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Unfortunately, having to use sudo to run Nmap can be problematic, especially if you are not in the sudo group.

Fortunately, you can use capabilities to run Nmap without root or sudo privileges.

What are capabilities?

Linux capabilities are Linux kernel attributes that allow programs and processes to utilize privileges otherwise reserved for the root user.

In essence, Linux capabilities share root user powers or privileges, making it possible for unprivileged processes to run as privileged ones, which means they don’t undergo permission checks.

There are numerous Linux capabilities. You can learn more about Linux capabilities in the man pages.

The essence of this guide is to show you how to use three capabilities: CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_NET_ADMIN, and CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE to give Nmap the privileges it needs to run without checking for root user permissions.

Note: be cautious when setting elevated capabilities, as a malicious user can exploit the Nmap’s Scripting Engine to get access to full sudo privileges and use scripts to exploit local host vulnerabilities. Therefore, use these settings carefully or restrict Nmap’s access to specific groups.

The following are Linux capabilities we grant to Nmap to remove the need for sudo and root permissions.

CAP_NET_RAW: setting this capability allows a process to access and use raw packet data and sockets.

CAP_NET_ADMIN: this capability gives the process the capacity to perform various network activities like IP firewall administration, interface configuration, set service type of TOS, change routing tables, etc.

CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE: This capability binds a socket to Internet domain privileged ports.

Step 1: Install libcap

To set Linux capabilities, you need to install the libcap package. This package allows you to use the setcap command. Use the command:


apt-get install


Now that we have libcap installed, we can use the setcap command to modify Linux capabilities.

Step 2: Set Nmap capabilities

To set the Nmap capabilities that will allow it to run without root user privileges, execute the command:


setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin,cap_net_bind_service+eip $





Once you set the capabilities, you can verify they have been applied by using the getcap command.

getcap $





Note: it’s imperative to specify the full path to your Nmap installation folder.

Step 3: Run Nmap with the privilege flag

Now that we have these three capabilities set, we can run Nmap without sudo privileges by using the privilege flag to let Nmap know that it has these capabilities. To do that, execute:




Note: You have to use the --privileged option, otherwise Nmap won’t know that it has these privileges.

If you want to save the time it takes to type in the nmap --privilegedflag every time, you can set NMAP_PRIVILEGED environmental variable permanently by adding the export line to:

~/.xsessionrc: this works with most desktop/graphical environments and is inheritable by shells and terminals.

~/.profile: this works for shells that require login

~/.bashrc: works for bash

~/.gnomerc: only works for GNOME

Wrapping Up

Most Nmap port scanning and host discovery methods require root or sudo privileges. As discussed in the tutorial, you can override this functionality and run Nmap without being a root or in the sudoers group. Check out some of the best Linux port scanners you can use.

John Wachira

John is a technical writer at MTE, when is not busy writing tech tutorials, he is staring at the screen trying to debug code.

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How To Run Windows Apps On Mac Without Installing Windows

Once your data has been transferred safely and securely, switching from Windows to macOS is mostly a breeze! However, you may be used to Windows-exclusive apps for your general computing. 

There are a few options. Emulation layers like WineBottler (free) and CrossOver Mac (reasonably priced) can trick many Windows apps into working under macOS without a full installation! Remarkably, they also do it with very little to no technical know-how involved. It’s a plug-and-play affair and a wonderful example of complex technology being simplified for the day-to-day user.

Table of Contents

In this guide, you’ll learn how to use CrossOver Mac to reliably run a PaintDotNet alternative called PictBear and Notepad++. Hopefully, by the end of this guide, you’ll be able to install the Windows apps you want on your Mac all on your own!

Note: Some Windows apps won’t work using this solution. It’s impossible to run an app like PaintDotNet on a Mac without installing Windows under Boot Camp or a virtualization app. PaintDotNet is the kind of Windows app that relies heavily on system files and frameworks to function. Unfortunately, apps like this, or very large and complex apps will have a hard time functioning under an emulator like CrossOver Mac.

Before We Begin

One note on WineBottler before we start. Being the free alternative, it’s only natural that you will be tempted to try it. Unfortunately, WineBottler’s performance is underwhelming. The app catalog is smaller, it contains very outdated software, and most apps won’t run when you use it.

