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If you work with Linux, you probably have a hard drive or two formatted with Ext4 or a related filesystem. Assuming you only work with Linux, that isn’t a problem. When you need to access data from that Ext4 filesystem on another operating system, you start to run into trouble.

Macs, for example, don’t support Ext4 filesystems. If you plug a drive in, it’s simply not recognized. Fortunately, there are a few ways around this.

The Temporary Option: Use a VM

If you only need to read a few files and don’t want to opt for a more permanent solution, there is a fairly easy solution. Just install a version of Ubuntu, or whatever your Linux distribution of choice is, in a virtual machine host like VirtualBox, then mount the drive as you would any other and read away.

Installing VirtualBox itself is fairly straightforward, and if you have an Ext4-formatted hard drive, you’re probably familiar with installing Linux. If not, read on for other options.

Add Ext4 Support to macOS

If you frequently use Ext4-formatted disks and/or need to copy files from them to your macOS drive, you need a better option. You’ll need to install some software, namely macFUSE (formerly known as osxfuse) and ext4fuse.

Now you’re ready to install ext4fuse. The easiest way to do this is using Homebrew. Once Homebrew is installed (or if it is already installed) run the following:



ext4fuse A Word of Warning

While these tools can help you read from Ext4-formatted drives, they aren’t very stable. As long as you’re mounting the drives read-only, as we are in this tutorial, you aren’t risking much. If you try to use these tools to write to the Ext4 drives, you may lose data.

If you need to move files back and forth across a drive shared with Linux, this method isn’t recommended. Instead, use a different filesystem like ExFAT or try the commercial option listed below.

Mounting Ext4 Disks on macOS

Now that you have Ext4 support installed, you need to identify the drive you wish to mount. To do this, run the following command:

diskutil list

Take note of the ID for your partition, which will be something like “/dev/disk3s1.” Assuming that is the ID, you would run the following command to mount the drive:






disk3s1 ~







MY_DISK above can be any name of your choosing.

Navigate to the “/tmp/” directory in Finder, and you should see the contents of your partition listed. If your disk has multiple partitions, you can mount them using the same steps as above. Just make sure to use different directory names to mount them.

A Third Option that Will Cost You

If you really need read/write access and are willing to pay, Paragon Software may have an option for you. The company offers ExtFS for Mac software that it claims is safe and fast. The company even says its software can repair Ext4 and other filesystems.

We haven’t tested this software, so we can’t say whether or not it works as claimed. It does offer a free trial, but to be safe, you may want to back up your drives, just in case. If you want to buy the software, it’s available for $39.95.

Frequently Asked Questions 1. Can I write to EXT4 partitions with macFUSE / ext4fuse?

There is experimental support for writing to EXT4 filesystems with these tools, but this can easily lead to losing data. If you’re going to do this, we wouldn’t recommend doing so with any data that you can’t afford to lose.

2. Does macFUSE work with other filesystems?

Yes. Some of the other popular filesystems supported by macFUSE are NTFS-3G, OXFS, and SSHFS.

3. Will reading files with these tools damage my EXT4 filesystem?

As long as you’re mounting partitions read-only, as we suggest in this article, you have little to no chance of losing data. That said, if you plan to move files back and forth from Linux to macOS, you may want to choose a filesystem better supported by both operating systems, like exFAT.

4. Will these tools work with EXT2 or EXT3 filesystems?

Yes. In addition to EXT4, ext4fuse supports EXT2 and EXT3 filesystems.

5. Can I create EXT4 partitions with any of these tools?

Neither macFUSE/ext4fuse or ExtFS for Mac support creating partitions. If you absolutely need to do this on your Mac, we suggest using Linux in a virtual machine environment, if possible.

While Ext4 on macOS is far from impossible, it’s also frustrating since Apple doesn’t support the format. Given the company’s focus on its own technologies, we don’t expect to see this change in the near future. For the time being, it’s up to companies like Paragon Software and the open source community to keep it coming.

Granted, Ext4 isn’t fully supported on Windows right now either. Given that company’s increasing integration of Linux into Windows, that may eventually change. For now, we have a guide on how to mount and access Ext4 filesystems on Windows.

