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“Independent reading is not about a number of minutes or the level of the book. It is not a program,” write literacy experts and middle and high school teachers, Kylene Beers and Robert E. Probst in Literacy Today. “It is about creating independent thinkers who think with compassion, logic, and curiosity, and without manipulation from others. They think—and from those thoughts, they become more than they were. They become independent.”

Paired with regular guided reading instruction, independent reading should provide students with the opportunity to read widely, exploring high-interest and diverse texts across genres, bringing to the reading their own unique “perceptions, values, and thoughts,” write Beers and Probst.

Yet nurturing stimulating, immersive independent reading in the classroom—a critical part of developing lifelong readers—requires a willingness to loosen the reins to allow for more organic and unstructured reading time, opting sometimes for low-stakes reflection exercises instead of graded assessments and accountability tasks, and making space for students to exercise some degree of choice and passion.

Here are a few ways to help promote what Beers and Probst describe as the sometimes messy, noisy process of independent reading in the classroom.

Expand Beyond Reading Levels

When students are encouraged to explore texts above and below their reading level, it can liberate them from strict ideas about what they should or should not be reading, freeing them to read more broadly. “In my library, I much prefer the message that all books belong to all readers,” writes Julia Torres, a language arts teacher and librarian. “Often, without realizing it, when we lean too heavily on data pertaining to reading levels and achievement and share this information with students, it can lead to the development of prejudicial ideas about which books belong to which grades and readers.”

Putting this idea into practice, Torres and her colleague Alexander Maughan created “vertically aligned stacks” in the reading app Sora. Each stack includes books from a variety of grade levels, genres, and topics. Students explore the stacks and curate their own selections that correspond to their writing units and motifs, an approach that gives them access to a much broader range of texts compared to being assigned a set list of books.

Make Accountability Social

Reflection exercises, like establishing accountability partners where pairs of students check in regularly to discuss their reading, can help kids process and demonstrate their understanding of a text in fun, engaging ways that don’t feel like a test. Model book chats for students and supply them with a few conversation starters like: “What feelings did this book evoke for you,” or “Which character do you most relate to?”

Consider Low-Stakes Assessments

If the goal is to get kids reading—widely and voraciously—then it’s worth considering how to make reading feel less like a chore. Some traditional assessment and accountability tools, like mandatory daily reading logs and compulsory graded essays at the end of every book, can significantly decrease students’ reading motivation, making reading a duty rather than a pleasure.

Yet some form of accountability is necessary so teachers know kids are reading and processing the material.

Cultivate Open Inquiry

Fostering reading independence “looks like a democracy—it’s messy,” write Beers and Probst. “The goal is for all voices to be heard, which means making sure some voices are not louder or easier to hear than others, and that the other voices aren’t silenced.”

To ensure that each student feels like they have a voice at the table, and that the classroom reflects the rich diversity of people, perspectives, histories, and values that exist across the U.S., it’s important that students can browse and read from a rich selection of diverse texts that provides “mirrors, windows, and sliding glass doors” for students to see themselves in the materials they read.

From there, cultivating the conditions for genuine reflection and open discussion, the authors suggest, involves intentionally guiding students to think deeply about how their reading is changing their thinking, rather than how many pages or minutes they’ve accumulated. Conversations, Beers and Probst write, might now turn to questions like: “What’s in the book? What’s in your head? What’s in your heart? And now, what would you like to do?”

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Digital Marketing Strategy: How To Structure A Plan?

Improve your Digital marketing strategy – How do I structure my digital marketing plan? with our hub page

Use our hub pages as a reference to get up-to-speed on all the main digital marketing techniques. They will help you quickly understand how to make the most of the technique through definitions and recommendations on our member resources and blog articles covering strategy, best practices and the latest statistics.

How to structure a digital marketing strategy?

As with other types of marketing strategies, an effective digital strategy needs a clear process to define the steps of creating and implementing the plan. It also needs a clear framework of digital marketing activities to ‘cover all the bases’ of the many digital marketing techniques needed to maintain continuous visibility through always-on marketing activities using channels like web, search, social media and email marketing.

