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Analyzing and monitoring the network traffic of an entire network infrastructure is a very important task for every Linux system administrator. Network admin needs to see what’s going on with the network, who’s using the bandwidth, and how their entire network infrastructure is handling the load. The good thing is there are many open-source network monitoring and traffic analysis tools available in Linux.
In this post, we will discuss some Linux command line tools that can be used to monitor the network usage.Nload
Nload is a console application that allows users to monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic separately.
It visualizes the incoming and outgoing traffic using two graphs and provides additional info like total amount of transferred data and min/max network usage.
You can install nload by running the following command:
Now run the nload command:
Once the nload command is executed, you should see the following output.Iptraf
Iptraf is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitoring tool that shows individual connections and the amount of data flowing between the hosts.
To install iptraf, run the following:
Once iptraf has been installed, issue the following command:
You should see the following output.Vnstat
Vnstat is different from most of the other tools. It is a console-based network traffic monitor for Linux that runs as a daemon and keeps a log of network traffic for the selected interface. It can be used to generate a report of the network usage.
You can install vnstat by running the following command:
Now, run vnstat without any argument:
You can see the total amount of data transfer on your network.
If you want to monitor the bandwidth usage in realtime, use the -l option. It will display the total bandwidth used by incoming and outgoing data.
Now, run vnstat to monitor the bandwidth usage on the wlan0 interface:
You will see the following output.Speedometer
Speedometer is a command line utility that can be used to monitor the current download/upload speeds of the network connections and the speeds of the file systems. Speedometer shows a graph of your current and past network speed in your console. You can also use speedometer directly on a file to monitor the download performance and history of a specific download instead of all the network traffic.
Run the following command to install speedometer in your system:
Now, run speedometer on wlan0 interface:
You will see an output similar to the following.Iftop
Iftop is a command line tool that listens to network traffic on a given interface (such as eth0, eth1, wlan0) and shows a table of current bandwidth usage by hosts. Iftop uses the pcap library to capture the incoming and outgoing packets of the network interface.
You can easily install iftop by running the following command:
Now, run iftop with the n option that prevents iftop from resolving ip addresses to hostname:
You will see the following output.Conclusion
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On Windows 10, network discovery is a feature that allows you to quickly find devices connected to the network using File Explorer.
When the feature is enabled, using the Network tab in File Explorer, you can see all the devices, and you can even browse their available resources, such as shared folders and printers, and more. The only caveat is that network discovery doesn’t always work as expected, and sometimes, you may not be able to find any computer, or you may see some of them, but others might be missing.
Whatever the reason case might be, you can troubleshoot and resolve almost any problem with network discovery by making sure the feature is enabled, the required services and protocol are running, using the network troubleshooter, or reseting the networking stack on Windows 10.
In this guide, you’ll learn the steps to troubleshoot and fix network discovery on Windows 10.Fix network discovery enabling feature
If you can’t see any of the network devices in File Explorer, it’s probably because network discovery isn’t enabled.
To enable network discovery with Control Panel, use these steps:
Expand the Private network profile.
Under the “Network discovery” section, select the Turn on network discovery option.
Under the “File and printer sharing” section, select the Turn on file and printer sharing option.
Once you complete the steps, you should now be able to find other computers and gadgets in the local network.Fix network discovery starting required services
If network discovery is enabled, and File Explorer doesn’t show any of the devices, one or more of the required services may not be running.
To fix network discovery on Windows 10, use these steps:
Confirm the following services are in a “running” status:
Function Discovery Provider Host.
Function Discovery Resource Publication.
UPnP Device Host.
In the “Startup type” option, use the drop-down menu and select the Automatic option.
Repeat steps No. 4 through 6 to make sure the required services are running.
After you complete the steps, open the Network tab in File Explorer and confirm that network discovery is working.Fix network discovery enabling SMB protocol
If network discovery is working, but you’re missing some devices, such as an old computer, hard drive connected to the network, or Network-Attached Storage (NAS), then it’s possible that those devices are still relying in the old version of Server Message Block (SMB) protocol.
It’s not recommended to use SMBv1 for security reasons, but if you must access devices using network discovery, you may need to enable the feature.
To enable SMB version 1 on Windows 10, use these steps:
Expand the SMB 1.0/CIFS File Sharing Support branch.
Select the SMB 1.0/CIFS Client option.
Once you complete the steps, open File Explorer, and in the Network tab, you should now see the missing devices.Fix network discovery using troubleshooter
In the case that network discovery still not working, it’s possible that there’s a networking problem, which you might be able to resolve using the network troubleshooter.