Kris Wouk

Kris Wouk is a writer, musician, and whatever it’s called when someone makes videos for the web.

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How To Create A Partition On Your Mac

Unlike Windows-based computers, Macs usually do not come with multiple hard-drive partitions. It is just a single partition that you see when you first boot your Mac. Though there is no harm using your Mac with a single partition, it is highly recommended that you have at least two partitions on your machine. This will let you store your important files on one partition when the other one is being formatted. It is also helpful if you plan to install another OS beside your Mac OS. Regardless of your reasons, here’s how you can do it.

Creating a Partition on a Mac

It is really easy to create a partition on a Mac, as your Mac comes preloaded with an utility that allows you to do that. The utility we are talking about is called “Disk Utility” which is found in the Utilities folder on your Mac. Besides partitioning, it allows you to perform a number of disk-related operations on your machine.

Here are the steps you need to follow:

Name – Enter a name for your new partition, it could be anything of your choice. It’s suggested that you use a meaningful name, though.

Format – This one is important. Make sure to choose the appropriate format that you think will work with the files that you will be storing on this new partition.

Size – Specify the size for your new partition.

7. Restart your Mac when it is done.

Congrats! A new partition has been successfully created on your Mac, with all of your defined settings. You can now use it to store your files, videos, music, and all the content that you have been storing on your main hard drive until now.


While it’s easy to use a Mac with just a single partition, adding another one decreases the chances of your files being corrupted in case you crash your machine.

Mahesh Makvana

Mahesh Makvana is a freelance tech writer who’s written thousands of posts about various tech topics on various sites. He specializes in writing about Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android tech posts. He’s been into the field for last eight years and hasn’t spent a single day without tinkering around his devices.

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How To Access Reports In Jira?

Introduction to Jira Reports

Jira is used to manage the project’s entire lifecycle and provides different kinds of features, which is one of the functionalities that Jira provides. We can track all activities of the project. In other words, we can say that the Jira report helps us analyze the progress of the project and track issues and different timeline features of performance. Jira provides different types of reports within the specified project. We can track the problems, bugs, and sprint goals using the Jira report.

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Overview of Jira Reports Value of Jira Reports:

Jira reports assist you with keeping focused on run objectives, diving into issues, overseeing responsibilities, recognizing bottlenecks, and eventually working more astutely.

Also, those are only the reports. There are likewise Jira dashboards, another Jira announcing the choice. These are an approach to sorting out your undertakings and following your accomplishments in a solitary view utilizing many underlying devices. Some of these gadgets have similar Jira reports from your sheets, so they’re in one spot, similar to the Created versus Resolved graph and Sprint Burndown.

1. Productivity: We can analyze how much work is completed per sprint and how much work we planned.

2. Predictability: At this point, we check the consistency of work and make suitable plans for the same.

3. Schedule: As per schedule, can we complete our work?

4. Scope: It defines the scope of the backlog.

5. Quality: We are addressing all possible bugs to maintain quality.

Jira provides the following type of report as follows.

Report for Scrum teams.

Report for Kanban teams.

Report for management.

Report for issue analysis

How to Use Jira Reports?

Now let’s see how we can use the Jira report as follows:

We can easily access all features of the above table in our respective scrum and Kanban as per our requirements. Jira allows us to generate all types of reports as per our requirements, and also, we can specify who will see the information with the current date and issues. These reports will utilize whichever assessment measurement your board depends on, so assuming you’re using Story Points, the reports will follow the progress and finish utilizing those. On the other hand, assuming you have a custom number field, the words will be founded on that. So there are different methods to use the Jira report as follows.

The Jira board is shown in the following screenshot as follows.

How to Access Reports in Jira?

Now let’s see how we can access reports in Jira as follows:

First, we select the project inside the specific project, as shown in the following screenshot.

How to Create Reports in Jira?

Now let’s see how we can create a Jira report as follows:

First, we need to navigate the project as per our requirements.

Now select the report that we want to generate.

Above three steps as shown in the following screenshot.