Hence, this guide is about CrossOver Mac. The app has a free 14-day trial period and licenses start at an affordable USD 29.95. You don’t have to pay anything to try it. It’s also fully compatible with macOS Catalina.

Installing CrossOver Mac

It takes little more than basic computer literacy to install and use CrossOver Mac. If you can open a .zip file and follow some instructions, you’re good to go.

1. Head to CodeWeavers’s website and download the trial version of CrossOver Mac.

4. Following installation, launch CrossOver Mac and select Try when prompted:

That’s it! The CrossOver Mac app will open.

Using CrossOver Mac

The journey begins from the simple window shown above. Select the big Install a Windows Application button.

The following window will appear. Select the Always Update button and wait a bit. The app will let you know when it’s finished updating.

The app will begin installing. Depending on the app, you might see a typical Windows-like installer appear. Follow the on-screen instructions.

When the installation completes, select Done.

Next, you’ll see the window below. 

How to Open Windows Apps Installing Windows apps

Installing Notepad++, for example, works the same way. Simply open CrossOver Mac and select the Install a Windows Application button. Type Notepad++ or the name of your app in the text input box. If an installer for it is readily available, it will appear in your search like this:

Select Continue and follow the on-screen instructions. The process is the same as it was for PictBear.

If an installer for your app is not readily available, chances are it won’t work under CrossOver Mac. However, you can still try!

1. Download the app’s installer (an executable file).

3. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Deleting Windows apps

Maybe the app you installed with CrossOver Mac didn’t live up to your expectations or you found a better alternative. Here’s how to get rid of it:

1. Open CrossOver Mac.

That’s it! I hope this guide makes your switch to Mac even easier.

How To Recover Your Tiktok Account Without Email Or Phone Number

Did you forget your TikTok password but you don’t have access to your email or phone number?

If you still have access to either your email or phone number, you can reset your password on the app.

To do so, on the “Forgot password?” option on the login screen.

However, if you don’t have access to your email or phone number, you need to use another method to recover your TikTok account.

Otherwise, you have to create another TikTok account.

That said, if your account has a lot of followers or likes, it’s best to recover it.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to recover your TikTok account without email or phone number.

How to recover your TikTok account without email or phone number

To recover your TikTok account without email or phone number, you need to submit the “Share your feedback” form.

Alternatively, you can create a new TikTok account and report a problem directly on the app.

After you’ve submitted the feedback form or reported a problem, wait for a few days for TikTok’s response.

The TikTok feedback form is for users who have a problem that they want to report or feedback that they want to share.

Other than the feedback form, you can contact TikTok directly on the app.

However, this is not recommended as they are probably not going to respond to you.

Lastly, select a relevant topic, describe your issue, and select “Report”.

1. Navigate to the “Share your feedback” form

Open a browser like Google Chrome or Safari.

The TikTok feedback form has two uses—it allows you to share your feedback or report a problem.

Any information that you provide will only be used to respond to your report.

2. Enter your email address and username

Enter your email address.

Enter your TikTok username.

Select “General account inquiry” as the topic.

Select “Recover account” as the sub-topic.

Enter the email address that is associated with your TikTok account.

If you lost access to it, you can enter another email address instead or make a new one.

Although the username field is optional, you need to enter it since you’re trying to recover your account.

3. Explain that you lost your email and phone number

Explain that you lost access to your email address and phone number and need help recovering your account in the “How can we help?” field.

Submit the form and wait 1 to 3 business days for TikTok’s response.

Here’s an example description, “Hi TikTok, I forgot my TikTok password but I lost access to my email and phone number. My TikTok username is @example. I need help to recover it”.

You don’t have to upload any attachments because you’re reporting that you lost access to your email and phone number.

Do note that it can take more than 3 business days for TikTok to respond to you.

TikTok will respond to you via the email address that you’ve provided in the “Email” field.

Make sure to check your email for their response with instructions on how you can recover your account.

How can I change my TikTok password without a phone number?

To change your TikTok password without a phone number, you can use your email address instead.

However, if you lost access to your email address, you need to contact TikTok using the TikTok feedback form or report a problem on the app itself.

How do I get my old Tiktok account back without a password?

To get your old TikTok account back without a password, you can log in with your phone number.

