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Many iPhone and iPad users are excited about the upcoming features in iOS 13 and iPadOS (the rebranded iOS for iPad). Of course if you have a developer account, then iOS 13 beta and iPadOS beta are available to you right now, but that’s certainly not everyone. If you’re wondering what the release dates are for iOS 13 final and iPadOS final, along with the expected release dates of the iOS 13 public beta and iPadOS public beta, you’re certainly not alone.

What is the iPadOS 13 and iOS 13 release date for final versions?

iOS 13 for iPhone is available to download now!

Apple has announced that iOS 13 will be released on September 19. The software will be available for all users with devices compatible with iOS 13 and iPadOS 13.

Apple also announced that iPadOS 13 will be released on September 24, revised quicker than the September 30 release date they originally planned.

Previously, Apple had stated that iOS 13 and iPadOS 13 will be released this fall, this information is presented on their preview webpages:

Thus, there was no precise date known for exactly when the final public versions will be released to everyone.

Fall of 2023 starts on September 23, which is the date of the fall equinox. Therefore it’s very unlikely the final releases of iOS 13 and iPadOS would come out before then, and instead it would almost certainly be released after if the ‘fall’ timeline is to be met.

Historically, the new system software releases often arrive along with the launch of new iPhone hardware in the fall, which usually occurs in late September or early October. Thus it’s reasonable to speculate that the final public release date of iOS 13 and iPadOS 13 is roughly around that general timeframe.

iOS 13 & iPadOS Developer Beta Releases are Available Now

The Developer Beta of iOS 13 and iPadOS was released on June 3 at WWDC 2023.

These can be downloaded now by registered developers, and technically speaking can be installed right now by anyone with the appropriate prerequisites (Xcode 11 beta, or macOS Catalina Beta), but it’s not a good idea to do so if you’re not a developer because early beta system software is often problematic, buggy, unstable, and not supported by apps you use.

Additionally, anyone who is willing to pay the annual $99 Apple Developer fee can access and download the developer releases and install iOS 13 beta and iPadOS beta right now from the Apple Developer website.

Likewise, anyone can access the MacOS Catalina dev beta through the Apple Developer program.

Developer beta builds are much less stable than final releases, or even public beta releases, and thus why they are intended only for developers.

iOS 13 Public Beta & iPadOS Public Beta Are Available Now

According to Apple, the Public Beta for iOS 13 and iPadOS 13 was set to be released in July of 2023. However, Apple ended up releasing the public beta earlier than that on July 24.

Anyone can download iOS 13 public beta and iPadOS 13 public beta if desired, though beta system software is typically buggier than final versions and is not recommended for most users.

In prior years, Apple released the public beta of system software often just three to four weeks after the initial developer betas.

The exact release date of the public beta for iOS 13 and iPadOS was June 24. Interested users can sign up on the Apple Public Beta website to sign-up for the beta program.

Once enrolled, anyone can install iPadOS 13 public beta on iPad or install iOS 13 public beta on iPhone as long as the device is compatible with iOS 13 / iPadOS 13.

On the Apple Public Beta program website, the splash banner simply says “Coming Soon”, but at the WWDC 2023 conference they gave a more specific timeline saying the public betas would start in July.

The MacOS Catalina 10.15 public beta is following the same time frame.

Apple has also said that MacOS Catalina (10.15) will also be released in the fall of 2023, which will likely fall on the same date of the iOS 13 release and iPadOS 13 release.


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Android 13: Release Date, Beta, New Features, News, And More

After releasing the tablet-focused Android 12L update, Google has shifted its focus to its next major Android release, Android 13. After two developer previews and two beta builds, the company has now released the third beta of Android 13. With the latest beta, Android 13 has reached platform stability, meaning all app-facing behaviors and APIs are final. So in this article, we have rounded up everything we know about Android 13 right now, including the release date, the entire beta rollout timeline, known and leaked features, and more.