Types of Jira Reports

Given below are the types of Jira Reports:

Agile: Agile reports the following features as follows.

Burndown Chart: It is used to track the remaining work as well as it also used to show project goals.

Sprint Chart: It is used to track how work is completed.

Velocity Chart: It follows how much work we completed sprint by sprint.

As well as it supports different types of features such as Version Report, Epic Report, Control Chart, Epic Burn Down, and Release burn down.

Issues Analysis Report:

Issue Age Report: It shows the age of the issue.

It also supports chart reports, newly created issues, and resolution times.

Now let’s see the Prediction and arrangement report features as follows:

Report for Time Estimation: It shows the current and planned timeline of issues in specified projects.

Report for Workload Estimation: It also shows the time estimation of user work, as it helps us understand which user has more work and less.

Report for Version Estimation: It shows how much work is pending per user and their respective issues; using this feature, we can analyze how much work is pending.


With the help of the above article, we saw the Jira report. From this article, we saw basic things about the Jira report and the integration of the Jira report, and how we use it in the Jira report.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Jira Reports” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Format A Mac Drive Or Partition With The Apfs File System

For example, APFS sports incredibly fast copy/write speeds manages storage efficiently, and is less susceptible to data corruption. If you want to know more, here’s our in-depth take on APFS versus Mac OS Extended.

Table of Contents

If you want to format or convert a drive or partition with the APFS file system, the following instructions should help you.

Before You Start Converting

If you bought a Mac with macOS 10.13 High Sierra or later preinstalled, the internal storage uses the APFS file system by default. If you upgrade from macOS 10.12 Sierra to a newer version, the conversion will automatically take place.

But if you still have a drive or partition (internal or external) in HFS+ or a different format (such as exFAT), you can convert it to APFS using the Disk Utility app in macOS. 

APFS is geared toward solid-state drives, but you can convert or format both fusion and mechanical hard drives without issues. However, if you plan on using an external drive with an older Mac running macOS 10.11 Capitan or earlier, converting or formatting the drive will make it unreadable.

Disk Utility supports the following APFS formatting options:


APFS (Encrypted)

APFS (Case Sensitive)

APFS (Case Sensitive, Encrypted)

While erasing a drive or partition, selecting APFS should suffice. Don’t get too caught up in the other options unless you prefer an encrypted or case-sensitive file system. Depending on the existing file system and partition scheme, you may also be able to convert a drive or partition to APFS without losing any formatting.

Important: Time Machine supports APFS starting macOS Big Sur. But if you have an older Time Machine drive in the HFS+ format, you can’t convert it to APFS without losing data. It’s a good idea to stick with the older file system unless you set up a new Time Machine drive.

Convert Drives and Partitions to APFS (Non-Destructive)

With the GUID Partition Map, you can non-destructively convert an HFS+ drive or partition (except for older Time Machine drives). That allows you to preserve any existing data.

2. Set the Disk Utility’s sidebar to Show All Devices.

4. Select Convert.

5. Wait until Disk Utility finishes converting the partition. Then, select Done.

The partition will show up as a volume within an APFS container. You can add multiple volumes to the container (you’ll learn about that further below).

If the drive contains additional partitions you want to convert, repeat steps 3–5.

Format a Partition or Drive to APFS (Destructive)

You can also convert (or format) a partition or drive by erasing all data on it. That’s the only way to convert partitions and drives that don’t use HFS+ or feature a different partition scheme other than the GUID Partition Map.

1. Set the Disk Utility sidebar to Show All Devices and pick the partition or drive to format.

2. Select the button labeled Erase.

3. Specify a new name for the partition and select APFS. If you opted to format the entire drive, you must pick a partition scheme. Set it to GUID Partition Map. Then, select Erase.

4. Wait for Disk Utility to finish formatting the partition or drive. Then, select Done.

The partition will appear within a new APFS container. If you want to format any other partitions, repeat steps 2–5.

If you formatted the entire drive, you’ll see a single partition within an APFS container.

