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Open AI’s ChatGPT was the most popular invention of 2023. It is an AI chatbot that interacts with users in a human-like language using the GPT-3.5 LLM. The platform gained huge traction soon after its release and has a massive user base of over 100 million.

ChatGPT offers an intuitive interface with numerous functionalities making it easy to use for everyone. This intelligent app can perform tons of text-generation tasks within a few minutes. However, to get the best results, it’s necessary to know the right way to use ChatGPT.

This descriptive guide shares several methods to use ChatGPT to accomplish your tasks. 

How to use ChatGPT

ChatGPT is not an app or program to install on your device. It is an online site accessible from ChatGPT’s official website. It’s necessary to create an account to explore this platform. After setting up the account, you can instruct ChatGPT to generate content according to your requirement using appropriate prompts.

Don’t worry if the above process overwhelms you. The steps below will help you create your ChatGPT account to use the platform immediately.

1. Create an OpenAI account

The first step to using ChatGPT is to create an Open AI account. Accessing ChatGPT without an account is forbidden. To create your account, follow the steps below:

Step 4: Verify your account from the email sent to your email address.

Step 6: Enter your Phone number and verify it. Your account is ready for use after successful verification.

Note: You can also select to sign up using your Microsoft or Google account at step 2.

2. Accept ChatGPT terms

3. Login

Now that your account is ready, you can log in and use it. To sign into your account, follow the steps below:

Step 2: Enter your email address and Password.

4. Start writing

For example, write a poem on the sun and moon.

How to use ChatGPT as a developer?

Aside from its generic uses, ChatGPT offers extensive functionalities for developers. Developers can integrate this platform into other apps, use it for debugging or writing codes, or learn to code.

This section illustrates how developers can use ChatGPT for various purposes:

Explain why a piece of code isn’t working

ChatGPT can find bugs in the program and provide solutions to fix them. The app can detect bugs the coder may take hours to figure out and share details to solve.

For instance, the app can read code and provide suggestions to improve and enhance its efficiency. It can tell whether you are missing a certain variable, using incorrect syntax, or running the code incorrectly.

Explain what a piece of code means

If you want to know the program’s purpose or understand it, ChatGPT can describe it. The platform analyzes and explains the code in a simple, understandable language. Developers can save time and effort by instructing this tool to explain the code.

The platform generates accurate and informative explanations for simple and complex codes. You can also use it to explain a program of a hundred lines.

Rewrite the code using the specified language

Converting a program written in one computer language to another requires a deep understanding of both languages and the program. It also consumes a lot of time and effort. Luckily, ChatGPT can solve this tedious task within a few minutes.

ChatGPT can instantly transform any program from one language to another. Simply enter the program in ChatGPT and specify the language into which you want it to be transformed. The app will soon produce the results on your screen.

Code an entire software program

ChatGPT can also be used to code an software program. The app can write algorithms and generate code for the entire software. However, it is not recommended to use ChatGPT to create software since the app is in its development phase and prone to errors. Instead, developers can use ChatGPT as a companion while writing programs for software.

Generate regular expressions (regex)

ChatGPT can be used to generate regular expressions. Developers can copy and paste these regular expressions into a regex-enabled text editor or programming language. The app can generate regex to match email addresses and characters in a string, find or replace characters, etc.

Change the CSS of a line of code

Developers can use ChatGPT to modify some lines within a CSS code. For example, use it to change the font color, font size, background color, etc., within a CSS program.

Change the HTML of a line of code

ChatGPT can also modify an HTML code. You have to tell it which line to modify, and it will make the necessary changes. It can also add or remove some sections from the code.

7 Ways to Use Chat GPT (Ethically)

After signing into your ChatGPT account, you can use this app to perform several text generation tasks. Different industries have started using ChatGPT to reduce their time and effort with its AI capabilities. Below are some ethical ways of using ChatGPT.

Organizing travel

ChatGPT cannot access the Internet. So, you cannot use it to book tickets or hotels. However, you can use ChatGPT to create a travel schedule. The app can develop an itinerary for your next trip. It can consider conditions like the number of days, budget, location, accommodation types, etc., while generating the itinerary.

Scheduling appointments or meetings

Organizing appointments or meetings is another tedious task. Finding free slots within your calendar or organizing a meeting with multiple team members requires a lot of coordination. Fortunately, you can save your efforts by instructing ChatGPT to refer to your calendar and organize a meeting at a time suitable for all.

