Trending December 2023 # How To Use Access Control Lists To Control File Permissions On Linux # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

You are reading the article How To Use Access Control Lists To Control File Permissions On Linux updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 How To Use Access Control Lists To Control File Permissions On Linux

A very useful feature in Linux is the “Access Control Lists” which controls access to files and directories. Here is how the access control lists work to control the file permissions in Linux.

Note: To thoroughly grasp how access control lists work, we’re first setting up some users and groups on a working Linux system. The following exercise is carried out on a virtual machine running Kali operating system. The root user has the power to add new users to the system and allot them to groups.

Creating users and groups

Firstly, we will log in as root, create users and put them in respective groups as shown in the table below. The users have been given simple names to help comprehend the concept better.

User Group

john3 johns

jane2 janes

We will use the adduser command to add new users to the system.

The id command will display the details of the newly created user. It will show the user id (uid), group id (gid) and group name (groups). The user, upon creation, is automatically added to a group with the same name as the user name. That user would be the sole member of the group.

Likewise, users “john2” and “john3” are also created.

adduser john2 adduser john3

Once the three users have been created, use theid command to view the respective user and group ids.

We can see that the three users are in their own groups – 1000, 1001 and 1002. According to the table shown earlier, we want the three users to be in the same group: johns. Since such a group does not exist on the system currently, we will create it with the groupadd command:

The new group ID is specified as 5000. If the -g switch is ignored, then the system will automatically pick a group ID. The name of the new group is “johns.” Now the three users – “john1,” “john2” and “john3” – need to be added as members of this group. We will use the usermod command for this task.

The same process is done for users “john2” and “john3.”



johns john2 usermod


johns john3

Finally, details of the three users in the “johns” group can be viewed using id command.

We have successfully created three users and added them to the same group.

Similarly, users “jane1” and “jane2” are created and added to the “janes” group with gid 6000. Their details can be viewed using the id command as shown below.

What is the need for Access Control Lists?

Let’s assume user “john1” logs in,

creates a new file in the Home directory,

and adds some content to it.

Using thels command, we view the file’s metadata.

The first few characters in the output, - rw - r - - r - - account for the permission string. Let us dissect it.

– rw – r – – r – –

file type permissions john1 has on the file permissions members of johns group have on the file permissions given to others not in johns group

This article is a good primer on file permissions.

What if “john1,” being the file owner, wants to additionally give write permissions only to “john2” and “jane1” but persist with read permissions for “john3” and “jane2?”

rw – r – –

jane1 jane2

One option would be to create a new group with read, write permissions for “john1,” “john2” and “jane1” and another group with only read permissions for “john3” and “jane2.” In case john1 wishes to modify permissions further for any group member, then more groups need to be created. Creating and managing multiple groups is a burden to the system administrator.

Instead, an “Access Control List” can be created for a file which would clearly state the operations any user can perform on that file.

How to Create an Access Control List (ACL) for a file?

Every file upon creation has an ACL assigned to it. Using it efficiently is simply a matter of modifying it. Only the file owner and root user can modify the ACL of a file.

We can use the getfacl command to view the existing ACL:

Let us use the setfaclcommand to modify the existing ACL on the file.

entity name permissions

user (u) or group(g) or others(o)

the read,write,execute permissions are denoted by the letters r,w,x

“john2” is first given read, write access to the file,

followed by “jane1.”

Let us view the updated ACL for “secretfile.”

We can see that read and write permissions have been assigned to “john2” and “jane1.”

Verifying the authenticity of the ACL

We can see that “john2” is able to read the file and write to it.

The new information entered by “john2” has been appended to the file.

Likewise, “jane1” gets the same privilege – read access and write access.

But “john3” in the same group is unable to write to the file.

“jane2,” who belongs to the other category, is also unable to write to the file.


The same process can be extended to directories, too. Access Control Lists enable a system administrator to handle file and directory access in an adept manner.

Divya Lakshmanan

Divya divides her time between speculating the existence of aliens and writing about her technical findings.

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You're reading How To Use Access Control Lists To Control File Permissions On Linux

How To Access And Use Onedrive On Linux

Microsoft OneDrive is a popular cloud storage service that allows you to store and access your important files from any device. However, it’s worth noting that OneDrive doesn’t offer official support for Linux. Luckily, there are several ways for you to access and synchronize your OneDrive files on a Linux system.

This article guides you through various methods to integrate OneDrive with your Linux environment. With these methods, you can access and manage your OneDrive files seamlessly within your Linux file systems.

Table of Contents

Can You Use OneDrive on Linux?