Create New Volumes in an APFS Container

1. Configure the Disk Utility sidebar to Show All Devices and pick an APFS container.

3. Select the Plus icon.

4. Select Add Volume.

5. Select Size Options. Skip to step 7 if you don’t want to define a size for the volume.

6. Specify the Quota Size (the size of the volume) and Reserve Size (the amount of additional space the volume can access) and select OK.

7. Add a label for the volume. Then, specify the format (APFS) and select Add.

8. Wait until the Disk Utility finishes creating the volume. Then, select Done.

If you want to add a new APFS container, select Add Partition in step 4. You can do that by splitting a drive or an existing container.

Format in APFS While Creating a New Partition

If you have a drive in a different format (such as HFS+ or exFAT), you can create a new APFS container by partitioning the disk. You’ll lose data if you don’t have enough free disk space.

1. Select the drive within the sidebar in Disk Utility.

2. Select the Partition button.

3. Select the Plus button.

4. Use the disk graph to specify the size of the APFS container. Or, enter its size into the field next to Size.

5. Add a name for the partition and select APFS as the format. Then, select Apply.

6. Select Partition.

7. Wait until the Disk Utility finishes creating the APFS partition. Then, select Done. The APFS partition will show up as a container (with a volume inside).

You can continue to add new volumes into the APFS container (see the section above). Or, you can create new containers by partitioning the drive or splitting the existing APFS container.

APFS Formatted Drives and Partitions

How To Easily Automount Windows Ntfs Partition In Ubuntu

One way to automount NTFS drive is by editing fstab, but that might not be simple for beginner Linux users. An alternative way is to use a GUI tool named ntfs-config.

Open the terminal ( Ctrl+Alt+T ) and use the following command to install the tool:


apt-get install


Alternatively, you can install it from Ubuntu Software Center.

Before using, we need to tweak the tool a bit as there is a known bug which stops the tool from working properly. It looks for a directory which needs to be created. In the terminal, use the following command to create the mentioned directory:












Now we are ready to use the ntfs-config tool. Launch ntfs-config. Remember, it needs administrative rights to run the tool. When you start the tool, it lists all the partitions that are available on your computer. The interface looks like this:

By the way, in case you do not know which drive is numbered what (i.e. /dev/sdaX which is not similar to Windows naming convention of drives), you can use the following command in terminal to find it out.




which outputs (for my computer) like this:

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System



































f W95 Ext








































Linux swap





























Linux swap



In the output, look for the column Blocks. This gives the size of the partition in bytes. In the example above, 102398278 bytes can roughly be estimated as 102 GB.

Once you select the mount point, it gives you option of enabling write support for the drives. Its up to you if you want this feature.

Save and close and you are done with a reboot. You will find your drive(s) automatically mounted at the start-up.

Abhishek Prakash

Abhishek is a Linux lover and Opens Source enthusiast. He takes a keen interest in day-to-day computer life and wishes to share his experience with others to make their computer experience better and easier. He is the owner of increasingly popular tech blog Computer And You and Open Source blog It’s FOSS.

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How To Access And Use Onedrive On Linux

Microsoft OneDrive is a popular cloud storage service that allows you to store and access your important files from any device. However, it’s worth noting that OneDrive doesn’t offer official support for Linux. Luckily, there are several ways for you to access and synchronize your OneDrive files on a Linux system.

This article guides you through various methods to integrate OneDrive with your Linux environment. With these methods, you can access and manage your OneDrive files seamlessly within your Linux file systems.

Table of Contents

Can You Use OneDrive on Linux?

Yes, you can access and use OneDrive on Linux in a few different ways. While there isn’t an official OneDrive client for Linux, several unofficial alternatives are available.

For instance, you can use an open-source, unofficial OneDrive client for Linux or a command-line tool like rclone instead. You can also access your OneDrive files quickly from your web browser.

Remember that these are unofficial solutions; your experience might vary depending on the tool and your Linux distribution. Regardless, these options allow you to integrate OneDrive into your Linux workflow.

Using the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux

The unofficial OneDrive client for Linux allows you to access and use OneDrive on Linux systems. Please note that this unofficial client isn’t supported by Microsoft in any way—you’ll need to use it at your own risk.