Our RACE Growth System for improving marketing effectiveness has two parts to structure your plan that covers both the framework and process that we will introduce in this article using two different visuals:

1. The RACE Planning Framework: defines the essential activities and measures businesses need to master to survive and thrive in today’s marketing world.

2. The RACE OSA improvement process: defines the three steps needed to build and implement your growth plan – either for your overall marketing plan or for an individual channel, such as organic search, social media or email marketing.

Learn how to use the RACE Growth system to improve your digital marketing

If you sign up as a Free member of Smart Insights, you can download our popular 90-day RACE planning template which explains how to use the RACE Growth system.

Part 1. The RACE Planning framework

Our popular infographic summarizes the 5 steps of the RACE Marketing Planning Framework which is a classic marketing funnel aimed at improving marketing effectiveness.

The benefit of our digital marketing framework is you can start to see results from your marketing activities instantly, and you can use data and insights to adapt your plan to meet your objectives as you can see below.

The Smart Insights approach to improving digital marketing maturity is data-driven, so the infographic recommends some of the key measures that should be used to set targets and improve performance at each stage.

Our free planning template recommends what to review to improve results from marketing in more detail.

Free digital marketing plan template

Our popular marketing planning template is structured across the Smart Insights RACE Framework. Join Smart Insights as a Free Member to download our digital marketing plan template today

Access the Free digital marketing plan template

Part 2. The RACE OSA improvement process:

To make the RACE planning framework actionable, OSA gives a simple process to create your overall strategy and improve the results of individual channels such as search, social media and email marketing.

The RACE OSA growth process is designed to help our members improve their results from marketing, customized to their needs based on the size and type of business, their personal experience and needs.

So you can make an instant impact, we recommend you start by creating a 90-day prioritized plan and then create a longer-term annual plan and roadmap.

OSA has three simple parts which integrate with our planning templates, learning paths and other tools:

In your first 90-days with Smart Insights, our system will quickly help you decide where you need to prioritize to achieve your business and personal needs by using our learning paths, tools and templates to create your learning and action plan.

What are the key activities in each part of OSA?

You can apply OSA to different marketing activities from creating a growth plan for the next 3 months, creating an annual plan or improving your marketing campaign process. It also works well for driving results from individual channels like the website, organic or paid search, social media or email marketing. You can also apply it to your personal learning and skills development.


Audit performance

Review marketplace

Key issues summary

Set objectives


Review marketing and digital strategy options

Assess budget / business case

Prioritize and select strategic initiatives


Plan 90-day activities

Implement plans

Review results

You can then continue improvement using our 90-day planning template.

5 stages of planning a digital marketing strategy with examples.

In this section, we will summarise the key success factors for each stage of your digital marketing strategy, with examples, integrated across the Smart Insights RACE Framework.

1. Plan

Every successful digital marketing strategy starts with a plan! We recommend you use a data-driven approach, review your current digital marketing effectiveness, and plan to improve from there.

To ensure your digital marketing strategy is working efficiently and effectively, we recommend taking a digitally-focused approach to strategy and planning. Our RACE Framework is designed for marketers and managers to create a fully integrated, data-driven, practical digital marketing funnel to support their business’ overall vision.

If you’re still looking to introduce or define digital marketing within your business, check out our recommended 18 digital marketing techniques to kick off your digital journey.

2. Reach

Strengthen your marketing funnel by reaching more customers and building awareness. Inform your digital marketing strategy with the latest key online marketing techniques to drive visits to your site.

Smart Insights members can keep up to date with the latest marketing techniques across each stage of the RACE Framework.

3. Act Content marketing

Here, strategic content marketing comes into play. Use content marketing to entertain, inspire, educate, and convince potential converters during their customer lifecycle.

4. Convert

The pinnacle of your structured digital marketing strategy is, of course, to convert more customers. Use retargeting, nurturing and conversion rate optimization to remind and persuade your audience to buy online or offline if phone and face-to-face channels if these are important to you.

5. Engage

Finally, after you’re worked so hard to get them, did you know you can increase sales from existing customers by keeping them engaged after their first purchase? Improve your personalized communications using web, email, and social media marketing using the data you already have about them to create hyper-personalized marketing campaigns.

