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International Bank Account Number (IBAN)

A system of identification for bank accounts around the world

Written by

CFI Team

Published December 12, 2023

Updated June 28, 2023

What is the International Bank Account Number (IBAN)?

The International Bank Account Number – typically referred to as IBAN – is a system of identification for bank accounts that is used across national borders. Internationally agreed upon, the IBAN system acts as a facilitator for communicating and processing international transactions, helping to reduce errors in transcription.


The International Bank Account Number (IBAN) is a system of identification for account numbers to ensure that international transactions go smoothly.

There were several versions of the IBAN system – put out by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) – before a finalized version was created; the final version was split into two parts.

IBANs are important because they enable international transactions to occur easily, and significantly help to cut down on transactional errors.

Structure of the International Bank Account Number

The International Bank Account Number contains the following information:

Country code – A code that is specific to a certain country

Check number – A two-digit code used as a redundancy check to detect errors on identification numbers

Bank identifier – The unique identifier for the domestic bank

Account number – The bank account identifier


History of the International Bank Account Number

Before the creation of the IBAN system, there were different standards among countries when it came to identifying bank accounts (their branch, bank, account number, and routing codes). This led to a large amount of confusion when it came to international transactions. Important routing information, specifically, was often missing when payments were being made.

The ISO 9362 (otherwise known as the BIC code or SWIFT code) made no specifications for formatting transactions, so each party in a transaction needed to come to an agreement regarding transaction types and identification of accounts. There was a lack of consistency with international trade and resulting confusion.

Then, in 1997, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published the ISO 13616:1997 proposal, which was so flexible that it was deemed unworkable by many. They cut the proposal down then, stating that each IBAN must be a fixed length and must only include upper case letters. After much backlash, the ISO withdrew the proposal and created a new one, ISO 13616:2003. This proposal – created in 2003 – was updated again in 2007 and was basically split into two parts – SWIFT and IBAN.

SWIFT System

ISO 13616-2:2007 is officially known as SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication), a network that allows financial institutions around the world to both send and receive financial transaction information securely in a standardized (and therefore reliable) way. SWIFT is not responsible for assistance in making transactions. Instead, it sends payment orders that must be analyzed and settled between the involved accounts. In order to utilize SWIFT, all transactions must be between banks or entities closely associated with banks.

Importance of the IBAN System

The IBAN system provides a flexible yet standardized format that is used to identify accounts, validate transaction data, and create a filter that catches data errors. Routing information is always included; it allows one bank (or financial institution) to send a payment to another. Key information about each bank account is also included, as mentioned above. (The information includes branch codes, country codes, as well as check digits, which are designed to spot errors or completely validate an account number.)

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How To Get A Fake Number For Whatsapp Account: 6 Methods

You can create a virtual WhatsApp account using a fake, or temporary phone number. Such accounts have numerous uses, including separating your personal and professional life.

A fake WhatsApp account means you can hide your identity. It offers a practical alternative to using your official number, which could have personal and professional implications. You might also use a fake account to play funny pranks on your family and friends.

Here are the steps to create a fake number for WhatsApp. However, you should only follow said methods if you use the account for legal purposes.

Method 1: Using Virtual Phone Number Applications

Obtaining a virtual phone number can help you create fake WhatsApp accounts. That is because the fake phone number allows you to receive the six-digit verification code from WhatsApp that will enable you to verify your fake WhatsApp number and account.

You can opt for a temporary number from your service provider, as some companies permit it. Some also provide a free virtual phone number, while others offer it on a trial basis, after which you must pay to retain it.

Using Virtual Phone Numbers on Hushed

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Type of Virtual Phone Numbers: Local and International

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Visit Hushed

You can get a temporary phone number using Hushed by following the steps below:

Step 1) Visit the Hushed Website

You should visit the Hushed website or download their app from the iOS or Google Play Stores.

Step 2) Sign Up to your Account

Sign up for the service by providing an email address and a password or sign in if you have an account.

Step 3) Choose a Plan

Select a payment plan that suits you from the three offered by Hushed. They offer a Lifetime number for just $25 that comes bundled with 6000 SMS and 1000 call minutes

Step 4) Select a Virtual Number

After getting a plan, select a temporary number from the options available in your area code, then proceed to use it to create a fake WhatsApp account.

Step 5) Set Up Your WhatsApp Account

Set up your fake WhatsApp account using the free virtual number. You will receive the verification code by accessing your Hushed account on the app or PC. Input the code in the WhatsApp application and complete your account creation process.