Android 13: Everything We Know So Far (June 2023)

Google has released a total of two developer previews and three beta builds of Android 13 so far. The first Android 13 beta arrived in the last week of April 2023, one month ahead of the usual May release that coincides with the Google I/O event. Since then, we have received two more builds.

Google has attained the platform stability milestone with the third Android 13 beta build. To recall, Android 12 reached platform stability in August 2023, and the stable build was launched in October 2023. Going by the Android 13 release timeline and assuming there are no major hurdles in the update schedule, we could expect Google to release the stable version of Android 13 sometime in August or September this year.

Android 13 Eligible Devices

Google Pixel 4

Google Pixel 4 XL

Google Pixel 4a

Google Pixel 4a (5G)

Google Pixel 5

Google Pixel 5a (5G)

Google Pixel 6

Google Pixel 6 Pro

Google Pixel 6a

If you recall, Pixel 2 series reached end-of-life before the Android 12 release and wasn’t included in the list of Android 12 devices. Similarly, Google dropped support for Pixel 3 and 3 XL before the Android 12L update. This time around, Google has dropped support for Pixel 3a and 3a XL.

Android 13 Dessert Name

Image courtesy: New Africa/ Shutterstock

Google has a tradition of using dessert names for Android. Although Google stopped marketing the dessert name after Android 9 Pie back in 2023, it still uses dessert names internally as codenames for Android releases. For instance, Quince Tart is the codename for Android 10, Red Velvet Cake is Android 11’s codename, and Android 12 was internally known as Snow Cone.

Coming to Android 13, we already know that the internal codename of Android 13 is Tiramisu. Google didn’t shy away from using Android 13’s codename in the first developer preview. Although newer builds use the version number “13”, Google had mentioned “Tiramisu” on the “About Phone” page in the first developer preview build. For those wondering, Tiramisu is a coffee-flavored Italian dessert. According to Wikipedia, Tiramisu is usually made of savoiardi, egg yolks, mascarpone, cocoa, and coffee. Meanwhile, it’s in the air that Android 14’s dessert name is Upside Down Cake.

Android 13: Top New Features (Public Beta 3) Themed Icons for Third-party Apps

Starting with Android 12, Google introduced support for themed icons on Android 12. However, it was limited just to Google apps at the moment. With Android 13, Google is making dynamic color themed icons available for all app icons. App developers will be required to use a monochromatic app icon and update the adaptive icon XML to incorporate themed app icons support to their apps. Google says themed third-party icons will first arrive on Pixel phones, and it is working with device OEMs to bring this feature to their custom skins.

Flashlight Alert and Quick Tap to Enable Flashlight

As an improvement to Android 12’s double tap gestures, you now get the option to toggle the flashlight. Going forward, you can double-tap the back of your phone to enable or disable the flash. This is undoubtedly a convenient feature to have, especially for those who often use their phone’s flashlight in the dark.

Faster Access to QR Code Scanning

Thanks to the pandemic, we have witnessed widespread adoption of QR codes. Ranging from payment terminals to restaurant menus, QR codes are now almost everywhere. Considering the rejuvenated interest, Android 13 will let you access the QR code scanner right from your phone’s lock screen. In addition, you will also get a Quick Settings tile to access the QR code scanner.

Redesigned Audio Output Picker

In a noticeable visual change, Google is redesigning the media output picker in Android 13. The output picker, not to be confused with the expanded volume bar, lets you switch between available output devices such as Bluetooth headphones or phone speakers. It looks similar to Android 12’s Quick Settings tiles (read: they are thick) and accommodates the device name in the volume slider. It’s functionally the same as Android 12, but it will come in a design refresh to improve consistency throughout the interface.