Customer engagement research and testing options for digital marketers today include:

A/B testing

Customer personas

Customer journey and content mapping

Voice of customer surveys

Path analysis

Website customer intent surveys

Usability studies of digital experiences

Multivariate testing

Moreover, machine learning enables unprecedented insights into consumer behavior. For example, predictive analytics can be used to identify:

Best send times to engage an individual (can be based when they originally bought or subscribed, but this can be refined through time)

Best timing and offer for follow-up communications based on analysis of latency (average interval of response)

Best product or category combinations from cluster-based segmentation

Download a free digital marketing template to optimize your customers’ journeys

Digital marketing channels play a key role in your customers’ experiences of your brand. But in today’s demanding digital landscape where customers’ expectations are outpacing martech developments, failure to plan your omnichannel journeys can lead to a disconnect. Our RACE Framework can help you structure your plan.

Get started today using our tried and tested step-by-step process. Apply the Smart Insights RACE Framework to optimize your marketing and win more customers.

Do you have a defined digital marketing strategy?

Did you know many companies don’t have a digital marketing strategy?

Our recent Managing Digital marketing research report showed that almost half (45%) of companies don’t yet have a planned strategy:

To step you through the process of creating a plan our premium members use our RACE Practical Digital Marketing Learning Path.

Our Learning Paths are integrated with downloadable templates to help you audit your performance, set forecasts and create action plans. Each Learning Path includes different types of example templates in Excel, Powerpoint and Word from our resource library to help you create your action plans as you work through the Learning Path.

How To Find Anyone’s Email Address In 60 Seconds Or Less

Whether you’re a journalist or a digital marketer, you’ve likely been in the situation where you need to email somebody whose email is hard to find.

Luckily, journalists and digital marketers are some smart people, so they have all sorts of ways to find who they’re trying to reach.

Below, you’ll find some tried and true methods that’ll have you composing your email or launching an entire campaign in no time!

1. LinkedIn & Email Hunter

LinkedIn is a great place to find anyone’s email address.

According to their own count, LinkedIn currently has more than 722 million accounts.

And while one easy way to get someone’s email address is to just send an invitation to connect, that isn’t always an option.

So, take the following two-step approach.

Using LinkedIn’s Advanced Search, look up the target’s company.

You’ll get a list of relevant people who work there.

You may have to include other search terms depending on the company’s size.

If you’re looking for an editor, for example, include the title “editor.”

Once you have some top-notch results, it’s time for step two.

Sign up for and download the Chrome extension for Hunter.

You get 150 free lookups per month and it works with LinkedIn

Hunter has a high success rate and works on most corporate emails.

That’s why it currently enjoys five out of five stars in the Chrome store based on over 12,000 reviews!

2. Google Search Operators

Google search operators are one of Google’s most useful features.

All you need is the target domain, the name of the person you’re looking for, and specific keywords.

If the target’s email is anywhere on the site, whether in fine print or in a 5-year-old blog post, you’ll find it, along with every page the email is mentioned on.

Here’s two examples:

It’s that simple!

3. Mail Tester

Got an email but you’re not sure if it’s working?

Run it through Mail Tester.

Mail Tester is effective, but its efficacy depends on how the website’s mail servers are programmed.

Sometimes, mail servers block email verification, which Mail Tester will let you know using yellow highlighting.

Red highlighting means the email doesn’t exist.

Most often, though, you’ll get the green highlight, and that means go!

4. Take a Guess

There are only so many formats that a corporate email can have, so if you know them all you can just run them through MailTester and try the ones that work.

However, manually writing out all the possible combinations would be a real slog, so use Metric Sparrow’s Email Permutator+.

All you do is plug in the relevant info and Email Permutater+ gives you all the possible addresses.

5. Chrome Extensions

There are a lot of Chrome Extensions out there that can help you find and verify email addresses.

Some of them are parts of larger suites that automate and track email campaigns.

Others, meanwhile, are used by email campaign suites as the means by which they find and verify addresses.

The latter is the relationship between Hunter and Postaga.