Using Virtual Phone Numbers on Burner

Burner entails a mobile application that allows users in the US and Canada to create temporary phone numbers they can dispose of after use. The application is popular among users because of its easy-to-use interface and straightforward settings. Burner is compatible with both iOS and Android, meaning anyone with a smartphone can use the app to generate a fake number.

Here, are the steps for using the Burner App.

Step 1) Install the Burner App

The first step should be to install the Burner App from your smartphone’s app store (it may vary depending on the phone you are using). The app should launch immediately, so long as it is compatible with your phone.

Step 2) Choose a Number

Tap the “Choose Your Number” button, then indicate your area code of choice, after which you can select any number from the service’s list.

Step 3) Select Your Desire Plan

Select a monthly or a yearly plan, then fill in your account information, including credit card details, to facilitate payment. However, Burner offers a free trial to new users.

Note: You will have to go back to your Burner account on your PC or phone app to see the verification code sent by WhatsApp via SMS.

Method 2: Swapping Your SIM Card Temporarily

You can also create fake WhatsApp accounts using a different phone number. For that, you need to buy a prepaid SIM card and temporarily swap your SIM card.

You can purchase a SIM card from any major retailer that sells consumer electronics, like Best Buy. Alternatively, you can go to your mobile service provider, like AT&T or Verizon, and purchase the SIM card.

After buying the SIM card, do not forget to purchase a data plan to access online content. You should opt for the cheapest plan available as you will likely not use the secondary phone number for most of your communication needs. You should get a plan that will adequately suit your needs to avoid the wastage of your resources.

If you have a primary and secondary SIM card you have several benefits like:

You can separate your private life from your professional life.

You can use one SIM card for private communication with your friends and relatives.

You may then dedicate the second line for your business and professional endeavors, such as communications with clients, suppliers, and colleagues.

Using a secondary SIM card for your online activities also guarantees privacy because those with your primary phone number will not know online accounts opened using your second phone number.

Method 3: Subscribing to an eSIM Provider for a New Number

If you want to avoid buying a burner phone or a secondary SIM card to swap with a primary one, an eSIM provides the perfect solution. An eSIM is a software installed on a phone in place of the physical sim card. It is installed in a chip that comes while permanently attached to your smartphone.

An eSIM allows you to have two phone numbers on the same physical device. Consequently, you can use one phone number to create a second WhatsApp account.

One benefit of an eSIM compared to physical SIM cards is that it is rewritable. That means you do not have to stick to one mobile service provider. You can switch from one to another depending on your preferences. However, before considering subscribing to an eSIM provider, ensure your phone and your mobile service provider support eSIM services. Numero eSIM is a popular eSIM provider.

Method 4: Using a Messenger that Doesn’t Need Your Personal Phone Number

Suppose you do not want your phone number attached to a messenger. Consider using one that does not need your personal information during account creation. WhatsApp collects significant amounts of personal data from its clients, like their phone numbers, location, and device IDs, which they share with third parties and government agencies.

Messengers that preserve users’ privacy by collecting minimal data about their clients include Signal, Briar, Session, and Jami. These apps offer end-to-end encryption that ensures user data is only accessible and visible to those who generate it. On the other hand, Briar offers peer-to-peer encrypted messaging, meaning data gets stored in your phone as opposed to the cloud.

Method 5: Linking WhatsApp with a Landline Number

Many believe you must have a mobile phone number to access WhatsApp; it is far from the truth. You can open a WhatsApp account using a landline number. Follow the steps below to verify a WhatsApp account.

Step 1) Open WhatsApp

Open the WhatsApp application using your smartphone, tablet, or personal computer (PC).

Step 2) Fill in Your Landline Number

When asked by the app to input a phone number, choose your country of residence, then enter your landline number.

Step 3) Let the SMS Verification Fail

After entering your landline number, the app will require you to fill in the verification code sent via SMS. Do not attempt to key in the verification code.

In approximately five minutes, the time to enter the verification code will lapse, and the app will provide a “Call Me” option. Tap the “Call Me” option to receive a call from WhatsApp.

Step 4) Enter the Verification Code

Usually, you will almost immediately receive an automated call from WhatsApp. During the call, you will hear an automated voice repeat six digits several times. Those digits are your verification code. You should note them down and then enter the code on the WhatsApp application.

Step 5) Finish Setting Up

After your WhatsApp account gets verified, you can finish the setup process, which involves choosing a name, writing a bio, and selecting a profile picture. Then proceed to interact with your contacts on the app.

