Trending December 2023 # How To Format A Mac Drive Or Partition With The Apfs File System # Suggested January 2024 # Top 15 Popular

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For example, APFS sports incredibly fast copy/write speeds manages storage efficiently, and is less susceptible to data corruption. If you want to know more, here’s our in-depth take on APFS versus Mac OS Extended.

Table of Contents

If you want to format or convert a drive or partition with the APFS file system, the following instructions should help you.

Before You Start Converting

If you bought a Mac with macOS 10.13 High Sierra or later preinstalled, the internal storage uses the APFS file system by default. If you upgrade from macOS 10.12 Sierra to a newer version, the conversion will automatically take place.

But if you still have a drive or partition (internal or external) in HFS+ or a different format (such as exFAT), you can convert it to APFS using the Disk Utility app in macOS. 

APFS is geared toward solid-state drives, but you can convert or format both fusion and mechanical hard drives without issues. However, if you plan on using an external drive with an older Mac running macOS 10.11 Capitan or earlier, converting or formatting the drive will make it unreadable.

Disk Utility supports the following APFS formatting options:


APFS (Encrypted)

APFS (Case Sensitive)

APFS (Case Sensitive, Encrypted)

While erasing a drive or partition, selecting APFS should suffice. Don’t get too caught up in the other options unless you prefer an encrypted or case-sensitive file system. Depending on the existing file system and partition scheme, you may also be able to convert a drive or partition to APFS without losing any formatting.

Important: Time Machine supports APFS starting macOS Big Sur. But if you have an older Time Machine drive in the HFS+ format, you can’t convert it to APFS without losing data. It’s a good idea to stick with the older file system unless you set up a new Time Machine drive.

Convert Drives and Partitions to APFS (Non-Destructive)

With the GUID Partition Map, you can non-destructively convert an HFS+ drive or partition (except for older Time Machine drives). That allows you to preserve any existing data.

2. Set the Disk Utility’s sidebar to Show All Devices.

4. Select Convert.

5. Wait until Disk Utility finishes converting the partition. Then, select Done.

The partition will show up as a volume within an APFS container. You can add multiple volumes to the container (you’ll learn about that further below).

If the drive contains additional partitions you want to convert, repeat steps 3–5.

Format a Partition or Drive to APFS (Destructive)

You can also convert (or format) a partition or drive by erasing all data on it. That’s the only way to convert partitions and drives that don’t use HFS+ or feature a different partition scheme other than the GUID Partition Map.

1. Set the Disk Utility sidebar to Show All Devices and pick the partition or drive to format.

2. Select the button labeled Erase.

3. Specify a new name for the partition and select APFS. If you opted to format the entire drive, you must pick a partition scheme. Set it to GUID Partition Map. Then, select Erase.

4. Wait for Disk Utility to finish formatting the partition or drive. Then, select Done.

The partition will appear within a new APFS container. If you want to format any other partitions, repeat steps 2–5.

If you formatted the entire drive, you’ll see a single partition within an APFS container.

Create New Volumes in an APFS Container

1. Configure the Disk Utility sidebar to Show All Devices and pick an APFS container.

3. Select the Plus icon.

4. Select Add Volume.

5. Select Size Options. Skip to step 7 if you don’t want to define a size for the volume.

6. Specify the Quota Size (the size of the volume) and Reserve Size (the amount of additional space the volume can access) and select OK.

7. Add a label for the volume. Then, specify the format (APFS) and select Add.

8. Wait until the Disk Utility finishes creating the volume. Then, select Done.

If you want to add a new APFS container, select Add Partition in step 4. You can do that by splitting a drive or an existing container.

Format in APFS While Creating a New Partition

If you have a drive in a different format (such as HFS+ or exFAT), you can create a new APFS container by partitioning the disk. You’ll lose data if you don’t have enough free disk space.

1. Select the drive within the sidebar in Disk Utility.

2. Select the Partition button.

3. Select the Plus button.

4. Use the disk graph to specify the size of the APFS container. Or, enter its size into the field next to Size.

5. Add a name for the partition and select APFS as the format. Then, select Apply.

6. Select Partition.

7. Wait until the Disk Utility finishes creating the APFS partition. Then, select Done. The APFS partition will show up as a container (with a volume inside).

You can continue to add new volumes into the APFS container (see the section above). Or, you can create new containers by partitioning the drive or splitting the existing APFS container.

APFS Formatted Drives and Partitions

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How To Format And Partition An External Hard Drive Or Ssd On Windows

Windows is pretty good with hard disk and SSD file systems. While you may think that you’re stuck with the same partitions and format your hard disk came with, Windows will let you change things up as per your preference. It’s not too complicated, either. Here’s how to format and partition an external hard drive or SSD on Windows.