TikTok will then send a 4-digit code to your phone number that you need to key in before you can log in to your account.

Then, TikTok will send you a link to reset your password.


If you lost access to your TikTok account, recovering it is important.

This is because you might have uploaded some videos on your account that you want to delete.

Or maybe you have a lot of followers that you don’t want to lose.

Either way, you can follow the steps in this guide to recover your TikTok account.

Further Reading

3 Ways to Contact TikTok

Can You Log into TikTok on Two Devices?

How to Get Your TikTok Profile URL

How To Root Oneplus 7

The OnePlus 7 has been constantly overshadowed by the OnePlus 7 Pro since it was launched last month. At £499, this phone is also considered to be the successor of the OnePlus 6T which came out last year. While it does not have the 90Hz refresh rate and completely notch-less screen like the OnePlus 7 Pro, the performance and competitive price point make this phone an excellent bet.

So yes, once you focus past the glamour of the OnePlus 7 Pro, you will discover a great phone that carries the best of both OnePlus 6T and OnePlus 7 Pro without the skepticism that surrounded them (and still surrounds the OnePlus 7 Pro for its mechanical camera) when they first came out.

OnePlus is committed to offering the best possible Android experience with the OnePlus 7 series. This Snapdragon 855 powered phone that comes with a 48MP camera and 6.42-inch optic AMOLED display accommodates the custom ROM of your choice if you want a more refined and customized Android experience.

The bootloader of the OnePlus 7 can be unlocked fairly easily and you will not face any major resistance or issues when you decide to root this phone. You can check out how to root the OnePlus 7 here.

How to root OnePlus 7 with TWRP

Let’s discuss how to install TWRP recovery first and then use it to root the device. Even if you don’t want to root the device, you will need to install DM Verity disabler file in order to restart the device alright without the bootloop problem. If you don’t flash either of root package (Magisk) or DM verity disabler, then the system will remove TWRP when you to reboot the device and it gets stuck in bootloop, getting stuck at logo screen each time.

TWRP recovery download

TWRP 3.3.1-0

.IMG file – twrp-3.3.1-0-guacamoleb.img

.ZIP file –

How to install TWRP recovery

We have covered this as part of the root guide because you need to root the device right away to keep TWRP. If you don’t wish to root the device, you need to install the DM Verity disabler file instead of Magisk roto package. See the guide in the section called ‘OnePlus 7 Root’ below to install TWRP.

OnePlus 7 Root

Let’s see how to install TWRP first, and then root the OnePlus 7.


Do not try anything given on this page if you do not know completely what you are doing. In case any damage occurs, we won’t be held responsible.


The download files and the process for installing TWRP and rooting given on this page are compatible only with the OnePlus 7. Do not try this on any other device as you might end up damaging your device and permanently brick it.

Here’s how you can install TWRP recovery on your OnePlus 7 first, and then root the device (or install DM Verity disabler if you don’t want root).

Make sure you have unlocked the bootloader of your OnePlus 7.

Download the required files:

TWRP recovery from above

Magisk root package zip → Magisk 19.3

DM Verity disabler

Make sure you have enabled USB Debugging on your OnePlus 7 device. You may need to re-do it after unlocking the bootloader.

Connect your OnePlus 7 device to PC using the USB cable that came with it.

Transfer these files to your OnePlus 7:

TWRP installer ZIP file

Magisk file (if you want to root)

DM Verity disabler (if you don’t want to root)

Now open a command window inside the folder where you have the TWRP file from above. Do this:

Go to the folder where you have the downloaded files.

Type cmd in the folder’s address bar.

Connect your OnePlus 7 device to the PC.

Run the following command into the command window we opened above to boot your device into bootloader/fastboot mode: adb reboot bootloader

└ If you get a permission dialogue on your OnePlus 7 to “Allow USB debugging”, tap OK.

Install TWRP recovery on your OnePlus 7 on a temporary basis:

Once your OnePlus 7 boots into bootloader mode, run the command below to install TWRP temporarily and access it right away.

Install TWRP recovery on your OnePlus 7 permanently. If you are sure that TWRP is working well, you can now install the TWRP recovery permanently. Here’s how:

On the device, tap on the Install button.

Select the TWRP ZIP file you transferred right above.