New Photo Picker

In an attempt to unify the file picker experience and protect the privacy of its users, Google is adding a new system photo picker with Android 13. Building on Android’s document picker that shares specific documents with the app without giving the app access to all media files on the device, the new photo picker API makes it easier for apps to efficiently access shared images and videos. Furthermore, Google plans to bring the new photo picker to Android 11 and higher through Google Play system updates.

Prompts to Add New Quick Settings Tiles New Material You Color Styles

While Material You revamped customization features on Android 12, one criticism of the feature was the inability to set your own colors. That gave birth to third-party apps to use custom Material You accent colors. Listening to feedback, Google is now offering a total of 16 color options in the Settings, as opposed to the 4 found in Android 12. While this is a step in the right direction, it’s still disappointing to see the lack of a color palette or the option to enter a HEX code for setting the accent color in Android 13.

Edit Text from Clipboard

Google is making it easier for Android users to edit copied text. Much like how screenshots work now, Android 13 introduces a pencil icon to edit the content when you cut or copy text. With this feature, you can paste the text from the clipboard and add/remove content to it. Furthermore, if you copy a number or link, you are given additional options to call/message and open the link in Chrome.

Google has added a squiggly line to the media player progress bar in Android 13. The squiggly line appears only when you’re playing music and goes back to the usual straight line when you have paused the media. It’s not limited to the notifications shade though, you get the same wavy progress bar on the lock screen too. While this doesn’t change the functionality, it looks like a nice visual upgrade.

Panlingual App-Specific Languages

Codenamed Panlingual, Android 13 finally brings the ability to set languages on a per-app basis. Ideal for polyglots, the feature makes it convenient to use some apps in a specific language. For instance, one could use Google Chrome in Hindi while interacting with the rest of the phone in English.

Android 13: Leaked/ Hidden Features

Although Google has released the first developer preview of Android 13, some interesting features are disabled by default. However, we do know a few tidbits, courtesy of Mishaal Rahman’s Android 13 deep dive and previous Android 13 reports from the folks at XDA Developers and Android Police. As always, we have added consumer-centric features first, followed by developer-focused features towards the end.

Weekly View in Privacy Dashboard

Image: Mishaal Rahman / Esper

Privacy Dashboard is getting a much-needed improvement in Android 13. Moving forward, you will have the option to view the permission log for the past seven days. For the uninitiated, Android 12 currently preserves the permission log for the camera, microphone, and location access for the past 24 hours.

Tap to Transfer Media Playback Between Devices

Image: Mishaal Rahman / Esper

According to a recent Android Police report, Android 13 may offer a media tap to transfer feature. It could potentially let users switch media between your phone and other devices, presumably smart speakers. From what it looks like, the feature could be akin to how you can seamlessly transfer media playback from an iPhone to HomePod. The report speculates that it could rely on NFC or UWB to transfer media playback. Esper’s Mishaal Rahman has managed to enable the feature’s prototype, and you can check it out in action above.

Runtime Notifications

Starting with Android 13, Google is expected to introduce runtime permissions for notifications. In other words, the apps will have to request permission from the user before sending notifications, much like how other permissions like location and microphone access are handled on Android today. The idea is to help users make a cautious decision whether they’d like to receive notifications from an app. Will this solve Android’s spam notifications problem? To an extent, but not really.

If an app has properly implemented notification channels, you have the option to manually block out spam notifications today. And you can continue to receive important notifications. In a nutshell, if you are tired of that one food delivery app constantly nudging you to order good food online, go through our guide to disable spam notifications on Android to stop it for good.

A minor change in Android 13 would make it easier to use NFC payments for multiple profiles. So far, the option to make NFC payments is only available to the primary profile. However, if you are someone who shares your phone with a family member and lives in a country that has embraced NFC payments, this Android 13 feature is likely to come as good news to you.

Bluetooth LE Audio Support

Remember when Bluetooth SIG announced LC3 codec with Bluetooth LE Audio at CES 2023? It looks like Android 13 may completely embrace Bluetooth LE Audio. According to the AOSP Gerrit commit spotted by Mishaal Rahman, Google may add LC3 codec as an option in the settings. To recall, the LC3 codec offers better audio quality when compared to SBC codec, even at a 50% lower bit rate.