To run the network troubleshooter to fix network discovery, use these steps:
Open Settings on Windows 10.
Select the Network Adapter option.
Select the network adapter connected to the network — for instance, Wi-Fi.
After you complete the steps, the troubleshooter will try to fix the network problem. After the process completes, open File Explorer and confirm that devices are now appearing in the Network tab. If everything is working again, you’re all done. If it’s still not working, try the following method.Fix network discover resetting adapter
If the troubleshooter didn’t work, you can use the network reset feature, which removes and reinstalls all the network adapters on your computer. This process resets all the networking components and restores the defaults settings, which can help to fix network discovery problems.
Warning: These steps will reset your wireless credentials, as such you must know your Wi-Fi password before proceeding, so you can reconnect later.
To reset the network adapter settings to fix network discovery problems, close all your running applications, and use these steps:
Restart your computer.
Once you complete the steps, you may need to reinstall other networking software, such as VPN client or virtual switch software (if applicable). Also, you’ll need to manually reconnect to any wireless network, which may require to enter the passcode again.
Microsoft OneDrive is a popular cloud storage service that allows you to store and access your important files from any device. However, it’s worth noting that OneDrive doesn’t offer official support for Linux. Luckily, there are several ways for you to access and synchronize your OneDrive files on a Linux system.
This article guides you through various methods to integrate OneDrive with your Linux environment. With these methods, you can access and manage your OneDrive files seamlessly within your Linux file systems.
Table of Contents
Can You Use OneDrive on Linux?
Yes, you can access and use OneDrive on Linux in a few different ways. While there isn’t an official OneDrive client for Linux, several unofficial alternatives are available.
For instance, you can use an open-source, unofficial OneDrive client for Linux or a command-line tool like rclone instead. You can also access your OneDrive files quickly from your web browser.
Remember that these are unofficial solutions; your experience might vary depending on the tool and your Linux distribution. Regardless, these options allow you to integrate OneDrive into your Linux workflow.
Using the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux
The unofficial OneDrive client for Linux allows you to access and use OneDrive on Linux systems. Please note that this unofficial client isn’t supported by Microsoft in any way—you’ll need to use it at your own risk.
While it’s not officially supported, the OneDrive client for Linux is a free, open-source, and well-maintained option for Linux users to use.
Installing the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux
Follow these steps to download and install the Unofficial OneDrive client for Linux on a Debian or Ubuntu-based Linux system. Other distributions may need to follow different instructions.
Open the terminal on your Linux PC.
Update your package manager by typing
sudo apt update
and wait for it to complete.
Once your package manager is updated, run
sudo apt install
no-install-suggests ldc onedrive
in the terminal and wait for it to complete.
Configuring and Using the Client
At this point, you should have successfully installed the unofficial Linux OneDrive client. You’ll need to configure it next to access your files.
To run the client for the first time and generate the default configuration file, type
into the terminal.
You’ll be prompted to visit a Microsoft URL to authenticate and grant access to your OneDrive account. Open the URL in a web browser, sign in with your Microsoft credentials, and grant the necessary permissions.
After granting permissions, you’ll see a blank page—copy the URL, paste it back into the terminal, and press the
The client will alert you if you were successful. To start synchronisation, type
into the terminal. This should start synchronizing your OneDrive files to a local folder (
by default). You’ll need to allow time for this process to complete.
If you want the client to run in the background, type and run
from your terminal.
For more information on the client’s features and settings, you can refer to the official documentation for the client on GitHub.
How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Rclone
rclone is a powerful, open-source terminal tool for synchronizing and transferring files across local or remote systems on a Linux PC. By using rclone, you can set up your Linux PC to allow access to your OneDrive storage.
To use rclone with OneDrive on Linux, follow these steps.
Once Rclone is installed, type
into the terminal to initiate the configuration process.
When prompted, select the
key to create a new remote, and then enter a name for your OneDrive remote (such as
Next, locate the number for
as the storage provider (typically
), type it in, and press
, leave blank and press
Choose your authentication region for OneDrive (typically by pressing
and hitting enter), then choose
to use the typical setup process to authenticate.
When prompted, press
to open a web browser to sign in. Enter your OneDrive account details and authorize Rclone to access your OneDrive account and storage by following the on-screen instructions.
After the configuration is complete, close the browser and return to the terminal.