While it’s not officially supported, the OneDrive client for Linux is a free, open-source, and well-maintained option for Linux users to use.

Installing the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux

Follow these steps to download and install the Unofficial OneDrive client for Linux on a Debian or Ubuntu-based Linux system. Other distributions may need to follow different instructions.

Open the terminal on your Linux PC.

Update your package manager by typing

sudo apt update

and wait for it to complete.

Once your package manager is updated, run

sudo apt install


no-install-suggests ldc onedrive

in the terminal and wait for it to complete.

Configuring and Using the Client

At this point, you should have successfully installed the unofficial Linux OneDrive client. You’ll need to configure it next to access your files.

To run the client for the first time and generate the default configuration file, type


into the terminal.

You’ll be prompted to visit a Microsoft URL to authenticate and grant access to your OneDrive account. Open the URL in a web browser, sign in with your Microsoft credentials, and grant the necessary permissions.

After granting permissions, you’ll see a blank page—copy the URL, paste it back into the terminal, and press the



The client will alert you if you were successful. To start synchronisation, type

onedrive –synchronize

into the terminal. This should start synchronizing your OneDrive files to a local folder (


by default). You’ll need to allow time for this process to complete.

If you want the client to run in the background, type and run

onedrive –monitor

from your terminal.

For more information on the client’s features and settings, you can refer to the official documentation for the client on GitHub.

How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Rclone

rclone is a powerful, open-source terminal tool for synchronizing and transferring files across local or remote systems on a Linux PC. By using rclone, you can set up your Linux PC to allow access to your OneDrive storage.

To use rclone with OneDrive on Linux, follow these steps.

Once Rclone is installed, type

rclone config

into the terminal to initiate the configuration process.

When prompted, select the


key to create a new remote, and then enter a name for your OneDrive remote (such as



Next, locate the number for

Microsoft OneDrive

as the storage provider (typically


), type it in, and press


to confirm.


client id


client secret

, leave blank and press



Choose your authentication region for OneDrive (typically by pressing


and hitting enter), then choose


to use the typical setup process to authenticate.

When prompted, press


to open a web browser to sign in. Enter your OneDrive account details and authorize Rclone to access your OneDrive account and storage by following the on-screen instructions.

After the configuration is complete, close the browser and return to the terminal.

Choose your OneDrive configuration—typically


for standard OneDrive access. Press the


key to continue.

Choose your OneDrive ID from the options provided, typically by pressing


and hitting the





again to confirm.

At this point, the configuration should be complete. Press


to confirm again and make it your default configuration.



to exit the configuration tool. You can use the


command to interact with your OneDrive files. For instance, to list the contents of your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone ls onedrive:

in your terminal.

To download a file from your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone copy onedrive:/path/to/file /path/to/local/directory

in the terminal. Replace the


paths with the file location and the location where you’d like to save the file on your local PC.

To upload a file to your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone copy /path/to/local/file onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory

. Replace the


paths with the file location and location in your OneDrive storage that you’d like to upload the file to.

You can also use the

rclone sync

command to synchronize all of the files between your OneDrive account and your local Linux filesystem. For example, to synchronize all files in your OneDrive account to a local directory called


, run the command

rclone sync onedrive: ~/onedrive


To synchronize a specific directory in your OneDrive account to a local directory, run the command

rclone sync onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory /path/to/local/directory

and replace the


paths with the correct remote and local directories.

How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Your Web Browser

Don’t want to install any additional software? You can quickly access your OneDrive files from a Linux PC using your web browser.

You can also share your files with others by selecting the file and pressing the Share button.

Remember that changes made to files and documents on the OneDrive website will be synchronized with any other devices connected to your Microsoft account.

Managing Your Linux Files

Using OneDrive on Linux can be achieved using one of the tools above (or by using the OneDrive website). Although Microsoft doesn’t offer a native OneDrive application for Linux, these alternatives provide a similar experience.

Worried about your files? Remember to keep your file backups automated, ensuring your data stays secure and up to date. Be mindful of potential OneDrive sync issues that could arise, and always double-check your settings if you run into problems.

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