Postaga helps you find contact information using Hunter.

Then Postaga helps you use that contact information to craft, execute, and track email campaigns around goals like having your website added to a resource page or offering your expertise to a podcast.

Mileage varies with these extensions.

For example, Ahrefs conducted a study with a small sample size of 100 emails.

Name2Email came in 1st out of 8 contenders with 91% accuracy while Hunter came in 3rd place with 78% accuracy.

At the same time, Hunter enjoys 5 out of 5 stars based on 12,177 reviews with 400,000+ users in the Chrome web store, while Name2Email has 4 out of 5 stars based on 184 reviews with 40,000+ users.

As you can see, there’s more than accuracy and good reviews to consider when deciding which extensions to use.

Luckily, the best-rated extensions all have free trials, so you can test them out to see which works best for you.

You can also use more than one extension at a time.

These are listed alphabetically.

4.9 out of 5 stars based on 160 reviews with 10,000+ users.

Free option with limitations is available.

Plans start at $49 per month.

You get upwards of 15 pieces of information about the target of your search.

Clearbit Connect

4.1 out of 5 stars based on 1,352 reviews with 100,000+ users.

Free access for 100 searches per month.

Paid plans depend on how you use Clearbit.

Clearbit can be used with Gmail or with your web browser.

Simply put in the name of the company and the first name or job title of your target, and Clearbit will provide an email.

Clearbit offers both individual and bulk searches, but you’ll have to verify the emails using a service like MailTester.


4 out of 5 stars based on 508 reviews with 100,000+ users.

Using ContactOut you can find phone numbers and triple verified personal email addresses with 97% accuracy.

Datanyze Insider

4 out of 5 stars based on 213 reviews with 30,000+ users.

Free: 10 credits. Insider Free plan.

Datanyze can do both individual and bulk email finding.

Its email tool searches the web for appearances of someone’s name and then pings potential email addresses to narrow down the list to the most likely one.


4 out of 5 stars based on 369 reviews with 30,000+ users. is free. builds a profile using information from Gmail, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

The profile is displayed in a small sidebar in your email inbox.

For email discovery, the extension works by having you enter potential email addresses that it then whittles down to the most likely option.


4.1 out of 5 stars based on 62 reviews with 20,000+ users.

Free: 15 credits per month.

Paid plans start at $59 per month

Hiretual finds email addresses, and other information like experience, seniority level, and compensation range by scouring LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook.

It also has an AI sourcing assistant that can take care of the souring for you while you do something else.

You’ll need to use a tool, MailTester, to verify.


5 out of 5 stars based on 12,177 reviews with 400,000+ users.

50 free searches and verifications per month for one user.

Paid plans start at $49 per month for 500 searches and verification for an unlimited number of users.

Hunter has 100+ million verified email addresses in an index that you can browse using search filters and accuracy scoring.


4.8 out of 5 stars based on 1,887 reviews with 200,000+ active users.

5 free search credits per month.

Paid plans start at $79 per month with 100 search credits split between 3 users.

Lusha helps you find emails and phone numbers by searching through publicly available information, completing email addresses based on standard corporate email patterns, and from business partners who volunteer their information.

A separate tool like MailTester would still be useful to verify the emails Lusha finds.


4 out of 5 stars based on 184 reviews with 40,000+ users.

Free unlimited searches.

Name2Email comes courtesy of Reply, a platform that provides automated email search, LinkedIn outreach, personal emails, and calls.

The extension offers individual searches.


4.1 out of 5 stars based on 60 reviews with 6,000+ users.

No free trial available, but there is a 30-day money-back guarantee. So, if you cancel within 30 days you get a free trial.

Prospect.iO finds emails and builds profiles, verifies emails, and allows for email campaigns as well.


4 out of 5 stars based on 289 stars with 300,000+ users.

The free plan offers 3 searches per month.

The paid version starts at $49 per month.

Rocketreach gets personal and work emails, phone numbers, and full profile information from a database of 250 million professionals from 6 million companies.

A single search gives you data from over 50 sites.


4.2 out of 5 stars based on 494 reviews with 100,000+ users.

The free version lets 1 user search for 150 emails per month.