Choose your OneDrive configuration—typically
for standard OneDrive access. Press the
key to continue.
Choose your OneDrive ID from the options provided, typically by pressing
and hitting the
again to confirm.
At this point, the configuration should be complete. Press
to confirm again and make it your default configuration.
to exit the configuration tool. You can use the
command to interact with your OneDrive files. For instance, to list the contents of your OneDrive account, run the command
rclone ls onedrive:
in your terminal.
To download a file from your OneDrive account, run the command
rclone copy onedrive:/path/to/file /path/to/local/directory
in the terminal. Replace the
paths with the file location and the location where you’d like to save the file on your local PC.
To upload a file to your OneDrive account, run the command
rclone copy /path/to/local/file onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory
. Replace the
paths with the file location and location in your OneDrive storage that you’d like to upload the file to.
You can also use the
command to synchronize all of the files between your OneDrive account and your local Linux filesystem. For example, to synchronize all files in your OneDrive account to a local directory called
, run the command
rclone sync onedrive: ~/onedrive
To synchronize a specific directory in your OneDrive account to a local directory, run the command
rclone sync onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory /path/to/local/directory
and replace the
paths with the correct remote and local directories.
How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Your Web Browser
Don’t want to install any additional software? You can quickly access your OneDrive files from a Linux PC using your web browser.
You can also share your files with others by selecting the file and pressing the Share button.
Remember that changes made to files and documents on the OneDrive website will be synchronized with any other devices connected to your Microsoft account.
Managing Your Linux Files
Using OneDrive on Linux can be achieved using one of the tools above (or by using the OneDrive website). Although Microsoft doesn’t offer a native OneDrive application for Linux, these alternatives provide a similar experience.
Worried about your files? Remember to keep your file backups automated, ensuring your data stays secure and up to date. Be mindful of potential OneDrive sync issues that could arise, and always double-check your settings if you run into problems.
After a full Linux kernel was integrated into Windows 10, Microsoft had revealed at BUILD 2023 that it was working towards a complete Graphical User Interface (GUI) support for Linux apps on the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). Thanks to this built-in Linux kernel, there was decent support for a variety of Linux features and tools. But there was no way to run, test, and use Linux GUI apps.
That is, until now. Those enrolled in the Windows Insider program will now get a preview of GUI application support, allowing developers to build, test, and run their applications in a Linux environment.
The lack of GUI support had been a common issue over which many developers opted out of the Windows experience for its open-source counterpart. But with the latest Windows 10 Build 21364, Microsoft seeks to redress that by introducing support for Linux apps requiring a GUI, making this a crucial update for developers who had hitherto prized Linux over Windows due to the availability of extensive apps tools there.
What can GUI application support do?
Before this update, developers had access to Linux command-line tools, features and functionalities, and apps, but no support for GUI apps. To get around the limitation, developers had to contend with third-party servers and tools.
With GUI application support, Windows users won’t even have to start an X server themselves. As soon as a Linux GUI app is run, a companion system distro is launched automatically. As soon as you close the WSL, the system distro will close as well.
Developers of different ilks will find GUI application support useful in different ways. Here’s a look at the things that the recent Windows (Insider) update brings to the table.
Test cross-platform apps
Other than allowing developers to test and run such applications in a Linux environment, the GUI app support will also let users run Linux-only GUI applications. Cross-platform app testing is also simplified significantly since one can test the app directly on Windows, and then in a Linux environment without having to switch systems. As there is no need for a virtual machine, the apps also load up faster and run reliably.
Develop and test Linux projects (with audio support)
The GUI application support on the WSL is a real boon for Linux developers that want to run or test apps requiring audio and microphone support. The out of the box audio-mic support is integral for many who have to develop, test, or run video player apps and telecommunications apps. The feature is enabled through a Linux companion distribution and is disabled when you close the app.
Run Linux apps 3D acceleration
Developers can also run Linux apps with 3D acceleration, due in no small part to a native WSL and its easy access to your system’s GPU. That means complex 3D rendering will be possible for apps that require it which will make them run much faster and smoother.
The companion system distro hosts an X server, Wayland, pulse audio server, and anything else that Linux GUI applications need to interact with Windows. The whole experience has thus become much more fluid and interactive, giving Windows itself a higher level of flexibility.
How to get the Initial Linux GUI app support preview
In order to get a preview of the GUI app support for the WSL, you will have to make sure that you’re on the Windows 10 Insiders preview build 21364. If you are, simply update your Windows and restart for the feature to be available to you.