What you need to know about partitioning and formatting

How to format an external hard drive on Windows

How to partition an external hard drive on Windows

What you need to know about partitioning and formatting

You might have heard “partitioning” and “formatting” used in the context of hard drives and OS. But what do these terms actually mean?

What does partitioning mean?

“Partitioning” refers to the process of dividing a disk into several sub-devices, and allocating sub-devices to the OS to allow it to carry out functions in the rest of the sub-devices and computer. So, for instance, you can have one 500GB drive, and have it partitioned into one 100GB drive partition to boot Windows out of (and the OS will create all the other requisite partitions for recovery, etc.), and the other 400GB drive partition to store your programs and files.

Why should you partition a drive?

What does formatting mean?

“Formatting” refers to the process of preparing a storage disk for its initial data storage use. More commonly, formatting refers to the process of generating a new file system for that particular storage disk. Think of the file system as an index that figures out what file can and will be stored where — without this index, the OS would be unable to see empty and used spaces. So formatting a drive essentially tells the drive where it can and cannot store data, and that it is ready to accept data in the first place.

Difference between format and quick format

Aamir Siddiqui / Android Authority

When you start a formatting operation, you will often see the option to do a quick format. A quick format essentially removes the index but not the files. As a result, one cannot see the files that exist on the drive, but the files still continue to exist and can be recovered through specialized software. In other words, the files on the disk are just marked “safe to overwrite” without actually being overwritten. A quick format also skips scanning of bad sectors on the disk, but this concept is outside the scope of this article.

A regular format or full format is different from a quick format in that it overwrites the files with blank data in addition to removing the index. This ensures that it becomes almost impossible to recover the file. A full format also scans the drive for bad sectors. Because of the wider scope of the task, a full format takes significantly longer than a quick format.

Why should you format a drive?

As mentioned, formatting a drive is a step towards using a drive for storage. Different OSs use different file systems for storage. So formatting your drive with the correct Windows-supported filesystem will allow you to use the drive on your computer without any further hassle. Without the correct file system in place, your Windows computer likely won’t see the drive as available for storage. Note that formatting a drive will delete your data, and a full format will make the data almost irrecoverable.

How to format an external hard drive on Windows

Formatting an external hard drive or SSD on Windows is quite simple.

Connect the external drive to your PC and open Windows Explorer.

Rename the drive under Volume label, if you wish to.

If you want the drive to be formatted more thoroughly, uncheck the Quick Format box.

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

Windows will format your external drive, and give you a confirmation dialog box when the formatting is complete.

To partition an external drive on Windows, you’ll need to use the Disk Management tool.

Find your external drive listed in the grid view in the bottom half.

To create a new partition, you will need unallocated space. You will see this under a black header in the Disk Manager.

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

The Shrink Volume dialog box will pop up. In the box next to Enter the amount of space to Shrink in MB, type in how much space you want for your new partition(s).

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

It will take a couple of seconds, but the partition will show up in the grid view of your external disk in Disk Manager.

Palash Volvoikar / Android Authority

If you want to create another partition, you can repeat the process to create a new volume with the allocated space you left before, or repeat the whole process by shrinking existing partitions.


There are no downsides to partitioning your external hard disk. It depends upon what kind of usage you want from your external hard disk. It’s good to partition it if you want to use the hard disk for two different purposes and don’t want to mix up your files.

It’s not a necessary thing. It solely depends upon your usage and whether the usage warrants having partitions for different purposes.

Yes, Disk Management in Windows lets you do that. You will need unallocated space available if you want to extend a partition, and if you’re shrinking a partition, it will leave you with unallocated space that you can use to extend other partitions.

A full format of the hard drive erases the data on it irrecoverably. However, a quick format merely deletes the files, leaving them recoverable with specialized software.

You should check if your hard drive has any partitions for an OS you no longer need, through disk management. This will also bring to light any unallocated space. Then partition the drive as needed for the new usage, and format it with the filesystem needed.

How To Create A Partition On Your Mac

Unlike Windows-based computers, Macs usually do not come with multiple hard-drive partitions. It is just a single partition that you see when you first boot your Mac. Though there is no harm using your Mac with a single partition, it is highly recommended that you have at least two partitions on your machine. This will let you store your important files on one partition when the other one is being formatted. It is also helpful if you plan to install another OS beside your Mac OS. Regardless of your reasons, here’s how you can do it.