Perform the Swipe action to confirm and install the TWRP recovery permanently.

[Careful!] Now, reboot back to TWRP again. Tap on the home button, then on the Reboot button, and then on the Recovery button to restart the device into TWRP.

Wait, don’t reboot the device yet. You still need to root the device using Magisk, or install a DM Verity disabler file, to not let the system remove TWRP when you restart the device. Yes, to keep TWRP, you need to install either Magisk file or DM Verity disabler file. See the next step for that.

Root your OnePlus 7. But if you don’t want to root the device, simply install DM Verity disabler file in place of Magisk root file.

Go back to the home screen of TWRP.

Tap on Install.

Browse and select the Magisk root package file (or the DM Verity disabler file).

Perform the Swipe action to confirm the installation on the next screen.

Tap on Reboot system button to restart your OnePlus 7 to Android. If you installed Magisk, you can verify root access on your OnePlus 7 using a root checker app. (Without root or DM Verity disabler, the device will get stuck in the bootloop at the logo screen.)

So, that was all about installing root using TWRP recovery. If you don’t want to install TWRP but wish to root right away, that’s possible too. See the method below for that. Be sure to select the correct patched boot image file as per the software version currently installed on your device at the moment.

How to root OnePlus 7 without TWRP

The root method above used TWRP recovery, installing which is tiresome these days as you need to take care of decryption, DM verity check, auto removal, etc. stuff.

This would come handy then that you can actually root your OnePlus 7 without using TWRP recovery as you will us patched boot image file, which depends on the software version currently installed on your phone.

So, when you update your OnePlus 7, you need to use the new software version’s patched boot image file.

Anyway, here’s how you can root your OnePlus 7 without using TWRP. It’s way easy.

Make sure you have unlocked the bootloader of your OnePlus 7. And that you have USB debugging enabled, and fastboot and adb driver installed, all of which is part of the bootloader unlock guide too.

Download required patched boot image file:

OxygenOS 9.5.4

Connect your OnePlus 7 device to PC using the USB cable that came with it.

Connect your OnePlus 7 device to the PC.

Run the following command into the command window we opened above to boot the OnePlus 7 into bootloader/fastboot mode: adb reboot bootloader

└ If you get a permission dialogue on your OnePlus 7 to “Allow USB debugging”, tap OK.

Once your OnePlus 7 boots into fastboot mode, run the command below to install patched boot image file.

Now, restart your OnePlus 7 by issuing the following command: fastboot reboot

Once you are in Android OS, do the below to root your OnePlus 7 (don’t restart before completing the steps below):

Open Magisk app.

Tap on Install.

Tap on Install Magisk.

Tap on Direct Install.

Restart the device now. Your OnePlus 7 is now rooted. (The root will be retained even if you reboot the device now.)

That’s all.

Do let us know if you need any help regarding getting root access on the OnePlus 7.

How To Run Windows Programs On Mac

Different ways to run Windows apps on Mac 1. Wineskin Winery

Wineskin is a tool used to make ports of Windows software for the macOS. What the application does, is that it creates a wrapper for the Windows’ application you want to run, so that you can execute it on the Mac. Wineskin is completely free, and will allow you to create wrappers for any application that you want to run on a Mac.

To get started with using Wineskin, you’ll have to download it first.

Once you have done that, you can simply follow the steps given below to get your Windows’ application running on your Mac:

First, unzip the HTMLasText zip file that you downloaded, and then launch Wineskin Winery. When you launch Wineskin for the first time, the list of installed engines, and the “wrapper version” will be empty. So, we’ll have to install those first. I have already used Wineskin before, so the list is not empty in my case.

Wineskin will start creating the blank wrapper. If you get prompted to install some additional packages, make sure you allow Wineskin to install them. After a while, Wineskin will tell you that the wrapper has been created.

Well, that was all that you needed to do in order to get a Windows’ application working on your Mac. Do note that this method might not work for all applications, but it usually does. In my experience, trying to use this method to run heavy games usually does not work, but you might have better luck.

In case Wineskin doesn’t work out for you, you can try out the next method.

2. Codeweavers CrossOver

CrossOver, by Codeweavers is essentially built around the Wineskin Winery wrapper itself. However, unlike Wineskin, the CrossOver app is commercial, and is available for purchase (for  $15.950), however the app also offers a 14 day trial, that you can download from the Codeweavers website.