Method 6: Purchasing a Burner Phone

A burner phone is a prepaid cell phone which you can discard anytime, making it ideal for short-term use. However, it would help if you did not get burner phones with the intention of committing illegal activities, as law enforcement can still track burner phones.

You can use burner phones to keep your online activities private and separate from your personal life. Every burner phone comes with a dedicated burner phone number. Therefore, you can use the burner phone number to create a WhatsApp account on your primary cell phone.

When WhatsApp sends the verification code to the burner phone, input the code to your primary cell phone and finish setting up the WhatsApp account. You can get a Burner Phone on Amazon.

How to Change Your WhatsApp Number Without Verification

Changing your WhatsApp number without verification is similar to creating a fake WhatsApp account. It is achievable through using a temporary phone number.

Here, are step to Change your WhatsApp Number without Verification:

Step 1) Get a Virtual Phone Number App

Install a virtual phone number app like Hushed or Burner and follow the steps outlined above to get a virtual phone number

Step 2) Open WhatsApp Settings

Open the WhatsApp application and go to Settings and select Account in the Settings menu. Under Account, tap Change Number.

Step 3) Enter the Phone Numbers

Agree to the app’s terms and conditions for changing phone numbers, then input the number you initially used to register your WhatsApp account and the new phone number.

Step 4) Input the Verification Code

WhatsApp will send a verification to the new phone number; however, avoid the SMS verification and wait for the option to receive a call and select it. Open the virtual phone number app to receive the call and note the verification code you receive. Input the code to change your number and proceed to enjoy WhatsApp services.


No, it is not illegal to create a fake WhatsApp account. Most of the apps that offer virtual phone numbers are available on Google Play Store and from the Apple App Store, meaning they are verified. However, it is illegal to use your fake WhatsApp account to commit fraud, send spam, or engage in identity theft.

A WhatsApp account could be fake if they claim to be a family member or friend but are not on your contact list. A phony account often has a country code that does not match where the user lives or belongs to someone whose voice you do not recognize when you call them on a private line.

Here, is some major drawbacks:

Many virtual number providers require payment for you to continue using your virtual number, meaning you run the risk of losing the number when you stop paying for it.

You might have difficulty creating a WhatsApp account with a virtual number if someone else used it to create an account.

You may face issues with payment modes should your virtual number provider disclose your private information to unauthorized third parties.

It is likely that you may lose your WhatsApp data stored in chats and backups if you discard your number and it gets assigned to someone else.

Yes, WhatsApp can disable such accounts, primarily if you use it to send spam messages to numerous contacts. Your WhatsApp may also be disabled if you use it to get personal information from other WhatsApp users. Last, WhatsApp may prompt you to provide OTP codes multiple times, without which they may disable your account.

How To Recover Your Tiktok Account Without Email Or Phone Number

Did you forget your TikTok password but you don’t have access to your email or phone number?

If you still have access to either your email or phone number, you can reset your password on the app.

To do so, on the “Forgot password?” option on the login screen.

However, if you don’t have access to your email or phone number, you need to use another method to recover your TikTok account.

Otherwise, you have to create another TikTok account.

That said, if your account has a lot of followers or likes, it’s best to recover it.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to recover your TikTok account without email or phone number.

How to recover your TikTok account without email or phone number

To recover your TikTok account without email or phone number, you need to submit the “Share your feedback” form.

Alternatively, you can create a new TikTok account and report a problem directly on the app.

After you’ve submitted the feedback form or reported a problem, wait for a few days for TikTok’s response.

The TikTok feedback form is for users who have a problem that they want to report or feedback that they want to share.

Other than the feedback form, you can contact TikTok directly on the app.

However, this is not recommended as they are probably not going to respond to you.

Lastly, select a relevant topic, describe your issue, and select “Report”.

1. Navigate to the “Share your feedback” form

Open a browser like Google Chrome or Safari.

The TikTok feedback form has two uses—it allows you to share your feedback or report a problem.

Any information that you provide will only be used to respond to your report.

2. Enter your email address and username

Enter your email address.

Enter your TikTok username.

Select “General account inquiry” as the topic.

Select “Recover account” as the sub-topic.

Enter the email address that is associated with your TikTok account.

If you lost access to it, you can enter another email address instead or make a new one.

Although the username field is optional, you need to enter it since you’re trying to recover your account.

3. Explain that you lost your email and phone number

Explain that you lost access to your email address and phone number and need help recovering your account in the “How can we help?” field.

Submit the form and wait 1 to 3 business days for TikTok’s response.