Researching information

Until now, people used search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc., to surf the internet for information. But do you know that ChatGPT can also help in researching information?

ChatGPT can answer almost all questions regarding any topic. It can also quote helpful information and provide references for a topic. It refers to YouTube videos, online journals, websites, etc., to provide accurate responses.

The only catch is that ChatGPT cannot provide the latest information since it responds to questions based on its knowledge base, updated in 2023.

Translating text or speech

ChatGPT supports several languages, including English, French, German, Chinese, Japanese, Greek, etc. It can produce text in all these languages and translate a given text to another. It provides accurate translations for every supported language. So, you can use it as a companion to interact with your clients in different languages.

Creating content

The primary task of ChatGPT is generating content. This app can generate articles, blog posts, sales copies, scripts, essays, etc. It can also create outlines and brainstorms ideas in any niche. If you want to unleash your creativity, use ChatGPT for innovative content creation ideas.

Providing recommendations

Often you may be stuck while making decisions between several options. Luckily, ChatGPT can help you pick one option from multiple ones. It can also recommend products or services based on your preferences. For instance, you can ask ChatGPT to recommend a plant to grow at your house.

Finding cooking recipes

ChatGPT can help in the kitchen! While that can be strange, this AI tool can generate recipes. It can suggest recipes based on cuisines, available ingredients, diet types, or other preferences. It can generate many yummy recipe ideas for which you would have otherwise scratched your head! To test out this feature, try asking it to provide instructions for any recipe.


How to Use Chat GPT for Free?

ChatGPT is accessible for free with an Open AI account. You can create a new account or sign in to an existing one to explore the platform for free. However, the free version has some limitations.

How to Use Chat GPT for Work?

ChatGPT is a helpful tool for workspaces. It can be used to organize meetings, analyze reports, write emails, content generation, research information, translate content, and perform repetitive tasks. You can use ChatGPT for Work in almost every industry.

How to Use ChatGPT to Summarize an Article?

You can use ChatGPT to summarize articles and other content. ChatGPT can summarize articles or long pieces of text in different ways. It can write a short or long summary paragraph or summarize the content in bullet points. It can also explain or translate the summary or highlight key points.

How to Use ChatGPT for Business?

ChatGPT is a helpful tool for expanding a business. You can use ChatGPT for business to create marketing strategies, sales copies, form generation, solve legal issues, etc. You can also integrate a chatbot powered by ChatGPT to improve the customer experience. 

How to Use ChatGPT to Generate Images?

How to Use ChatGPT 3?

How to Use ChatGPT 4 for Free?

ChatGPT 4 is not available for free users. You can use ChatGPT 4 by upgrading to Plus at $20 monthly. Alternatively, you can use ChatGPT 4 for free on third-party platforms supporting the app. Sites like chúng tôi chúng tôi Hugging Face, and Microsoft Bing offer ChatGPT-4 for free.

How to Use ChatGPT Without Logging In?

Officially, ChatGPT requires users to create an account to access the platform. However, you can use ChatGPT without log in via third-party apps or browser extensions. But be careful. These methods have some limitations and may cause privacy and security concerns.

How to Use ChatGPT to Make Money?

The release of ChatGPT has generated several income streams for internet users. You can use ChatGPT to make money online in various ways. For example, use it for content creation, generating business ideas, translation services, blogging, app development, etc.

How to Use ChatGPT API?

ChatGPT offers API keys to integrate the platform into other apps. You can use ChatGPT API by generating API Keys from Open AI’s website and adding them to a relevant code. Currently, ChatGPT offers five free API keys.

How to Use ChatGPT on iPhone?

Iphone supports ChatGPT. So, you can officially use ChatGPT on your iPhone by visiting Open AI’s website and signing into your account. You can also create a new account if you don’t have an existing one.

How to Use ChatGPT on Mobile?

Unfortunately, ChatGPT is not available as a mobile application. You cannot download it to use on mobile devices. However, you can use ChatGPT on mobile phones by visiting Open AI’s website and logging into your account.

How to Use ChatGPT Without Phone Number?

ChatGPT asks for the user’s phone numbers while creating a new account. It also verifies this number before providing access to its users. However, to use ChatGPT without phone number, you can add a temporary number or VoIP while signing into the platform.

How to Use ChatGPT in Hong Kong?