Yes, you can access and use OneDrive on Linux in a few different ways. While there isn’t an official OneDrive client for Linux, several unofficial alternatives are available.

For instance, you can use an open-source, unofficial OneDrive client for Linux or a command-line tool like rclone instead. You can also access your OneDrive files quickly from your web browser.

Remember that these are unofficial solutions; your experience might vary depending on the tool and your Linux distribution. Regardless, these options allow you to integrate OneDrive into your Linux workflow.

Using the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux

The unofficial OneDrive client for Linux allows you to access and use OneDrive on Linux systems. Please note that this unofficial client isn’t supported by Microsoft in any way—you’ll need to use it at your own risk.

While it’s not officially supported, the OneDrive client for Linux is a free, open-source, and well-maintained option for Linux users to use.

Installing the Unofficial OneDrive Client for Linux

Follow these steps to download and install the Unofficial OneDrive client for Linux on a Debian or Ubuntu-based Linux system. Other distributions may need to follow different instructions.

Open the terminal on your Linux PC.

Update your package manager by typing

sudo apt update

and wait for it to complete.

Once your package manager is updated, run

sudo apt install


no-install-suggests ldc onedrive

in the terminal and wait for it to complete.

Configuring and Using the Client

At this point, you should have successfully installed the unofficial Linux OneDrive client. You’ll need to configure it next to access your files.

To run the client for the first time and generate the default configuration file, type


into the terminal.

You’ll be prompted to visit a Microsoft URL to authenticate and grant access to your OneDrive account. Open the URL in a web browser, sign in with your Microsoft credentials, and grant the necessary permissions.

After granting permissions, you’ll see a blank page—copy the URL, paste it back into the terminal, and press the



The client will alert you if you were successful. To start synchronisation, type

onedrive –synchronize

into the terminal. This should start synchronizing your OneDrive files to a local folder (


by default). You’ll need to allow time for this process to complete.

If you want the client to run in the background, type and run

onedrive –monitor

from your terminal.

For more information on the client’s features and settings, you can refer to the official documentation for the client on GitHub.

How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Rclone

rclone is a powerful, open-source terminal tool for synchronizing and transferring files across local or remote systems on a Linux PC. By using rclone, you can set up your Linux PC to allow access to your OneDrive storage.

To use rclone with OneDrive on Linux, follow these steps.

Once Rclone is installed, type

rclone config

into the terminal to initiate the configuration process.

When prompted, select the


key to create a new remote, and then enter a name for your OneDrive remote (such as



Next, locate the number for

Microsoft OneDrive

as the storage provider (typically


), type it in, and press


to confirm.


client id


client secret

, leave blank and press



Choose your authentication region for OneDrive (typically by pressing


and hitting enter), then choose


to use the typical setup process to authenticate.

When prompted, press


to open a web browser to sign in. Enter your OneDrive account details and authorize Rclone to access your OneDrive account and storage by following the on-screen instructions.

After the configuration is complete, close the browser and return to the terminal.

Choose your OneDrive configuration—typically


for standard OneDrive access. Press the


key to continue.

Choose your OneDrive ID from the options provided, typically by pressing


and hitting the





again to confirm.

At this point, the configuration should be complete. Press


to confirm again and make it your default configuration.



to exit the configuration tool. You can use the


command to interact with your OneDrive files. For instance, to list the contents of your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone ls onedrive:

in your terminal.

To download a file from your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone copy onedrive:/path/to/file /path/to/local/directory

in the terminal. Replace the


paths with the file location and the location where you’d like to save the file on your local PC.

To upload a file to your OneDrive account, run the command

rclone copy /path/to/local/file onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory

. Replace the


paths with the file location and location in your OneDrive storage that you’d like to upload the file to.

You can also use the

rclone sync

command to synchronize all of the files between your OneDrive account and your local Linux filesystem. For example, to synchronize all files in your OneDrive account to a local directory called


, run the command

rclone sync onedrive: ~/onedrive


To synchronize a specific directory in your OneDrive account to a local directory, run the command

rclone sync onedrive:/path/to/remote/directory /path/to/local/directory

and replace the


paths with the correct remote and local directories.

How to Access OneDrive on Linux Using Your Web Browser

Don’t want to install any additional software? You can quickly access your OneDrive files from a Linux PC using your web browser.

You can also share your files with others by selecting the file and pressing the Share button.

Remember that changes made to files and documents on the OneDrive website will be synchronized with any other devices connected to your Microsoft account.