Here’s an example description, “Hi TikTok, I forgot my TikTok password but I lost access to my email and phone number. My TikTok username is @example. I need help to recover it”.

You don’t have to upload any attachments because you’re reporting that you lost access to your email and phone number.

Do note that it can take more than 3 business days for TikTok to respond to you.

TikTok will respond to you via the email address that you’ve provided in the “Email” field.

Make sure to check your email for their response with instructions on how you can recover your account.

How can I change my TikTok password without a phone number?

To change your TikTok password without a phone number, you can use your email address instead.

However, if you lost access to your email address, you need to contact TikTok using the TikTok feedback form or report a problem on the app itself.

How do I get my old Tiktok account back without a password?

To get your old TikTok account back without a password, you can log in with your phone number.

TikTok will then send a 4-digit code to your phone number that you need to key in before you can log in to your account.

Then, TikTok will send you a link to reset your password.


If you lost access to your TikTok account, recovering it is important.

This is because you might have uploaded some videos on your account that you want to delete.

Or maybe you have a lot of followers that you don’t want to lose.

Either way, you can follow the steps in this guide to recover your TikTok account.

Further Reading

3 Ways to Contact TikTok

Can You Log into TikTok on Two Devices?

How to Get Your TikTok Profile URL

Scandal At Danske Bank Explained

The scandal at Danske Bank has been described as one of the most significant money-laundering operations that Europe has ever witnessed. 

Years of wrongdoing were followed by years of watchdog probes and international condemnation. But this week, the saga has concluded – in the form of a vast monetary penalty and more scathing criticism from US watchdogs. 

The bank hopes to draw a final line in the sand on its most turbulent period in history. It all depends, though, on whether it can learn from its governance failures.

Quick recap

In 2023, it emerged that Danske Bank had allowed over €200 billion in suspicious transactions to move through its channels. 

The action centred on the bank’s Estonian branch (now closed). Ten former employees of that branch were arrested. Then-Danske Bank CEO Thomas Borgen resigned.

Multiple watchdogs – chiefly Danish and US authorities – have been conducting an extensive probe of the bank ever since. 

This week, the bank announced a final settlement worth over €2 billion with those authorities and accepted “full responsibility for the unacceptable failures and misconduct of the past, which have no place at Danske Bank today.”

Why is governance at the heart of this scandal?

Because anti-money laundering protocols begin at the top levels of a business. That responsibility only increases when the business in question is one of the most prominent banks in Europe. 

Principles and processes start with organisational strategy and filter down. Over the past several years, we have seen that this simply didn’t happen at Danske Bank. 

Whether Danske Bank’s strategy was inadequate or simply ignored makes no difference now; its board and the executive team failed to give proper oversight. Now they are paying the price. 

If senior leaders didn’t facilitate money laundering themselves, they ignored red flags showing that others were doing so. This, in the eyes of government watchdogs, signals culpability. New laws mean that it’s becoming harder to hide from that fact.

What has the scandal at Danske Bank shown about its governance?

At the heart of the issue was Danske Bank’s willingness to lie as part of its governance strategy. At least, that’s how US authorities see it. 

Much of the money attached to the scandal ultimately ended up moving through other banks based in the US, and because of this, Danske Bank has been accused by the US Department of Justice (DOJ) of “deceiving” these banks. 

“By at least February 2014, as a result of internal audits, information from regulators, and an internal whistleblower, Danske Bank knew that some NRP customers were engaged in highly suspicious and potentially criminal transactions,” a US Department of Justice (DOJ) statement said this week. 

“Danske Bank also knew that Danske Bank Estonia’s anti-money laundering program and procedures did not meet Danske Bank’s standards.”

So, senior leaders knew what was happening and didn’t say anything?

Yes, and also, they didn’t act sufficiently to stop wrongdoing. 

You’ll notice that the DOJ accused the bank of inaction in 2014 – in other words, three years before the scandal’s impacts began to unfold in the public realm and two years before the dirty money stopped flowing. 

No corporate governing body should allow their company to fall into such reckless law-breaking. But pivotally, no governing body should allow their company to remain in that state. Danske Bank did, and now it is paying the price.

What governance lessons can we learn from the Danske Bank debacle?

In financial institutions, boards and executive teams have a crucial duty to ensure sufficient anti-money laundering (AML) controls. Watchdogs are as eager as ever to uncover such wrongdoing and turn it into an international example. 

Corporate leaders must respect and act on internal audits, especially when they raise red flags. 