Plans start at $49 for 2 users with 1,000 emails per month.

Skrapp finds and verifies emails on LinkedIn.

You can search for the employee’s name and the name of their company.

You can also find emails in bulk.

Five out of five stars based on 3,809 reviews with 100,000+ users.

50 free searches per month.

Plans start at $29 for 1,000 emails.


4 out of 5 stars based on four reviews with 1,000+ users.

5 free search credits per month.

200 search credits for $99 for one user.

You can then download and verify your finds.

UpLead claims a 95% accuracy guarantee.

The U.K.-based chúng tôi collects and publishes the work emails, Twitter handles, office phone numbers, and postal addresses of CEOs, company directors, and senior staff at organizations worldwide.

7. All My Tweets

You’d be surprised how often people tweet out their own email addresses.

That’s where All My Tweets comes into play.

The service displays an account’s most recent 3,200 tweets on a single page.

You can also search for phone number by searching for:



“call me.”

“text me.”

and other terms one would use when giving out a phone number.

8. Twitter Advanced Search

Go to Twitter’s Advanced Search, and search for (at) (dot) and put in your target’s Twitter handle in the People section.

This way you’ll find Tweets that your target Tweeted out that contain an email address (although, not necessarily theirs).

9. Tweet at Them

As you saw above, plenty of people who are otherwise hard to reach Tweet out their contact info.

You could be on the receiving end of that tweet just by asking!

If you’re having any doubts, just remember that just asking for a “Retweet” increases retweets by 23X!

Asking for an email might seem intimidating, but if you have a good reason for them to give it to you then just go for it!

10. Ask Their Company Rep

You can email and ask to be connected to the person you’re trying to reach.

11. Check Their WhoIs Information

When you register a domain name, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) make you put your personal contact info into the WHOIS database.

That way anyone who uses the WHOIS search tool can find a way to reach you.

Many people pay to make their contact information private, which means that only proxy contact information is provided.

You can always try sending an email to the proxy address.

12. Subscribe to Their Mailing List

If your target has a newsletter on their blog then subscribing to it may give you access to their contact info since most newsletters are sent from their personal email address.

13. Pick up the Phone

If you’re having a hard time finding the email you’re looking for, you can always just call and ask.

If you have a direct phone number for the person you’re looking for or their company, then great.

Just make sure you start things right by talking about something of value.

If you have a super amazing piece of content that’s relevant to their audience, or an outstanding product that will get them excited, then pick up the phone.

However, don’t call if you don’t have a good reason to do so.

Put yourself in their shoes. Would you be interested in what you have to offer?

Hopefully, you did enough research before carrying out any outreach in the first place to know whether a phone call is appropriate.

More Resources:

Image Credits

All screenshots taken by author, November 2023

How To Add Or Remove The Reading List Side Panel In Google Chrome.

Related: How to fix EA app error “There was a slight hiccup and we couldn’t finish installing”

Google Chrome is still the most used Internet browser currently in existence but it has a lot of competition in the chromium browser space these days. Microsoft Edge, Opera, Brave, and several others are gaining a lot of users. There are plenty of different reasons for this gradual shift, however, the primary one is resource usage and features.

How do you enable or disable the Reading List side panel in Google Chrome?

To begin, open Google Chrome on your device, Windows, Mac whatever, this process is the same regardless of your device.

Now that you have Google Chrome open, type chrome://flags into the address bar and press Enter.

Next, use the search bar at the top of the page and search reading.

This will bring up several different options, find Side Panel, then use the drop-down menu to the right and change the setting from Default to either Enabled or Disabled depending on whether you want the side panel Enabled or Disabled.

Finally, restart/relaunch the browser and the change will take effect.

You can make this change as many times as you like, however you should be prepared for Google to either force enable the feature or force disable the feature at some stage. There is a tradition within Chrome to remove these options after a period of time forcing the change onto users. However, for this particular case, there aren’t any hints as to which way the decision will go. My guess is that the reading lists side panel is here to stay.

Chrome lagging after updating Windows 11?

How to fix Internet browser lag on Windows 10 & 11 after updating.