Creating a Partition on a Mac

It is really easy to create a partition on a Mac, as your Mac comes preloaded with an utility that allows you to do that. The utility we are talking about is called “Disk Utility” which is found in the Utilities folder on your Mac. Besides partitioning, it allows you to perform a number of disk-related operations on your machine.

Here are the steps you need to follow:

Name – Enter a name for your new partition, it could be anything of your choice. It’s suggested that you use a meaningful name, though.

Format – This one is important. Make sure to choose the appropriate format that you think will work with the files that you will be storing on this new partition.

Size – Specify the size for your new partition.

7. Restart your Mac when it is done.

Congrats! A new partition has been successfully created on your Mac, with all of your defined settings. You can now use it to store your files, videos, music, and all the content that you have been storing on your main hard drive until now.


While it’s easy to use a Mac with just a single partition, adding another one decreases the chances of your files being corrupted in case you crash your machine.

Mahesh Makvana

Mahesh Makvana is a freelance tech writer who’s written thousands of posts about various tech topics on various sites. He specializes in writing about Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android tech posts. He’s been into the field for last eight years and hasn’t spent a single day without tinkering around his devices.

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How To Mount And Access Ext4 Partition In Mac

If you work with Linux, you probably have a hard drive or two formatted with Ext4 or a related filesystem. Assuming you only work with Linux, that isn’t a problem. When you need to access data from that Ext4 filesystem on another operating system, you start to run into trouble.

Macs, for example, don’t support Ext4 filesystems. If you plug a drive in, it’s simply not recognized. Fortunately, there are a few ways around this.

The Temporary Option: Use a VM

If you only need to read a few files and don’t want to opt for a more permanent solution, there is a fairly easy solution. Just install a version of Ubuntu, or whatever your Linux distribution of choice is, in a virtual machine host like VirtualBox, then mount the drive as you would any other and read away.

Installing VirtualBox itself is fairly straightforward, and if you have an Ext4-formatted hard drive, you’re probably familiar with installing Linux. If not, read on for other options.

Add Ext4 Support to macOS

If you frequently use Ext4-formatted disks and/or need to copy files from them to your macOS drive, you need a better option. You’ll need to install some software, namely macFUSE (formerly known as osxfuse) and ext4fuse.

Now you’re ready to install ext4fuse. The easiest way to do this is using Homebrew. Once Homebrew is installed (or if it is already installed) run the following:



ext4fuse A Word of Warning

While these tools can help you read from Ext4-formatted drives, they aren’t very stable. As long as you’re mounting the drives read-only, as we are in this tutorial, you aren’t risking much. If you try to use these tools to write to the Ext4 drives, you may lose data.

If you need to move files back and forth across a drive shared with Linux, this method isn’t recommended. Instead, use a different filesystem like ExFAT or try the commercial option listed below.

Mounting Ext4 Disks on macOS

Now that you have Ext4 support installed, you need to identify the drive you wish to mount. To do this, run the following command:

diskutil list

Take note of the ID for your partition, which will be something like “/dev/disk3s1.” Assuming that is the ID, you would run the following command to mount the drive:






disk3s1 ~







MY_DISK above can be any name of your choosing.

Navigate to the “/tmp/” directory in Finder, and you should see the contents of your partition listed. If your disk has multiple partitions, you can mount them using the same steps as above. Just make sure to use different directory names to mount them.

A Third Option that Will Cost You

If you really need read/write access and are willing to pay, Paragon Software may have an option for you. The company offers ExtFS for Mac software that it claims is safe and fast. The company even says its software can repair Ext4 and other filesystems.

We haven’t tested this software, so we can’t say whether or not it works as claimed. It does offer a free trial, but to be safe, you may want to back up your drives, just in case. If you want to buy the software, it’s available for $39.95.

Frequently Asked Questions 1. Can I write to EXT4 partitions with macFUSE / ext4fuse?

There is experimental support for writing to EXT4 filesystems with these tools, but this can easily lead to losing data. If you’re going to do this, we wouldn’t recommend doing so with any data that you can’t afford to lose.

2. Does macFUSE work with other filesystems?

Yes. Some of the other popular filesystems supported by macFUSE are NTFS-3G, OXFS, and SSHFS.

3. Will reading files with these tools damage my EXT4 filesystem?

As long as you’re mounting partitions read-only, as we suggest in this article, you have little to no chance of losing data. That said, if you plan to move files back and forth from Linux to macOS, you may want to choose a filesystem better supported by both operating systems, like exFAT.

4. Will these tools work with EXT2 or EXT3 filesystems?

Yes. In addition to EXT4, ext4fuse supports EXT2 and EXT3 filesystems.