Action and inaction bring similar consequences. Whether a board facilitates laundering or stands by while it occurs, the responsibility falls on their shoulders.

Look at the UK as an example of toughing legislation. A proposed law there specifically suggests jail time for directors if their company facilitates financial crime.

In summary

The scandal at Danske Bank is one of the biggest money laundering cases ever uncovered. Lawmakers have blasted it and vowed harsh responses should it ever happen again. 

Boards and executives in financial institutions should pay close attention to this and their companies’ channels. 

If those channels are being used to move dirty money, expect a fallout.

Hp Sees Leap In Servers, International Business

Thanks to a combination of improving product sales — particularly in a resurgent enterprise server market — and service contracts, Hewlett-Packard (NYSE: HPQ) reported revenue and earnings that beat Wall Street projections.

Returning interest among IT decision-makers in replacing their aging systems proved one major reason for HP’s successful quarter, continuing a reversal of the past several months’ virtual standstill in IT spending.

“After many customers deferred hardware purchases in 2009, we’re seeing strong growth in a number of areas,” HP Chairman and CEO Mark Hurd said during the company’s earnings call with Wall Street analysts.

The rise in revenue can also be attributed in part to a much stronger dollar and a healthy increase in sales overseas. Revenue in the Americas and the Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) region were both up 11 percent and Asia Pacific rose 19 percent. Two-thirds of revenue came from outside the U.S.

That’s in spite of concerns about Europe’s economic instability, particularly in Greece.

“We saw the demand picture improve in Europe, and it wasn’t just across five or six countries, it was across all countries and all segments,” Hurd said. “So it was very broad-based for us. It’s behavior relative to what we’ve seen in America and Asia.”

IT services revenue increased 2 percent, while outsourcing revenue rose 6 percent. HP’s technology services and business process outsourcing were flat year over year, and application services revenue declined 2 percent.

Seeing IT services flat from a year earlier came as something of a surprise, since it was such a strong component last year. Hurd said HP has been spending a lot of time continuing its integration of EDSand getting it aligned with the rest of the company.

“We expect to have very strong signings this year. When you look at our pipeline, we feel very strong about where the business is at. We’ve improved profitability, improved the cost structure,” Hurd said.

IT buyers’ interest in servers on the upswing

Enterprise Storage and Servers (ESS) revenue jumped 31 percent, indicating that the long, painful decline in server sales has finally ended, or at least temporarily halted, while the Personal Systems Group (PSG) — HP’s PC division — reported a 21 percent revenue increase, thanks in part to a 20 percent year-over-year increase in unit shipments.

The growth here was led by a surge in the workstation market, which rose 47 percent, according to HP CFO Cathie Lesjak. “That market includes financial services, who are often early adopters, and more SMB in the commercial space,” she said on the call. “We always thought it would start with consumers, then SMB, and then corporate.”

Nevertheless, Hurd said HP is not expecting a big wave of hardware refreshes just yet.

“We have seen some improvements in some areas, mostly in quicker times to make decisions by customers,” he said. “If there is a spike, given the things we’re describing, it would be good news.”

HP Software revenue declined 1 percent, while HP’s Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) increased 8 percent.

Printer sales, in particular, rose 9 percent, and HP said it could have sold even more — but was hit with a supply shortage.

“Demand picked up more than we expected in the quarter,” Lesjak said. “That’s bad news because we couldn’t meet capacity. We have a very strong backlog of orders.” But she added that the unit decline in parts had not been a surprise to HP, and the back half of the year will be much stronger for laser printers.

For the third quarter of fiscal 2010, HP estimates revenue will be approximately $29.7 billion to $30.0 billion, with GAAP earnings in the range of $0.87 to $0.89 per share and non-GAAP per-share earnings between $1.05 and $1.07. HP expects full-year fiscal 2010 revenue growth of approximately 8 to 9 percent, with GAAP earnings per share (EPS) down $0.03 to $0.06 for the year but non-GAAP EPS up $0.06 to $0.08.

So far, HP’s estimates appear to be taking a hit because it is recognizing expected stock dilution from the acquisition of Palmbut has not realized any income from the embattled mobile device pioneer yet.

Meanwhile, another acquisition may be closer to paying off: The company’s networking division is growing fast, thanks to HP’s rapid integration of 3Com, a purchase on which it closed earlier this month. Networking sales were up 58 percent year over year and 3Com integration is already under way.

“We’ve started ramping hiring, we had a number of significant wins and had a strong Virtual Connect quarter. Our networking strategy isn’t a 3Com strategy, it’s not a ProCurve strategy, it’s all those capabilities brought together,” Hurd said.