ChatGPT is yet to be accessible in Hong Kong. You cannot officially access ChatGPT in Hong Kong but can use it via a VPN. You can connect to a server where ChatGPT is available and use it to access the website in Hong Kong via VPN.

How to Use ChatGPT to Write an Essay?

Students can use ChatGPT to write essays on almost every topic. The tool can help brainstorm ideas, create an outline, find sources, and draft the essay. It can also edit the essay to eliminate errors.

What can I use ChatGPT for?

ChatGPT is capable of accomplishing several tasks. You can use ChatGPT to generate essays, recipes, music lyrics, and poems, write and debug codes, translate content, tell jokes, and eliminate errors from a text.

How to use ChatGPT to write a cover letter?

ChatGPT can write a cover letter to help you get your dream job faster. It can draft an outstanding cover letter based on the job description and your profile. The app can also edit or modify an existing cover letter.

How to use ChatGPT to write a CV?

Job seekers can use ChatGPT to write a CV that makes them stand out. You can use ChatGPT to generate a resume from scratch, tailor your resume to meet certain job descriptions, modify some sections within your resume, or add new sections.

How to use ChatGPT to write code?

ChatGPT is a coder too! ChatGPT can write codes in different programming languages like JavaScript, Python, HTML, CSS, and C. It can also debug or explain programs.

Final Thoughts

As you see, ChatGPT can perform tasks beyond your imagination. This tool is helpful for every industry and can be used by individuals, freelancers, business corporations, etc. All you need is a ChatGPT account to start exploring the functionalities of ChatGPT. You can use ChatGPT for free or subscribe to ChatGPT Plus to access its full features, including GPT-4.

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Complete Guide On How To Use Lightgbm In Python

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


A Gradient Boosting Decision tree or a GBDT is a very popular machine learning algorithm that has effective implementations like XGBoost and many optimization techniques are actually adopted from this algorithm. The efficiency and scalability of the model are not quite up to the mark when there are more features in the data. For this specific behavior, the major reason is that each feature should scan all the various data instances to make an estimate of all the possible split points which is very time-consuming and tedious.

r EFB. So GOSS will actually exclude the significant portion of the data part which have small gradients and only use the remaining data to estimate the overall information gain. The data instances which have large gradients actually play a greater role for computation on information gain. GOSS can get accurate results with a significant information gain despite using a smaller dataset than other models.

With the EFB, It puts the mutually exclusive features along with nothing but it will rarely take any non-zero value at the same time to reduce the number of features. This impacts the overall result for an effective feature elimination without compromising the accuracy of the split point.

By combining the two changes, it will fasten up the training time of any algorithm by 20 times. So LGBM can be thought of as gradient boosting trees with the combination for EFB and GOSS. You can access their official documentation here.

The main features of the LGBM model are as follows :

Higher accuracy and a faster training speed.

Low memory utilization

Comparatively better accuracy than other boosting algorithms and handles overfitting much better while working with smaller datasets.

Parallel Learning support.

Compatible with both small and large datasets

Demystifying the Maths behind LGBM

We use a concept known as verdict trees so that we can cram a function like for example, from the input space X, towards the gradient space G. A training set with the instances like x1,x2 and up to xn is assumed where each element is a vector with s dimensions in the space X. In each of the restatements of a gradient boosting, all the negative gradients of a loss function with respect towards the output model are denoted as g1, g2, and up to gn. The decision tree actually divides each and every node at the most revealing feature, it also gives rise to the largest evidence gain. In this type of model, the data improvement can be measured by the variance after segregating. It can be represented by the following formula :


Explanation, Let O be a training dataset on a fixed node of a decision tree and then the variance gain of dividing measure j at a point d for a node is defined as :

Gradient One-Sided Sampling or GOSS utilizes every instance with a larger gradient and does the task of random sampling on the various instances with the small gradients. The training dataset is given by the notation of O for each particular node of the Decision tree. The variance gain of j or the dividing measure at the point d for the node is given by :

This is achieved by the method of GOSS in LightGBM models.

Coding an LGBM in Python

The LGBM model can be installed by using the Python pip function and the command is “pip install lightbgm” LGBM also has a custom API support in it and using it we can implement both Classifier and regression algorithms where both the models operate in a similar fashion. The Dataset used here is of the Titanic Passengers which will be used in the below code and can be found in my drive at this location.

Code :

Python Code:

Output :

Here we can see that there are 8 columns out of which the passenger ID will be dropped and the embarked will be finally chosen as a target variable for the following classification challenge.