Gifts For People Who Love To Go Camping (And Their, Uh, Less Enthusiastic Friends)

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Car camping is the best. The thrill of sleeping outdoors—the chill in the air at night, the warmth of a fire, the chit-chat around it—is still yours to enjoy, but unlike backpacking, you don’t need to test your physical limits by carrying a ton of gear. By bringing a car to a campsite, you can invest in heavier, more durable supplies that will keep you comfortable. Plus! You can construct a good camp kitchen. Below, the gear for that person in your life who likes to be outside … and also comfy.

Standing up in a tent is a luxury, and makes doing things like changing clothes way easier. The Marmot Halo 6P is more than 6 feet tall, which is quite spacious in the wild world of tents. It also comes a rain fly that goes over the top to keep you dry on dreary nights. $450.

Sleeping bags are cocoons meant to keep you warm, and that’s a good thing in the outdoors. But they sure do make it hard to snuggle. The North Face Dolomite Double sleeps two, so layers of down or synthetic feathers won’t separate you from your partner. $169.

Don’t sit on the cold ground. Plunk your butt into this Kingdom Chair, and enjoy your time outdoors from an elevated perch. This 10-pound chair folds up for easy storage and has a military colorway that might match the nearby trees. $50.

And while you’re sitting down after dinner, wrap yourself in a Matador Pocket Blanket. Packed into a tiny shape, it’ll fit in your hand or a coat pocket, but spread out it’s over 5 feet long and about 3.5 feet wide. One side is water-resistant, so you could take shelter under it in a light rain. $30.

Campfires generally burn logs made of wood. But if you kindle a Pine Mountain Java-Log Firelog, your campsite will have a coffee-tinted smell—because this “log” is made from recycled coffee grounds. $25.

Backpackers frequently carry small, light stoves like WhisperLites. But in a base camp, it pays to set up something more stable. The Camp Chef Everest stove features two burners, so you can make eggs in the morning and heat water for coffee, and runs off propane. $100.

Whether you’re consuming hot chocolate at night or coffee in the morning, you’ll need to heat water to make it so. This aluminum kettle holds nearly half a gallon, and its handle makes pouring the hot stuff easy. $30.

Campsites need kitchens, even if they’re ad-hoc. Snow Peak makes a classy-yet-practical table with a bamboo surface that provides a clean place upon which to cut veggies or set down a drink. It folds up for easy transport, too. $115.

You’ve heated water in your kettle over your nice two-burner stove. Now put it in something tough-but-swanky (in an outdoorsy kind of way). Famous for their coolers, Yeti also makes rugged drinking vessels, like these 10-oz. tumblers meant for hot or cold beverages. $80.

If you’re hiking as well as just camping, you’ll want to wear hiking boots or shoes. At the end of the day, take them off and wear these KEEN Howser Slippers around the campsite instead. Warm, lightweight, and water-resistant, they’ll protect your feet from stones but still give you a much-needed break from the sweaty shoes you hiked in. $80.

Maybe you want to cook eggs and sausage for breakfast, or enjoy a beer at night. Either way, you’ll want a place to keep that stuff cool. The OtterBox Venture Cooler is bear-resistant (a metric you’ll hopefully never need to test), but more important, it will keep your stuff cold for as long as two weeks. Bottle opener included. $350.

Usually being outside means enjoying the quiet, but sometimes you just might want to listen to some music. The Ultimate Ears Wonderboom Bluetooth speaker is waterproof, so it will survive a drizzle, and runs off a battery that’s rated for 10 hours of play. $72.

Interested in talking about deals and gadgets? Request to join our exclusive Facebook group. With all our product stories, the goal is simple: more information about the stuff you’re thinking about buying. We may sometimes get a cut from a purchase, but if something shows up on one of our pages, it’s because we like it. Period.

Types And Structure Of Delaware Corporation

Introduction to Delaware Corporation

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Delaware corporations are very famous in the US because of the business-friendly laws to which they are subjected, and almost half of the Standard & Poor’s 500 rated are present in Delaware. Finance companies, to be specific, are very popular here because of the higher charge of interest on loans that they charge from their customers, and Delaware corporations are allowed to do so. Delaware corporation rules give lenders greater freedom to charge higher interest on loans.