Hurd also shed some light on where HP stands on tablet PCs, in the wake of the breakthrough success of the Apple iPad but HP’s shelving last month of a tablet design of its own.

“We think there is a market there and we expect to be a participant in that market,” Hurd said. “We’ve never felt like the market was one product or one developer [who] would become ubiquitous. We expect to play across that gamut of capabilities.”

Andy Patrizio is a senior editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.

To Check If A Number Is A Munchhausen Number

Munchhausen Numbers are peculiar numbers which possess a unique property. A number is considered to be munchhausen if the sum of the digits of the number, raised to their own power, is equal to the original number. These numbers are uncommon and not many of them are known. If the definition 00 = 0 is used, then 0 can also be considered a munchhausen number.

The following article provides a method to determine whether a number is munchhausen or not while keeping in mind these characteristics of munchhausen numbers.

Problem Statement

The task at hand is to check whether a given integer, n, is a Münchhausen number or not i.e. when each digit is raised to its own power and summed, the result is equal to the original number. If it is a Münchhausen number, the program should return true, else it should return false.

Examples Input: 1 Output: True

Explanation − (1 raised to the power 1) = 11 = 1.

Since the resultant number is equal to the original number, 1 is a Münchhausen number.

Input: 1603 Output: False

Explanation − (1 raised to the power 1) + (6 raised to the power 6) + (0 raised to the power 0) + (3 raised to the power 3) = 11 + 66 + 00 + 33 ≠ 1603 .

This is equal to 46684. Since the resultant number is not equal to the original number, 1603 is not a Münchhausen number.

Input: 3435 Output: True

Explanation − (3 raised to the power 3) + (4 raised to the power 4) + (3 raised to the power 3) + (5 raised to the power 5) = 33 + 44 + 33 + 55 = 3435.

Since the resultant number is equal to the original number, 3435 is a Münchhausen number.

Input: 4335 Output: False

Explanation − (4 raised to the power 4) + (3 raised to the power 3) + (3 raised to the power 3) +(5 raised to the power 5) = 44 + 33 + 33 + 55 ≠ 4335.

Since the resulting number is not equal to the original number, 4335 is not a Münchhausen number.

Solution Approach

In order to determine if the provided number is a Münchhausen number, we must know whether the summation of the result of every digit raised to itself is same as the original number. The following method can be used to compute the sum and determine if the outcome matches the original number.


The approach consists of the following steps −

Divide the given number into its digits.

Raise each digit to itself.

Add the results.

Compare the total sum with the original number.

Display the answer.

Pseudo Code

Function is_munchhausen()

Initialise sum = 0

Initialise temp = n

Initialise digit = temp % 10

sum = sum + pow(digit, digit)

temp = temp / 10

return sum == n

Function main()

Initialise n

if (is_munchhausen())

cout << “Münchhausen Number”


cout << “Non-Münchhausen Number”

Print output

Example: C++ Program

The program determines whether a number is a Münchhausen number by calling the is_munchhausen() function. The function uses a temporary variable equal to n and another variable sum to store the summation of the result of each digit raised to itself.

using namespace std; bool is_munchhausen(int n){ int sum = 0; int temp = n; int digit = temp % 10; sum = sum + pow(digit, digit); temp = temp / 10; } return (sum == n); } int main(){ int n = 3253; cout << "input number: " << n << endl; if (is_munchhausen(n)){ cout << "Münchhausen Number" << endl; } else { cout << "Non-Münchhausen Number" << endl; } return 0; } Output input number: 3253 Non-Münchhausen Number Time and Space Complexity Analysis

Time Complexity − O(log n) time complexity, where n is the value of the input parameter. This is due to the fact that the number of iterations of the while loop in the function is_munchhausen() depend on the digit count of the given number, which is proportional to log(n) in base 10. The function is called once in the main function hence the overall complexity of the program is proportional to log(n).

Space Complexity − O(1). This function uses a fixed amount of memory to store the integer variables sum and temp regardless of the size of the input parameter, hence its space complexity is constant.


In conclusion, Munchhausen numbers are unique numbers that are expressed as the sum of their digits raised to themselves. They are not very common and finding them can be a difficult task. The solution approach discussed in this article provides a method to check with ease whether a number is Münchhausen or not in logarithmic time without using auxiliary space. The article explains the concept of Münchhausen numbers in depth using various examples. One can quickly ascertain whether a given number is a Münchhausen number or not using the accompanying C++ code.

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