Loading the variables: # To define the input and output feature x = data.drop(['Embarked','PassengerId'],axis=1) y = data.Embarked # train and test split x_train,x_test,y_train,y_test = train_test_split(x,y,test_size=0.33,random_state=42) Loading and fitting the model:

The initial process of initializing a model is very similar to a normal model initializing and the main difference is that we will get much more parameter settings adjustments while we are initializing the model. We will define the max_depth, learning rate and random state in the following code. In the fit model, we have passed eval_matrix and eval_set to evaluate the model during training itself.

Code : model = lgb.LGBMClassifier(learning_rate=0.09,max_depth=-5,random_state=42),y_train,eval_set=[(x_test,y_test),(x_train,y_train)], verbose=20,eval_metric='logloss') Output:

Since our model has very low instances, we need to first check for overfitting with the following code and then we will proceed for the next few steps :

Code : print('Training accuracy {:.4f}'.format(model.score(x_train,y_train))) print('Testing accuracy {:.4f}'.format(model.score(x_test,y_test))) Output : Training accuracy 0.9647 Testing accuracy 0.8163

As we can clearly see that there is absolutely no significant difference between both the accuracies and hence the model has made an estimation that is quite accurate.

LGBM also comes with additional plotting functions like plotting the various feature importance, metric evaluation and the tree plot.

Code : lgb.plot_importance(model)

Output :

If you do not mention the eval_set during the fitment, then you will actually get an error while plotting the metric evaluation

Code : lgb.plot_metric(model) Output

And as you can clearly see here, the validation curve will tend to increase after it has crossed the 100th evaluation. This can be totally fixed by tuning and setting the hyperparameters of the model. We can also plot the tree using a function.




Now we will plot a few metrics by using the sklearn library

Code :


Output :

Code :


Output :

Now as we can clearly see from the confusion matrix combined with the classification report, the model is struggling to predict class 1 because of the few instances that we have but if we compare the same result with the other various ensemble algorithm, then LGBM performs the best. We can also perform the same process for the regressor model but there we need to change the estimator to the LGBMRegressor()

End Notes:

From this article, we can see and understand how to use an LGBM model and how it can tackle the problem by using a GODD and EFB and then we implemented it for a real-life classification problem and the overall process is also very similar to the other ML algorithms. The in-built plotting functionality also makes the library much more attractive and reduces the overall effort for the evaluation side.

Stay Safe and get vaccinated everyone.

Arnab Mondal

Collab Notebook Link :

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Complete Guide To Mongodb Commands

Introduction to MongoDB Commands

MongoDB is a cross-platform, document-oriented, open-source database management system with high availability, performance, and scalability. MongoDB, a NoSQL database, finds extensive use in big data applications and other complex data processing tasks that do not align well with the relational database model. Instead of using the relational database notion of storing data in tables, MongoDB architecture is built on collections and documents. Here we discuss the MongoDB commands.

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Why MongoDB Commands?

It can easily control global data, ensuring fast performance and compliance.

It provides a flexible data model. This goes with the case where the app needs to be built from scratch or the case of updating a single record.

Scaling the application ensures that there is no downtime.


MongoDB command uses a master-slave replication concept. To prevent database downtime, this replica feature is essential.

MongoDB command comes with the auto-sharding feature, which distributes data across multiple physical partitions known as shards. The result of which automatic load balancing happens.

It’s schema-less. Hence more efficient.

Basic of MongoDB Commands 1. Create database

In MongoDB use, DATABASE_NAME is used to create a database. If this name database doesn’t exist, it will get created, and else it will return the existing one.

To check the current database now:

By default, the MongoDB command comes with the database name “test.” Suppose you inserted a document without specifying the database; MongoDB will automatically store it in a “test” database.

2. Drop Database

If the database is not specified, it will delete the default database, “test.”

3. Create Collection

To create a collection, the MongoDB command used is: db.createCollection(name, options)

Here, the name is the Collection’s name & options are a document used to specify the Collection’s configuration. Though the “Options” parameter is optional, it’s good to provide it.

4. Drop Collection

5. Insert Document

To insert data into a database collection in MongoDB, you can use the “insert()” or “save()” method.

Here “mycol” is the collection name. If the Collection doesn’t exist, then the MongoDB command will create the database collection, which will be inserted.

6. Query Document

Querying Collection is done by the find() method.

As the find() method will show the findings in a non-structured way, a structured pretty() method is used to get the results.