DNS over HTTPS Support

Google introduced DNS-over-TLS with Android 9 Pie, and the feature has been available as “Private DNS” since then. According to the commit spotted by XDA Developers, Google is planning to support DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) on Android 13. Most popular web browsers, including Google Chrome and Firefox, introduced DoH support over the past few years. It is also possible to turn on DNS-over-HTTPS on Windows 11. Until Android 13 arrives, you can check this guide on how to enable DNS-over-TLS on Android.

The Android Resource Economy (TARE)

“TARE will delegate “credits” to apps that they can then “spend” on queuing tasks. The total number of “credits” that TARE will assign (called the “balance”) depends on factors such as the current battery level of the device, whereas the number of “credits” it takes to queue a task will depend on what that task is for,” explains Esper’s Mishaal Rahman.

Moreover, TARE may limit the number of tasks an app can schedule through the JobScheduler and AlarmManager policies based on the battery level. As you might have guessed by now, this is a developer-focused feature, and we will have to wait to learn more about how the feature works behind the scenes.

Android 13 is Right Around the Corner

Microsoft Release Windows 11 Build 22000.526 To Beta And Preview Channels

Last Updated on July 22, 2023

Released to those in the Windows Insider Program, the new version of Windows 11 is coming and is appears to be filled with fixes for the various issues that people have been having under the hood of the new operating system.

22000,526 isn’t particularly interesting in terms of updates, as you won’t even notice some of these features being tweaked or fixed unless you actively use them. Things like Microsoft Edge’s Internet Explorer mode having issues with the dialog boxes etc., won’t be the massive improvements on the OS that you’d be expecting.

Microsoft is pushing ahead with Microsoft Teams, after embedding it into the Start Bar, the program has become a boon for those in the working from home situation, with a couple of new changes coming to ensure a smoother experience:

Added the ability to share open application windows by dragging the icon from the taskbar to the call

Mute and unmute your call from the taskbar

Straight from the horses’ mouth, here’s the full list of updates:

We fixed an issue that occurs when Windows Server 2024 runs as a terminal server using certain cloud computing virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI). As result, the servers randomly stop responding after running for a period of time. This also addresses a regression that proactively checks to ensure that the CSharedLock in chúng tôi is set correctly to avoid a deadlock.

We fixed an issue that might cause the time zone list in Settings to appear blank for users who are not administrators.

We fixed an issue that affects the Windows search service and occurs when you query using the proximity operator.

We fixed an issue that fails to show the Startup impact values in Task Manager.

We fixed an issue that prevents ShellWindows() from returning the InternetExplorer object when chúng tôi  runs in the Microsoft Edge Internet Explorer mode context.

We provided the ability to share cookies between Microsoft Edge Internet Explorer mode and Microsoft Edge.

We fixed an issue that affects dialog boxes in Microsoft Edge Internet Explorer mode.

We fixed an issue that causes Microsoft Edge Internet Explorer mode to stop working when you press the F1 key.

We fixed an issue that causes the improper cleanup of Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) objects. This prevents session teardown and causes a session to stop responding.

We fixed an issue that prevents printing from operating properly for some low integrity process apps.

We introduced support for Windows Hello for Business Cloud Trust. This is a new deployment model for hybrid deployments of Windows Hello for Business. It uses the same technology and deployment steps that support on-premises single sign-on (SSO) for Fast IDentity Online (FIDO) security keys. Cloud Trust removes the public-key infrastructure (PKI) requirements for deploying Windows and simplifies the Windows Hello for Business deployment experience.

We fixed an issue that prevents you from unloading and reloading drivers when the drivers are protected Hypervisor-protected Code Integrity (HVCI).