5. Can I create EXT4 partitions with any of these tools?

Neither macFUSE/ext4fuse or ExtFS for Mac support creating partitions. If you absolutely need to do this on your Mac, we suggest using Linux in a virtual machine environment, if possible.

While Ext4 on macOS is far from impossible, it’s also frustrating since Apple doesn’t support the format. Given the company’s focus on its own technologies, we don’t expect to see this change in the near future. For the time being, it’s up to companies like Paragon Software and the open source community to keep it coming.

Granted, Ext4 isn’t fully supported on Windows right now either. Given that company’s increasing integration of Linux into Windows, that may eventually change. For now, we have a guide on how to mount and access Ext4 filesystems on Windows.

Kris Wouk

Kris Wouk is a writer, musician, and whatever it’s called when someone makes videos for the web.

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How To Easily Set Up Openvpn On A Mac With Tunnelblick

Most VPN providers supply their customers with custom VPN clients to connect to their network. This software ranges from inoffensive to non-functional, and it can be a point of frustration for users.


8. The configurations will automatically be added to the system and available for connection.

Connecting & Disconnecting

3. A small Growl window will pop up in the upper-right of your monitor showing your connection status. Once the connection is complete, the notification window will go away.

Sharing Credentials Across Configurations

2. Select “VPN Details…” to open the configuration menu.

4. Under the “VPN Credentials” tab, tick “All configurations use Common credentials.” This will set all your VPN connections to use the same username and password.

5. To set the username and password that the credentials will use, log in to a VPN connection that doesn’t already have saved credentials.

6. Type in your username and password and make sure to tick “Save in Keychain” under both the username and password.

7. After you log in the app will save those credentials and apply them to any other VPN connections you initiate.


Alexander Fox

Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.

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Javascript String Format: Methods With Examples

What is JavaScript String Format?

JavaScript String format refers to the approaches that can be used for manipulating and formatting strings in a defined form. It is a crucial feature of any programming language that permits you to have control over the text that appears in your application.

In your JavaScript code, string formatting can transform complex data in a simple way. It also improves the output readability and makes the code more maintainable. Additionally, properly formatted JavaScript strings can also play a role in enhancing the user experience of the application.

How to Format Strings in JavaScript?

In order to format a string in JavaScript, follow the provided steps:

Step 1) First, it is required to determine the data that you want to include in the string.

Step 2) Then, select a method to format string in JS.

Step 3) Write the code for its implementation accordingly.

Step 4) Test the code to make sure that it generates the expected output.

Step 5) Update or modify the code to meet the additional formatting needs or requirements.

Step 6) Refactor the code for maintainability and readability.

Different String Formatting Methods in JavaScript

There exist multiple ways to format strings in JavaScript, including concatenation operators, template literals, regular expressions, and more.

In the next section, you will explore the following approaches:

{} Brackets with backticks

“+” Operator

Custom function String Formatting

Concatenation operator

Template literals

Regular expression

Custom function

Ternary operator

Method 1: Using {} Brackets with Backticks to Format String in JavaScript

In this method, you can use template literals by adding backticks (`) for enclosing a string. Then, insert variables of the string arguments in brackets {} preceded with a dollar sign “$”. These templates enable you to embed expressions within a string literal.

This operation helps to concatenate variables called placeholders and other defined values. Resultantly, the final formatted string is obtained by interpolating the values of placeholders.

For example, we have created two variables, “name” and “id,” and then enclosed them in backticks for generating the formatted output. Note that the “${}” syntax is used for embedding the expressions with the string.


const name = "Jenny"; const id = 1; console.log (`Welcome ${name}, your ID is ${id}`);

It can be observed that the values of the placeholder’s “name” and “id” have been displayed, which means string interpolation has been performed successfully.


Welcome Jenny, your ID is 1

Method 2: Using + Operator to Format String in JavaScript

The second approach is to use the Concatenation operator “+” for basic formatting strings in JavaScript. This way involves concatenating the individual variables and strings together to generate the desired output.

For instance, we have now used the “+” operator to concatenate the same variable values, and the “console.log()” method will return a formatted string on the console.


const name = "Jenny"; const id = 1; console.log("Welcome " + name + ", your ID is " + id);


Welcome Jenny, your ID is 1 Method 3: Custom function String Formatting in JavaScript

In your JavaScript program, you can also use the custom function string formatting approach. In this technique, the function accepts the desired variables and returns the formatted string. This format function also offers a lot of flexibility. You can also use it to fulfill custom or complex formatting requirements.

Here, we have created a custom format function named “welcomeMsg()” that accepts two variables “name” and “id” as arguments and outputs formatted strings by utilizing the template string literals.