Types of Delaware Corporation

The different types of Delaware corporations are as follows:

1. Limited Liability Company

A Delaware LLC is registered with the specific Certificate of Formation with the Delaware Secretary of State. These corporations have meager start-up fees and a friendly tax rate. This setup offers the owners or members protection of their assets against liability or creditors, which means members are not responsible for liability more than the initial investment one has put into the LLC.

2. Limited Partnership

A Delaware Limited partnership firm includes more than one member or partner. General partners’ duties include general management function, and one or more members should be the ones who will not participate in the management function and are termed, limited partners. To conduct business, one has to obtain a Certificate of limited partnership from the Delaware Division of Corporations. General partners are responsible or liable for any financial obligations of the firm, whereas limited partners have no liability towards the firm’s debt or obligations.

3. S-Corporation

Delaware S-corporation is an entity that doesn’t pay federal taxes. An S-Corp needs to firm form a Delaware general or close corporation and then file for Form 2553 with the IRS. The IRS, upon approval, won’t tax such a corporation, but the tax liability will be passed to each shareholder by their proportionate ownership of the company.

4. Non-Profit Corporation 5. General Corporation

This is called C-Corp and is generally formed when the company plans to go public or IPO. This corporation is formed to lure in venture capital investments. The shareholders are the company owners but don’t contribute to managing the company.

6. Close Corporation

A Delaware close corporation is where shareholders, management, directors, and officers are the same people and are organized into a small, closed group. A closed corporation cannot have more than 30 shareholders. The closed corporation operates with all legal protection that a corporation enjoys.

7. Public Benefit Corporation

The public benefit company makes it mandatory to act ethically regarding society and the environment. The company is formed the same way a Delaware corporation is formed to ensure it works for the common public benefit.

Structure of Delaware Corporation

The Delaware Corporation primarily has three levels or tiers:

Shareholders: They are generally considered to be the firm’s owners and are responsible for all significant decisions. They are the ones who own the shares of the corporation. These shareholders have power over the company’s common stock and voting rights to elect the board of directors.

Directors: Directors are elected by owners or shareholders of the firm and are responsible for making significant decisions. They oversee the company and make critical managerial decisions.

Officers: Officers are elected by directors and look over the day-to-day management of the corporation. They are generally the “President” of the firm or “Treasurer.”

Difference between Delaware Corporation vs LLC

The Delaware Corporation or C-Corp requires a board of directors for its management, whereas an LLC doesn’t need it. LLC can be managed even by a single owner and doesn’t follow a hierarchical management structure. The prime difference arises in the governance structure. In the case of C-Corp, the management comprises three levels: shareholders, directors, and officers. In contrast, in the case of an LLC, there is a legal agreement called the operating agreement, which is a contract between all the members of the LLC.

Second is the ground of federal taxation. A Corporation has three choices of taxation, i.e., C-Corp, S-Corp, and Tax-exempt. In contrast, when it comes to LLC, there are only two choices, i.e., IRS considers a single member firm as a disregarded entity and a multi-member firm as a partnership agreement. The last and final grounds of difference can be based on privacy. A corporation requires providing the names and addresses of all directors in its annual statement, whereas an LLC has to provide very minimum information. It doesn’t have to give its members’ names and addresses.


Delaware Court of Chancery has high grounds of respect and is very well established. In any litigation, one gets a very experienced lawyer to resolve the problem.

The corporation’s structuring can be done quickly because Delaware laws are very business-friendly.

Delaware involves greater privacy as it doesn’t call upon declaring the names and addresses of directors.

Investors have the high ground of faith in Delaware Corporations, and thus these corporations are also investor-friendly.

Delaware has business-friendly taxation policies, which benefit the business operating under its umbrella.

One demerit can be if a business is doing business there but not headquartered in Delaware; it has to pay or follow the tax structure of both states of Delaware and the state where it is headquartered.

One has to bear additional fees to do business in Delaware.

Delaware Corporation requires additional annual reporting documents in addition to the state where a business may be headquartered.

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