Managing Your Linux Files

Using OneDrive on Linux can be achieved using one of the tools above (or by using the OneDrive website). Although Microsoft doesn’t offer a native OneDrive application for Linux, these alternatives provide a similar experience.

Worried about your files? Remember to keep your file backups automated, ensuring your data stays secure and up to date. Be mindful of potential OneDrive sync issues that could arise, and always double-check your settings if you run into problems.

How To Use An Ir Blaster On Your Phone To Control Devices Remotely

Some Android phone models have an Infrared (IR) Blaster module that allows you to use your phone as a universal remote for your televisions, set-top boxes, air-conditioners, and entertainment systems. Currently, the majority of Android models don’t support a built-in IR blaster, and no iOS device supports this feature. This tutorial shows how to use an IR blaster on your mobile phone to remotely control devices, whether or not your smartphone carries this feature.

Good to know: need to stop apps from using up your mobile data? Learn how to do that on Android.

How to Check Whether Your Phone Has IR Blaster

The IR blaster is only available in very few Android smartphones. You can use the methods below to check whether your Android phone has an IR blaster.

1. Physically Check for an Infrared Port

If your device supports it, you should see an infrared port at the phone’s top edge. It should look like a tiny circular or rectangular LED. Refer to your device’s user guide or manual to confirm whether your phone has it.

Image source:


2. Using IR Test App on Android

In some phone models, the IR port may be hidden under a plastic or glass strip. You can use the following app to check for you.

The IR Test app is extremely reliable, as it gives results quickly by scanning your device’s hardware. We tested it on a Google Pixel 4a and found that it didn’t have the feature.

3. Using a Mobile Device Specifications Website

Tip: learn how to make your keyboard bigger on Android for easier typing.

Which Phones Have IR Blaster?

The following phones have an IR blaster feature (not an exhaustive list):

Remember: none of the Apple devices have IR blaster, but you can still use it as a remote for Apple TV.

Samsung: Samsung Galaxy Note 3, Note 4, S4, S4 Mini, S4 Zoom, S5, S6, S6 Active

LG: G Flex, G Flex 2, Pro 2, G5, V10

Huawei: Honor 6 Plus, Honor 7, Honor 8, Honor 9, Mate 9, Mate 10, Mate 20, Mate 30, Mate 40, Mate X, Mate X2, P10, P20, P30, P40, P50

Redmi:/Xiaomi: Note 3, K40, Note 11, Note 12, Note 12 Pro, 13 Ultra 5G, Note 10T 5G, Note 12 Turbo Harry Potter Edition

Oppo: X6 Pro, Find X6, Find X6 Pro

Vivo: X90, X90 5G, X90 Pro Plus 5G, V27 Pro, V27e, T2 5G, T2x 5G

OnePlus: Ace 2V, 11R, 11R 5G

How to Use an IR Blaster on Your Phone

You can use an IR blaster on your Android/iOS phone, whether or not the model includes an IR port, through the following two methods.

1. Using Infrared Remote-Control Apps on Supported Devices

If your Android phone has an IR blaster, your device should have a preinstalled remote-control app. You just have to select any electric appliance that supports an IR remote, such as a television, air conditioner, or music system, from the app, and point the IR hole near the appliance. This will add the remote control.

A very similar method requires you to download and install a universal remote app that will use your phone’s built-in IR functionality:

Select the icon for the end device that will be controlled from your phone.

Point your phone’s IR hole at the device, such as a television. Tap the big red button to check whether you can control it.

Note that even if your phone has an IR blaster, you may not be able to control a secondary device with it, as your phone’s specifications may not be compatible with the actual electronics in your home. It makes the following method easier to follow, irrespective of the smartphone you own.

Tip: want to play mini games on your Android phone? Check out these GamePidgon alternatives.

2. If Your Phone Doesn’t Have IR Blaster

To convert your phone to a universal remote, you will need an “external IR blaster” device. They are usually cheap and can potentially save you a fortune. External IR blasters connect with Android and iPhone through third-party applications.

The following demo is for a ten-year-old air conditioner unit, which we were able to connect to a Samsung Galaxy Android smartphone using an external IR blaster.

Connect the external IR blaster to its charging cable and plug outlet.

The IR blaster manual will suggest downloading the app on Google Play or App Store. Register and log in to the app.

Find the option to add a new remote, which is usually indicated by a “+” sign or something similar.

If your IR blaster device has a QR code that needs to be scanned, use your phone’s camera to initialize the installation.

Connect the IR blaster to a power strip or external outlet.

The IR blaster has to be reset first so that it can connect to your home’s Wi-Fi network. Press the reset button and wait for the lights to blink rapidly or slowly, as instructed in the user manual.

