  Many -to Many Relationship allows you to connect each row of one table to many rows in another table.

Why use table relationships in Access?

Table Relationships updates your form and report designs – When you design a form and report, a Relationship is needed for Access to gather the information that can be placed in the form or report you have created.

Table Relationships updates your query design – For records to work from more than one table, a query must be created to join these tables. The query works by matching the values in the first table’s primary key field with the foreign key in the second table.

Referential Integrity can be enforced in a table relationship – Referential Integrity helps to prevent orphan records in your database. An orphan record is a record with reference to another record that does not exist.

In this article, we are going to explain:

How to Create a Relationship in Microsoft Access

How to Edit a Relationship in Microsoft Access

How to Delete a Relationship in Microsoft Access

1] How to Create a Relationship in Microsoft Access

The Edit Relationship dialog box will be seen again with your selected choice; press create. There is also a shortcut option where you can drag the Primary Key from one table to another table; any table linked must be related to the Primary Key. This will form a relationship between the two tables.

2] How to edit relationships in Microsoft Access

You can modify your Relationships in Microsoft Access; here are a few steps in doing so.

Double-tap on the Relationship Line, and the Edit Relationship dialog box will show up.

Make whatever changes you want to make.

3] Deleting Relationships in Microsoft Access

To Delete a Relationship, you must remove the line from the two tables; these are the measures.

A dialog box will pop up asking you ‘if you are sure you want to permanently delete the Relationship.’

Related read: How to build Tables with Table Designer in Access.

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