Intermediate MongoDB Commands 1. Limit()

This MongoDB command limits the no. of records need to use in MongoDB. The argument of this function accepts only number types. The argument is the number of the Document that needs to be displayed.

2. Sort()

This is to the records of MongoDB. 1 & -1 are used to sort the documents. 1 is for ascending, whereas -1 is for descending.

3. Indexing is the concept that helps MongoDB to scan documents in an inefficient way

Advanced Commands of  MongoDB 1. Aggregate ()

This MongoDB command helps process the data, which returns the calculated result. This can group values from multiple documents together.

2. Replication

Replication in MongoDB is achieved using a replication set. A replica set is a group of MongoDB processes with the same dataset. Replica set provides:

High availability

Redundancy hence faults tolerant/disaster recovery.

In replica, one node is the primary node, and the rest are the secondary node. All write operations remain with the primary node.

Let’s see; you can convert a standalone MongoDB instance into a replica set.

Here are the steps for that:

Close is already running the MongoDB server.

Now Start the MongoDB server by specifying — replSet option.


3. Create & restore Backup

To create the Backup, the mongodump command is used. The server’s data will be dumped into a dump directory(/bin/dump/). Options are there to limit the data.

To restore a backup in MongoDB, you would use the “mongorestore” command.

4. Monitor Deployment

To check the status of all your running processes/instances, a mongostat command is helpful. It tracks and returns the counter of database operations. These counters include inserts, updates, queries, deletes, and cursors. This MongoDB command is beneficial as it shows your status about low running memory, some performance issues, etc.

You must go to your MongoDB installation bin directory and run mongostat.

Tips and Tricks to Use MongoDB Commands

Pre-allocate space: When you know your Document will grow to a certain size. This is an optimization technique in MongoDB. Insert a document and add a garbage field.

Try fetching data in a single query.

As MongoDB is, by default, case sensitive.


db.people.find({name: ‘Russell’}) &

db.people.find({name: ‘russell’}) are different.

While performing a search, it’s a good habit to use regex. Like:

db.people.find({name: /russell/i})

Prefer Odd No. of Replica Sets: Using replica sets is an easy way to add redundancy and enhance read performance. All nodes replicate the data, and it can be retrieved in case of a primary node failure. They vote amongst themselves and elect a primary node. Using the odd number of the replica will make voting more accessible in case of failure.

Secure MongoDB using a firewall: As MongoDB itself doesn’t provide any authentication, it’s better to secure it with a firewall and mapping it to the correct interface.

No joins: MongoDB, a NoSQL database, does not support joins. One must write multiple queries to retrieve data from more than two collections. Writing queries can become hectic if the schema is not well organized. This may result in the re-designing of the schema. It’s always better to spend some extra time to design a schema.


MongoDB commands are the best practice solution to maintain high availability, efficient and scalable operations, which is today’s business demand.

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Complete Guide To Matlab Remainder

Introduction to Matlab Remainder

The following article provides an outline for Matlab Remainder. Remainder is obtained in division when 2 numbers can’t be divided exactly.

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In division 4 quantities are involved.

Dividend: The number which is to be divided.

Divisor: The number ‘by which’ the ‘Dividend’ is to be divided.

Quotient: The ‘multiplying factor’ by which ‘Divisor’ is multiplied to get it equal to or closest to the ‘Dividend’.

Remainder: If the product Divisor * Quotient is not equal to the ‘Dividend’, then the lag is referred as ‘Remainder.

In Matlab we use ‘rem’ function for the purpose of finding the remainder of a division.


R = rem (A, B)


R = rem (A, B) will return the remainder when ‘A’ is divided by ‘B’.

A is dividend and B is Divisor.

A range like A:B can also be passed as an argument. In this case, the entire range will be considered as ‘Dividends’ and we get an array of ‘Remainders’ respective to each dividend.

Examples of Matlab Remainder

Given below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

For our first example, we will follow the following steps:

Initialize the Dividend.

Initialize the Divisor.

Pass both Dividend and Divisor to the rem function.


A = 15

[Initializing the Dividend]

[Initializing the Dividend]

B = 3

[Initializing the Divisor]

[Initializing the Divisor]

R = rem(A, B)

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0’ as remainder. This is because 3 exactly divides 15, leaving no remainder]

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0’ as remainder. This is because 3 exactly divides 15, leaving no remainder]


R = rem(A, B)


As we can see in the output, we have obtained the remainder of 15 and 3 as ‘0’.