If you have a WSL on your system already, you need only run the following command:wsl --update
If the same is not enabled yet, run the following:wsl --install
GUI app support for WSL is an important feature that will make using Linux tools on Windows that much simpler and more inviting. Expect this feature to be part of the full OS update later this year.
The process of generating SSL/TLS certificates is a common task for many Linux system administrators. Luckily, even if you are not an administrator, it is easy to do so using OpenSSL, an open-source tool that is installed by default on many Linux distributions. Here we explain what OpenSSL is, how to install it, and most importantly, how to use it to generate SSL and TLS certificates on your system.What Is OpenSSL?
OpenSSL is a library developed by the OpenSSL Project to provide open-source SSL and TLS implementations for the encryption of network traffic. It is readily available for a variety of Unix-based distributions and can be used to generate certificates, RSA private keys, and perform general cryptography-related tasks.Limitation of Self-Signed SSL Certificate
When you use OpenSSL to generate a SSL certificate, it is considered “self-signed.” It means that the SSL certificate is signed with its own private key and not from a Certificate Authority (CA).
As such, the SSL certificate cannot be “trusted” and should not be used for any public facing site. If used, the users will likely see warnings from their browsers about the certificate.
A self-signed certificate is useful for local development or any apps running in the background that don’t face the Internet.
Alternatively, you can use LetsEncrypt or obtain a certificate verified by a trusted authority, such as Comodo CA.Installation
Most Linux distributions already have a version of OpenSSL built in by default. If not, you can easily install it.
You can install it on Ubuntu and Debian by using the apt command:
On CentOS (or its alternative), you can install it by using the yum command:
You can also easily download it from its website as a “.tar.gz” file.Basic Usage
Now that you have OpenSSL installed, we can have a look at some of the basic functions the program provides.
You can start by viewing the version and other relevant information about your OpenSSL installation:openssl version
You can check out the manual provided:openssl
helpGenerating a Certificate Using a Configuration File
Generating a certificate using OpenSSL is possible in many ways. One of them is by using a configuration file which will specify details about the organization.
To start, you can create a configuration file called “config.conf” and edit it using Nano:
Here is an example of the content of the configuration file:[req] default_bits = 2048 prompt = no default_md = sha256 req_extensions = req_ext x509_extensions= v3_ca distinguished_name = dn [dn] C = US ST = California L = Los Angeles O = Org OU = Sales [ v3_ca ] subjectKeyIdentifier=hash authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always basicConstraints = CA:true [req_ext] subjectAltName = @alt_names [alt_names] DNS.1 = chúng tôi can just copy and paste this into the file and make the necessary changes to reflect your organization’s information.
Next, you have to generate an RSA private key, which will then be used to generate a root certificate -:openssl genrsa
The -out flag is used in this case to specify the name of the key that will be generated. A key size of 2048 bits is also specified, which is the default for RSA keys.
You will also have to generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR):openssl req
In this case, the -key flag is used to specify the RSA key, the -out flag specifies the name of the CSR file and the -config flag is used to specify the name of the config file.
After this, you can generate a root certificate, which is used to generate our final certificate:openssl req
In the process of generating this root certificate, the -sha256 flag is used to specify SHA256 as the message digest.
Now, as for the final step, we can finally type the following to generate our certificate:openssl x509
-outchúng tôi -CA flag specifies the root certificate, the -CAkey flag specifies the private key and -extfile specifies the name of the configuration file. The “final.crt” file will be the SSL certificate you want. Generating a Certificate without a Configuration File
Alternatively, you can also generate a certificate using OpenSSL without a configuration file.
You can start by generating an RSA private key:openssl genrsa
Next, you will have to generate a CSR:openssl req
-outchúng tôi generating a CSR, you will be prompted to answer questions about your organization.
Finally, we can generate the certificate itself:openssl x509
-outchúng tôi of Keys and Certificates
Keys and certificates are easily checked and verified using OpenSSL, with the -check flag:openssl rsa
-inchúng tôi can check certificate signing requests: openssl req
-inchúng tôi certificates as well: openssl x509
-inchúng tôi Asked Questions 1. Do I still have to worry about Heartbleed?
Heartbleed (CVE-2014-0160) is an old vulnerability found in OpenSSL in 2014. TLS-servers and clients running OpenSSL both were affected. A patch was quickly released a few days after its discovery, and this vulnerability isn’t something to worry about in 2023 as long as you are running a modern and up-to-date version of OpenSSL.