After that, we defined the desired variables and passed them in the format custom formation function call.


function welcomeMsg(name, id) { return `Welcome ${name}, your ID is ${id}`; } const name = "Jenny"; const id = 1; const msg = welcomeMsg(name, id); console.log(msg);


Welcome Jenny, your ID is 1 Method 4: Using Concatenation for Format String in JavaScript

Concatenation is a simple method utilized for formatting strings in JavaScript. This approach involves combining string variables or multiple strings together using the concatenation operator “+”. You can also use this technique for simple string concatenation tasks.

In the provided example, the variables “firstName” and “lastName” will be concatenated with the help of the “+” operator to form the “fullName” string as follows.


var firstName = "Alex"; var lastName = "Edward"; var fullName = firstName + " " + lastName; console.log(fullName);


Alex Edward

Method 5: Using Template Literals for Format String in JavaScript

Moreover, template literal also provides support to the multi-line strings.


var name = "Alex"; var age = 30; var msg = `Hi, ${name}! You are ${age} years old.`; console.log(msg);

In the above example, we have directly interpolated the variable “name” and “age” within the string by utilizing the placeholders “${}” within the backticks (`) of the template literals.


Hi, Alex! You are 30 years old. Method 6: Using Regular Expressions to Format String in JavaScript

In JavaScript code, Regular expressions are the robust tool used for string manipulation and pattern matching. Moreover, they are also utilized for finding the given pattern and replacing them with defined values. This operation can be done with the help of the “replace ()” method.

Check out the below program, the replace () method is used with two regular expressions that will replace the placeholders “[name]” and “[id]” with the respective value.


let name = "Jenny"; let id = 1; let message = "Welcome [name], your ID is [id]".replace(/[name]/g, name).replace(/[id]/g, id); console.log(message);

This results in a new string object that will be stored in the “message” variable logged on the console as output.


Welcome Jenny. Your ID is 1 Method 7: Using a Custom function for Format String in JavaScript

You can also create a more reusable and customized string format in JavaScript. To do so, define a new custom function that accepts a string and other parameters. You can call it to replace placeholders or apply custom formatting rules. This technique also supports customized formatting in complex formatting scenarios.

Here, we have created a new custom function format named “formatString” that accepts a “string” and “params” (array of parameters) as arguments.

Within the function body, we have invoked the “replace()” method with a regular expression for replacing placeholders “{0}, {1}” with their respective values from the parameters array.


function formatString(string, params) { return typeof params[index] !== 'undefined' ? params[index] : match; }); } var name = "Alex"; var age = 30; var formattedMsg = formatString("Hi, {0}! You are {1} years old.", [name, age]); console.log(formattedMsg);


Hi, Alex! You are 30 years old. Method 8: Using Ternary Operator to Format String in JavaScript

JavaScript Ternary operator is a shorthand way for writing conditional expressions on strings. However, it can be also used for string formatting by conditionally selecting one of two values according to the specified boolean expression and returning the string.


condition ? expressionIfTrue : expressionIfFalse

Have a look at this example code of using a ternary operator to format into a string object.


let name = "Jenny"; let isAdmin = true; let msg = `Welcome ${name}${isAdmin ? ", you are an admin" : ""}`; console.log(msg);


Welcome Jenny, you are an admin

Here, we have defined two variables “name” and “isAdmin” with the values “Jenny” and “true”, respectively.

After that, we utilized the ternary operator to conditionally add the string “, you are an admin” to the message string if the value of the optional parameter “isAdmin” is true, as stated above.

Comparison of JavaScript String Format Methods

Method Advantages

Brackets {} with backticks (`)

• Concise and readable code.

It may not be appropriate for more complex formatting requirements.

“+” operator Easy to understand. Can be inefficient for more complex formatting requirements.

Custom function for String formatting Offers a lot of flexibility. Needs more coding effort.

Concatenation Operator Simple and widely supported. Cumbersome for complex string formatting.

Template Literals

• Readable and Intuitive syntax.

Limited control over formatting options.

Regular Expressions Provide a lot of flexibility. Different implementation and maintenance as compared to other methods.

Custom function Provides a lot of flexibility. Needs additional coding for creating and maintaining a custom function.

Ternary operator Concise way for handling null or undefined values. It might not be suitable for more complex formatting requirements.

Note that the selection of the method highly depends on the specific use case and the relevant requirements of your JavaScript code.


In JavaScript, you can use template literals, the ternary operator, “+” operator, regular expressions, and the custom function to format strings. These string format methods permit developers to manipulate and present textual data in an efficient manner.

Thus, select the right method based on readability, performance, and browser compatibility. It empowers developers to improve user experiences and achieve desired formatting standards.

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