Follow the on-screen instructions until you reach the stage where you need to select the device type.

Our aim is to replace the older air-conditioning remote. Many of these consumer electronic devices have been using IR technology for a long time.

Tip: get up to speed on how to remotely disable Apply Pay in case of emergency.

If asked to select the remote type (with/without LCD display), choose the option for your model.

The appliance remote should be quickly added to the app. The IR blaster needs to remain plugged in to operate the remote.

You can add as many remotes as you want for different electronic devices, such as televisions, set-top boxes, all-in-one entertainment systems, and Bluetooth speakers.

Optional: if you are using an Alexa Echo or other smart speaker, you can further transfer the newly added remote to the Alexa app on Android/iOS through the “Skills & Games” feature.

You can use your voice to control the remote appliance: “Alexa, turn on/off the air conditioner,” or “Alexa, increase air conditioner temperature to XX degrees.” Of course, you can also do it using your Android/iOS apps.

Good to know: seeing a “Message blocking is active” error on your mobile device? Learn how to fix it on Android and iOS.

Frequently Asked Questions Why are IR Blasters no longer common in smartphones?

IR blasters have become surprisingly uncommon in the last few years. They’re not available on the latest phones, except for a few models by Vivo, Redmi, and Huawei.

A possible reason phone manufacturers may have discontinued IR blasters is that infrared rays have been found to be harmful to the human body wherever there is continuous exposure. As most of us carry our phones with us all the time, that may introduce a possible risk.

However, if you use an external IR blaster remote device, and control it further using your phone apps or Alexa/Google Assistant, that will eliminate any possibility of infrared rays exposure.

Can I use my phone as a remote without IR blaster?

Yes, you can use your phone as a remote even without IR blaster. On an Android, you can use the Google TV app or one of the third-party apps that support your Android TV model.

Can I install IR blaster on my phone?

You can’t download or install IR blaster through apps. It’s not very easy to install the IR transceiver physically, as the device hardware on a smartphone is connected to its embedded OS and not accessible to end users. It’s much easier to use an external IR blaster.

Image credit: Unsplash. All screenshots by Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral

Sayak Boral is a technology writer with over eleven years of experience working in different industries including semiconductors, IoT, enterprise IT, telecommunications OSS/BSS, and network security. He has been writing for MakeTechEasier on a wide range of technical topics including Windows, Android, Internet, Hardware Guides, Browsers, Software Tools, and Product Reviews.

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Fan Control In Windows 11: How To Control Your Fan Speed

Fan Control in Windows 11: How to Control Your Fan Speed All you need to know about PC Fan control




A lot of users have wanted to control the computer fan in Windows 11, however, they can’t seem to find the right way for it.

You can either control the fan using a tool provided by the OEM via the BIOS settings or use a third-party tool.

Also, find out about the fan speed and how it affects the system.



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Download and Install Fortect on your PC

Launch the tool and Start scanning to find broken files that are causing the problems

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readers this month.

You may have had to shut down the system at least once due to overheating, or it may have turned off itself. We have all been there. But what if you can manually control the fan in Windows 11 for optimal results?

Most of you would be thrilled to control the fan speed manually, but it’s not that simple. Instead, you will have to find the correct application to control the speed and reduce overheating, like cooling software.

In the following sections, we will list the various methods to get the right tool to monitor and control your PC fan as you wish.

How do I reduce the fan noise on Windows 11?

There are various ways to control the fan noise on a Windows 11 laptop. Below are some of the easy methods:

Via power settings: Your power settings can significantly add to your Windows 11 fan speed problem. To get this under control, switch to either the Best power efficiency or the Balanced plan instead of high performance.

Clearing of air vents: When the Windows 11 air vents are blocked by dust and debris, it can increase fan noise. The solution here is to clear the dirt using a vacuum or other suitable methods.

Using a fan control tool: You can still experience high fan noise in some cases despite using the best power plan and cleaning the vents. In this case, you need to use a control tool to keep the noise in check. There is the option of using the tool released by OEM for your PC or fan control software for Windows 11.

How can I control the fan speed on a PC? 1. Use the software released by the OEM to control fan speed

After installing the software, you can start controlling the computer fan and set it to run at the desired speed.

2. Control fan speed on Windows 11 in BIOS

You can easily control fan speed on PC through BIOS. Controlling the PC fan from the BIOS is both time-consuming as well as an intricate affair. You have to be careful while making the changes since a minor lapse can prove fatal for the computer.