If you are using OpenSSL on Debian and Ubuntu-based systems, you can always update it by running the following commands:sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade openssl 2. How long do SSL certificates last before they expire?
This depends on the value you choose when generating the certificate. This can be specified by using the -days flag when generating a certificate.
Image credit: Sls written on wooden cube block by 123RF
Technical Writer - Linux & Cybersecurity.
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In today’s online world, we’re becoming more and more connected with web conferencing. School, work, and even friendships are taking place over platforms like Zoom, WebEx, and Google Hangouts. However, for those of us looking for an open-source option, there aren’t all that many. That’s where BigBlueButton comes in, which is an open-source web-conferencing and e-learning platform that you build yourself. Here we show you how to use BigBlueButton for web conferencing on Linux.Before You Install BigBlueButton
I won’t quote the documentation page much, but there are a couple of things to note about installing BigBlueButton on Linux.
The first is that if you’re planning to use it in production, you will need more than the specs I’m using. Their installation page states that you should have the following to run an actual server:
Ubuntu 16.04 64-bit OS running Linux kernel 4.x
16 GB of memory with swap enabled
8 CPU cores, with high single-thread performance
500 GB of free disk space (or more) for recordings or 50GB if session recording is disabled on the server
TCP ports 80 and 443 accessible
UDP ports 16384 – 32768 accessible
250 Mbits/sec bandwidth (symmetrical) or more
TCP port 80 and 443 not in use by another web application or reverse proxy
A hostname (such as chúng tôi for setup of a SSL certificate
IPV4 and IPV6 address
Dedicated (bare metal) hardware
They recommend not running it as a VM for production use because of the audio packet processing program they use and time-syncing problems with recordings. Essentially, I’d recommend picking up an off-lease enterprise 1U server or something along those lines. That way you can have more requirements than necessary, including multiple bonded NICs, 8-16 CPU physical CPU cores, and lots of RAM.
However, I’m just going to be running it in a VM for the purpose of showing you how it’s done. Those requirements are as follows:
4 CPU cores/8 GB of memory
Installation on a local VM or LXC container
50G of disk space
IPV4 address onlyBigBlueButton Installation
There are a couple of ways to install it: the easy way where you don’t learn as much of the inner workings or the hard way where you’ll be intimately familiar with how it works on the inside. The choice is yours, but I’m going with the easy way, as it’s a simpler installation and administration. If you’d like to go with the more difficult route, you can follow a step-by-step on the documentation page.
The easier way to install consists of using either a script from the website or an Ansible role to automate the installation process. I’d recommend the script for those just wanting to test things out.
To go with the script, you’ll need to clone it from GitHub with the following command:
Note that in the script above, HOSTNAME is the hostname of your server and EMAIL is an email address for setting up an SSL, and it’s a necessary step. Using the script should take about 30 minutes or so, meaning you have plenty of time to refill your coffee and take a break.
When you come back, everything should be all set. At that point, you can enter the domain name (or IP address with a virtual test server) and start the demonstration. You can continue to run the script you used to upgrade the packages on the server as well.How to Use BigBlueButton
If you use the script, you will have the BigBlueButton demonstration package installed, meaning you can learn how everything works without committing too much. Note that this requires a valid SSL certificate, which will require a registered domain name. I don’t have that, so I’m going to use the BigBlueButton demo server.
You’ll be invited to join audio from your microphone or listen only. From there, you’re in the meeting.
In the chat, you’ll see the link to the tutorial videos on YouTube. They’ll be more useful later to learn about the platform.
Every slide is a whiteboard, but there are specific whiteboard slides in this demo server. You can draw whatever you need to. In this example, I drew a couple of network diagram symbols, but you get the idea. There’s also multi-user whiteboarding, which is great for students to show what they’re working on.
The Shared Notes section is also great because it allows you to type out some notes that you have or highlight questions from the chat and work out those answers. You could also copy/paste some of your lecture notes in there and let people work off of them.BigBlueButton in a Nutshell
For teachers working remotely, there is nothing more exciting than a great new tool. BigBlueButton has many exciting features that make it great for an e-learning platform. If you’re interested in some other video conferencing content, check out our Zoom keyboard shortcuts cheatsheet, our top tips for video conferencing while working from home, and our guide on turning your Raspberry Pi into a video conferencing station.
John is a young technical professional with a passion for educating users on the best ways to use their technology. He holds technical certifications covering topics ranging from computer hardware to cybersecurity to Linux system administration.
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