Example #2

In this example, we will take a non-integer dividend and divisor as an integer.

For this example, we will follow the following steps:

Initialize the Dividend.

Initialize the Divisor.

Pass both Dividend and Divisor to the rem function.


A = 6.7

[Initializing the Dividend]

[Initializing the Dividend]

B = 3

[Initializing the Divisor]

[Initializing the Divisor]

R = rem(A, B)

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0.7’ as remainder. This is because 3 does not divide 6.7 exactly, and leaves 0.7 as remainder]

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0.7’ as remainder. This is because 3 does not divide 6.7 exactly, and leaves 0.7 as remainder]


R = rem(A, B)


As we can see in the output, we have obtained the remainder of 6.7 and 3 as ‘0.7’.

Example #3

In this example, we will take both dividend and divisor as non-integers.

For this example, we will follow the following steps:

Initialize the Dividend.

Initialize the Divisor.

Pass both Dividend and Divisor to the rem function.


[Initializing the Dividend]

[Initializing the Dividend]

B = 4.32

[Initializing the Divisor]

[Initializing the Divisor]

R = rem(A, B)

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0.12’ as remainder. This is because 4.32 does not divide 17.4 exactly and leaves 0.12 as remainder]

[Passing Dividend and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide A with B, we will get ‘0.12’ as remainder. This is because 4.32 does not divide 17.4 exactly and leaves 0.12 as remainder]


R = rem(A, B)


As we can see in the output, we have obtained the remainder of 17.4 and 4.32 as 0.12.

In the above 3 examples, we used rem function to get the remainder for single input.

Next, we will see how to use rem function for a range of dividends.

Passing a range of integers to the rem function will give an array output with remainder of each element when divided by the divisor.

Example #4

We will take a range of 5 to 10 and will use 4 as divisor.

For this example, we will follow the following steps:

Initialize the range as [5:10]

Initialize the Divisor

Pass both Dividend range and Divisor to the rem function


A = [5 : 10] [Initializing the range of Dividends]

B = 4

[Initializing the Divisor]

[Initializing the Divisor]

R = rem(A, B)

[Passing Dividend range and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide every integer from 5 to 10 by 4, we will get the following remainders:

Please note that these remainders correspond to division of elements of A by 4]


A = [5 : 10] R = rem(A, B)


As we can see in the output, we have obtained the array of remainders for the range passed as an argument.

Example #5

Let us take another example and take a range of 10 to 15.

For this example, we will follow the following steps:

Initialize the range as [10:15].

Initialize the Divisor as 3.

Pass both Dividend range and Divisor to the rem function.


A = [10 : 15] [Initializing the range of Dividends]

B = 3

[Initializing the Divisor]

[Initializing the Divisor]

R = rem(A, B)

[Passing Dividend range and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide every integer from 10 to 15 by 3, we will get following remainders:

[Passing Dividend range and Divisor as arguments to the rem function] [Mathematically, if we divide every integer from 10 to 15 by 3, we will get following remainders:

1 2 0 1 2 0]


A = [10 : 15] R = rem(A, B)


As we can see in the output, we have obtained the array of remainders for the range passed as an argument.


‘rem’ function is used in Matlab to find the remainders during division. We can pass both single dividends or a range of dividends as argument to the ‘rem’ function.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Matlab Remainder. Here we discuss the introduction to Matlab Remainder along with examples for better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Complete Guide To Penetration Testing

Introduction to Penetration Testing

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Regardless of how securely the web application has been developed, there will always be any flaw that makes it vulnerable to cyber attack. In order to make the organization free from security issues, the security professional of that organization has to be very careful about handling the company’s network and the web application.

When it comes to handling the network or web application of any organization, it is very important to sincerely take each security aspect. One of the approaches to keep it secure is by deploying Antivirus, firewall, IPS and IDS systems, etc. The role of their software is to ensure that no attack can cause harm to the system.

In this approach, we have the security professional try to hack our own system just to make sure how an actual hacker can compromise our system. As it is done with all the system owner’s consent, it is also called ethical hacking.

What is Penetration Testing?

Penetration testing may be defined as exploiting the system with the system owner’s consent to get real exposure to the existing vulnerabilities. In this approach, the security professional tries to hack the system using all the ways that a hacker can use to compromise the system.