CrossOver officially supports a large number of Windows’ applications, and if you have any trouble with using the officially supported apps, you can call tech support and they will definitely try and fix it for you. To get started with using CrossOver to run Windows’ applications on the Mac, simply follow the steps below:

In the window that opens up, start typing the name of the application you want to install. The drop down box will dynamically update to display the officially supported applications that match the name you have entered. If you can’t find the name of the application you want to run (as is the case with HTMLasText), simply select “Unlisted“.

You’ll have to wait, while CrossOver installs the application, and then it will automatically launch the application (or the installer) for you.

 3. Using a Virtual Machine

If neither of the methods mentioned above work for the app that you want to use, you can deploy a Virtual Machine, with Windows installed on it. This will effectively let you use a Windows PC inside the macOS environment itself, and you can install any Windows’ application in the virtual machine.

If you want to deploy a virtual machine on your Mac, you can read our detailed article about running Windows on a Mac.

4. Dual Boot Windows using Boot Camp Assistant

Chances are, that a Windows VM would have allowed you to run pretty much any Windows’ software that you might have wanted to. However, if the application you want to run requires the full horsepower of your Mac (a high-end game, for example), then allocating all those resources to a virtual machine might spiral into a recipe for disaster. If you want the full horsepower of your Mac hardware to be available to the Windows’ application that you want to run, then your only option is to use Boot Camp Assistant.

Boot Camp Assistant is a utility that Apple includes with the Mac, which allows users to dual boot their Mac with Windows. So, you will basically have both the operating systems installed on your Mac hard drive, or SSD, and you can choose the one you want to boot into, every time you power up your Mac.

Use These Methods to Run Windows Programs on Mac

How To Study Without Getting Bored

Research shows that the average concertation time for adults is two hours. But, some people go for only one hour before their mind switching off. It’s terrible if you have an upcoming end-of-semester exam or a bulk of informal essays. Here are some tips to help you study without getting bored.

How to Study Without Getting Bored Reward your efforts

Look for ways to reward you after studying for a long. It will help you to always look forward to another study time. For instance, you can go out with friends or watch a movie. But, your reward system should be dynamic.

Otherwise, your brain will get used to it and stop responding with excitement. So, you need a long list of how to celebrate your wins.

Set a studying limit

Also read: Top 5 Automation Tools to Streamline Workflows for Busy IT Teams

Take breaks

Allow your head to break after a rigorous research. Pupils believe because they have a massive portion to see, having fractures is a waste of time. They wind up studying five chapters simply to comprehend two segments.

It is not the quantity of content you browse but what your mind keeps after two or three days. Alternate units do not read exactly the identical thing for long-term. Have a maximum of 3 hours to see a unit and alternative with different subjects.

The technique applies even during examination time. If you have to read one unit a day, make sure you have fractures and just study at the utmost time. Reading the identical thing for extended will make you forget anything you’ve read previously.

Instead, start looking for an essay writing support out of the world wide web that will assist you manage your tomorrow’s newspaper rather than wasting time studying failing and long.

Study as a group

The ideal way to enjoy analyzing is by linking classes. They invite you to remain in your publications provided that you see how other men and women take their studies seriously. You’ll also focus more after understanding that you’re not the only one studying.

Also read: 7 Best Woocommerce Plugins to boost your Store you must know

Put away distractions

You get bored once you begin studying since you can not compare books with a continuing soccer game in your tv. Thus, once you’re not looking for an examination, you readily replace your novels with the series.

Make sure you proceed to a location free of distraction. If you reside in a distracting environment, it’d be better to stay in college or visit a library.

You’ll have more time with your novels. Nonetheless, you ought to be decided to read since it’s possible to carry your telephone and keep watching the match together with your earphones.

Be disciplined

Your study guidelines will not be effective if you are not disciplined. You need to remain true to your word if you want to have a happy reading time.

Also read: Top 10 Successful SaaS Companies Of All Times

Have an accountable partner

Ask a friend to watch over your studying behavior. Give them the power to fine you or inflict any form of restrictions if you break your reading rule. For instance, for every chat during study time, you will donate ten dollars to an NGO.

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