1. Navigate to the desktop and press Alt + F4 to launch the Shut Down Windows box.

Expert tip:

4. As soon the screen lights up, press Esc or F12 key (depending on the computer settings) to enter the BIOS.

5. Navigate through the different options (Advanced, Overclocking, or something similar) and look for settings related to the computer fan.

6. After finding the relevant options, you can now control the computer fan and run it at the desired speed for optimal results.


The previous steps will be different for various computer manufacturers. However, with a basic concept idea, you can navigate to the relevant section and make the changes.

Note: do not change any other settings unless you know the results.

3. Download a third-party utility to control the fan speed on Windows 11

Fan Control is one of the best open-source third-party utilities available in the market and is free to use. It offers a simple interface and allows users to quickly change the settings and control the fans in Windows 11.

That’s all there is to know about PC fan control in Windows 11. Before controlling and modifying the fan speed, do thorough research to understand the required settings.

You can also check the best available fans in the market if you are facing trouble with the installed one.

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How To Use The Nvidia Control Panel To Overclock Your Monitor

If you know even a little about technology, you’ve probably at least heard of overclocking before. But even those who spend their time tweaking their cmputer may not know how easy it is to overclock your monitor. This goes beyond resolution tweaks: you can actually increase your monitor’s refresh rate without spending a dime. this won’t work for every monitor, though, as it depends on your specific panel, if you can overclock and how much will be entirely variable.

Note: the NVIDIA Control Panel is only available if you are using a NVIDIA graphic card. If it is not installed, you can get it from the App Store.

How to overclock your monitor

However, even if you failed your first test, all hope isn’t lost. As far as testing goes, you’ll have a better shot trying for higher framerates at lower resolutions. For example, if you happen to have a 144hz 1440p monitor, trying to run at 145hz 1080p may work while 145hz 1440p doesn’t. There is no guarantee, of course. It also goes without saying that if you fail a test at a single hertz above your refresh rate, you won’t be able to pass tests at even higher refresh rates.

If you don’t know what you’re doing, it’s best to leave the other fields in the “Create Custom Resolution” window alone, like Scan type, Timing, and Color depth. Focus your tweaking on the refresh rate and resolution.

Ruben Circelli

Ruben is a Staff Writer at Make Tech Easier. Ruben has a B.A. in English from the University of Massachusetts Boston, where he graduated with honors and summa cum laude. Ruben is, in fact, a normal enough guy, even if his day job is writing about tech!

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How To Set Up Google Family Link To Control Your Kid’s App Use

Children are getting exposed to the internet at increasingly younger ages. It has become more important than ever to protect your family’s young ones from online content that can harm them. Smartphones are fast overtaking PCs as a means of internet surfing, particularly via social media apps.

Google Family Link is a service Google provides for parents to supervise the app usage of minors. Here are the steps to set up the service:

Setting up the Link

On both your device and the device of the person you wish to supervise, download the Google Link app. There are two versions of this app.

The parent version needs to be installed on your device, while the Children version should be installed on the device needing supervision.

Configuring the Parent App

1. Open the app and press Next to get through the navigation screens.

3. In order to link the two accounts, a link code will be present on your phone which you will need to input in the children’s app when prompted.

Configuring the Children App

1. Open the app and select the “This Device” option.

2. Select the account which needs to be supervised.

3. This is where you will be asked for the link code previously sent to your account. Input the code into the child’s account.

Keep selecting Yes or Next to all the permissions that the apps ask for on each phone. Your two accounts will be linked after a few minutes.

Ways of Using the App

1. You can access your child’s Google account and stop Google from storing data about the online activity of the account.

2. If the child is below the age of 13, you can edit their Google Account profile from your own device.

3. As a final option, you also have the power to delete the Google account of your child, if they are below 13 years of age. You can also remove their account from any particular Android device.

4. You can set up restrictions that require your child to ask for permission before downloading an app, before paying for online app transactions, or from accessing apps that might be unsuitable for them. These options are found in the Settings section of your child’s profile on the parent app.

5. Using your child’s account, you can flag content on the Google play store which you deem to be inappropriate.

6. On the App Activity card on your child’s app’s profile, you will be able to view their online activity so you can keep track of the type of content your child is spending their time on through their device. You can then set time limits for how long your child can use an app before it gets locked down and becomes unresponsive.


With the help of the Google Family Link app, you will be able to keep an eye on the type of content your children are viewing via apps. If needed, you also have the ability to use the app to forcibly prevent them from visiting certain webpages or spending money on the wrong type of online transactions.


Neeraj Chand

Content writer with a keen interest in global technology and pop culture trends.

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