Through it happens with the consent of the system’s owner, it might depend if they want to share the internal details of the system with the ethical hacker based on the kind of ethical hacking they want to get performed in their system.

All three kinds of hacking, white hat, grey hat and black hat, could be performed under the penetration testing test. The professional who does pentesting is called pentesters.

Penetration testing could be done on web applications as well as in the network. The ethical hacker follows all the steps from information gathering to exploiting the system to get all the possible flaws, which can weaken the system’s security.

Based on whether the web application or the network has to be hacked, different tools and technologies are available to leverage. Also, based on what kind of security the organization wants to ensure, it depends on how the pentester will choose the approach of hacking. The pentester can also be asked to hack the life or the under-construction websites to get the idea of how it is developed and how it is being developed, respectively.

How is Penetration Testing Performed?

Penetration testing involves the open approach, which means the way pentesting could be performed varies from person to person. But overall, all the pentesters apply the same approaches or follow the same steps to implement their ideas.

Below are the steps that are usually involved in penetration testing:

1. Reconnaissance

Reconnaissance may be defined as the way of performing the footprinting of the system by finding all the related details of the target.

It includes finding the target’s physical location, gathering information about its surroundings, finding details about it through social media, being engaged with the people who are the legitimate user of the target, and so on.

This step plays a vital role by making the hacker aware of the target.

2. Scanning

Scanning, as the name states, this step is all about scanning the target in order to get all the technical details about it.

It is the hacker actually uses the most important step as the hacker’s technical details gathered during this phase to exploit the target.

Scanning has to be done very carefully on the target else, and it could alert the owner or the system administrators if the smart software backs it.

3. Gaining Access

After performing the scanning and gathering all the crucial details about the system, it is about how the details could be leveraged to break into the target.

In this phase, it takes all the expertise of the hacker to get completed successfully.

It is important for hackers to be aware of all the possible approaches to exploit the system using their knowledge and experience.

4. Maintaining Access

After the system has been compromised, it is now the turn to manage the access in the target without the knowledge of the system administrator.

Creating the backdoor to get regular access to the target falls under this phase.

The hacker can create the backdoor using trojan so that they can use the target for their purpose whenever required. While residing inside the target, it is very important for the attacker to remain hidden; else, they can be thrown out of the target.

5. Clearing Track

When all the phases are completed, and it turns to clear all the evidence that the attacker might have left while attacking the system, the attacker has to opt for the techniques to erase everything they did.

It is the final phase as penetration testing is considered completed after this phase.

Penetration Testing Techniques

Penetration testing can be done in various ways. A good penetration tester is supposed to have their own skills that they can use to break any system. It all depends on what kind of system has to be compromised in an overview manner if it comes to penetration testing techniques. If the system is the web application or the network or what kind of system it is, it all decides what kind of approach or technique has to be applied to compromise the system.

It is very important to understand that different systems have different specifications, and in order to break them, it needs expertise in these particular specifications. The ethical hacker usually prefers to have a checklist of all the vulnerabilities that might exist in the system.

In some networks or web applications backed by security applications, it is very tough to bypass through them, making it very tough to perform the DAST penetration testing. The outcome of the penetration testing is then presented to the system administrators or the system owners to get those remediated.

Penetration Testing Tools

Below are some of the important penetration testing tools:

1. Burpsuite

Burpsuite may be defined as one of the sniffing tools that catch the packets that are transmitted from the web browser to towards the server. The sniffed packets can be then changed or manipulated to launch the attack. It carries various important data that the hacker can use in various ways to exploit the system.

2. OWASP ZAP 3. Wireshark

Wireshark may be defined as the network traffic sniffing tool that can catch the network packet flowing through any network and get all the details that have been carried by it to exploit the system. If any of the users are doing some critical transaction, the Wireshark application can catch the packer involved in the transaction and can discover the data it is carrying to the server.

4. Nexpose

Nexpose is the other tool used to find or scan the vulnerability of any network. It runs the map behind the system in order to get the status of the ports and the services running on them. It is a very important tool to find out the existing vulnerabilities in the network. In addition to finding the network’s weakness, it also suggests the steps that have to be followed to remove all the weaknesses.

5. Metasploit

Metasploit is the inbuilt tool in Kali Linux used to perform the actual exploit. It is used in the terminal of Kali Linux, where it lets the hacker get access to the target system. It is a very big tool that lets us hack several devices that run the various operating systems on it. It has to be considered very seriously when it comes to exploiting the weakness of any system. 


Penetration testing ensures the safety of the system by making sure that the actual hacker cannot breach the security by finding the flaws in the system.

It gives the idea about what kind of vulnerability actually exists in the system so that the system owner could remediate those.

Cybersecurity is considered the mandatory checks that the organization has to go through to find out what is going wrong with their system.

There are security breaches that could be only explored if the ethical hacker can try to exploit the system by applying all the approaches that a real hacker can do.

The outcome of penetration testing is very important, while they have to be resolved in order to make sure that the system is free from the weak points.

If the system is the production system and some of the important measures are not taken care of, it may lead to system downtime, which will definitely lead to the organisation’s performance.

It takes the extra cost to get the penetration testing done of any site as the hacker these days charges well sum to perform the system’s penetration testing.

It is sometimes very time taking to perform the penetration testing, due to which the organization has to devote some of the time if there is any need to manage the downtime of the system.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

Complete Guide To Mongodb Careers

Introduction to MongoDB Careers

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Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Why do we make Careers in MongoDB?

The below are the reasons why you should choose MongoDB technology or even MongoDB company for your career:

MongoDB is the leading and evolving database technology that gives the power to perform sophisticated data manipulations tasks in a very easy way.

It provides many predefined utilities and functionalities such as routines, functions, stored procedures, etc., which add to automation and reduce much of the user or developer work.

It is an open-source platform which means that it is free for any of the changes to be incorporated and releases its new versions with new features and functionalities added now and then as per requirements.

The core values of MongoDB company, if you wish to join it, are making your word and suggestion matter, team spirit is admired, building together make it wise, know the importance of differences and embrace them, being transparent and honest intellectually, go far and thing big and making you proud of the work that you do.

Even in case of any difficult circumstances or even in pandemics, the company provides the flexible job positions and remote work opportunities.

Jobs positions include remote opportunities and working as a free lancer for people with experience in different domains such as computer and information technology, HR and recruiting, writing, finance and accounting, software development, and many more.

Skills Required for MongoDB Careers

The ideal candidates need to agree and align according to the core values mentioned above by the MongoDB organization. Along with this, they should also have the below qualities and skills, which are just generalized and can vary depending on the post you are applying for.

An experience of a minimum of 2 + years boosts up your chances to get hire.

A bachelor degree in that respective domain and additional work experience is preferred.

Strong communication skills and verbal skills.


I have a good hand on the usage of google applications, video conferencing tools, Microsoft office.

Team player and be very creative and flexible.

The skill of handling sensitive and confidential material.

Having experience of traveling domestic as well as international destinations.

If required for the position, then be open for working for flexible hours.

Be open for any changes as per the received feedback, work in a proper direction, and make the rightful decisions.

Strong understanding of the basic concepts of that particular domain.

Interest and passion to try out new things and work for a particular task.

Job Positions

The positions available are in the domain of sales, engineering, administrative and general, marketing, product and design, customer engineering and for the college students to get their internship.

For a complete list of all the available positions for now in the MongoDB organization, you can refer to this link.

Along with this, there are also other companies who hire the persons who have the knowledge of working with MongoDB and managing the data using this database tool.

You will find many websites and job opportunities when you will go to chúng tôi chúng tôi and many other sites like this.


The salary for the employee varies depending on the position that he has applied for, roles and responsibilities that he is working for and the skill set that he/she possess.

However, when talking about the role of a database administrator for Mongo DB, the average salary range from $125049 to $130000, while for the top earners, approximately $170500 annually.

For more descriptions about the salaries and packages, you need to be clear about the job description and the position you are applying for.

One of the major other factors to be considered while talking about the salary is whether you want to work in MongoDB or any other company using the Mongo DB database in its applications.

Career Outlook

The market of databases is huge, massive and ever-evolving.

MongoDB is one of the most leading Non- relation Database Management systems out there which can support any application in storing and manipulating the data.

The community of MongoDB is changing the face of the industry and empowering the users of MongoDB, which are the developers, to create the applications which can prove very much beneficial for the end-users in there day-to-day life.

You, as an individual, will get the opportunity to impact the system after joining this company or any other company using MongoDB technology.

There are n number of job opportunities present in this technology; the only condition is to excel in your skillset and be ready for it.


MongoDB technology has an ever-increasing graph of proving to be a perfect platform for database storing and manipulation. As a result, there are ample numbers of job opportunities in this domain.

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