We fixed an issue that affects the Silent BitLocker enablement policy and might unintentionally add a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) protector.

We fixed a reliability issue that affects the use of the Remote Desktop app to mount a client’s local drive to a terminal server session.

We fixed an issue that displays right-to-left (RTL) language text as left justified on File Explorer command menus and context menus.

We fixed an issue that prevents you from reaching the LanguagePackManagement configuration service provider (CSP) using the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Bridge.

We opened Microsoft Office files that are in the Start menu’s recommended section in the browser. This occurs if the device does not have an appropriate Microsoft Office license and the file is stored in Microsoft OneDrive or Microsoft SharePoint. If there is a license, the file will open in the desktop app instead.

We fixed an issue that causes a mismatch between a Remote Desktop session’s keyboard and the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) client when signing in.

We added the clock and date to the taskbars of other monitors when you connect other monitors to your device.

We added weather content to the left side of the taskbar if the taskbar is aligned in the center. When you hover over the weather, the Widgets panel will appear on the left side of the screen and will disappear when you stop hovering over the area.

We added the ability to quickly share open application windows directly from your taskbar to a Microsoft Teams call.

We fixed an issue that causes incorrect tooltips to appear in an empty area on the taskbar after you hover over other icons like battery, volume, or Wi-Fi.

We fixed an issue that occurs when you try to write a service principal name (SPN) alias (such as www/FOO) and HOST/FOO already exists on another object. If the RIGHT_DS_WRITE_PROPERTY is on the SPN attribute of the colliding object, you receive an “Access Denied” error.

We fixed an issue that disconnects Offline Files on the network drive after you restart the OS and sign in. This issue occurs if the Distributed File System (DFS) path is mapped to the network drive.

We fixed an issue that displays the authentication dialog twice when you mount a network drive.

We added support for hot adding and the removal of non-volatile memory (NVMe) namespaces.

We added the ability to instantly mute and unmute a Microsoft Teams call from your taskbar. During a call, an active microphone icon will appear on the taskbar so that you can easily mute the audio without having to return to the Microsoft Teams call window.

Firefox 4 Beta Debuts With New Windows Ui

Mozilla is out this week with the first public beta for its next-generation open source Firefox 4 Web browser. With the latest browser update, Mozilla is adding a host of features to drive performance and support HTML5, offline storage and add-ons, while also improving the user interface over the current Firefox 3.6 release.

Though the new Firefox 4 Beta 1 release is available for Window, Linux and Mac users, the first beta does not offer the same user interface for all users.

Microsoft Windows users will be getting a new user interface and Windows 7 and Vista users get the new Firefox button which consolidates browser menu functions. Linux and Mac users will get the new interface in a future beta release. The development release cycle is set to proceed with rapid iterations, so Linux and Mac users might not have to wait too long to be brought up to speed with their Windows peers.

Mozilla plans to have new beta releases of Firefox 4 every two to three weeks. At this point, however, it’s not entirely clear how many betas will be released in total or when Linux and Mac users will get the new user interface.

With the new user interface, Mozilla is switching up the way that it treats tabs in Firefox. Ever since the first Firefox release, tabs have been placed underneath the address bar. With Firefox 4, Mozilla is taking a page from Google’s Chrome browser and putting the tabs on top of the browser window. While the new format is now the default in Firefox 4, users who want to revert to the old interface can do so by unchecking the “tabs-on-top” item in the configuration options menu.

The usage study was powered by the Test Pilot Add-on, which provides feedback to Mozilla developers on how people are using the browser. In Firefox 4 Beta 1, Mozilla is directly integrating a feedback button that will enable users to participate in usage studies and report any issues they might have with the browser.


Under the hood, Mozilla is packing in a number of improvements ranging from performance issues to new standards support.

From an HTML5 video perspective, Firefox 4 Beta 1 supports the WebM format that Google recently open sourced with the VP8 codec.

There is also a new HTML5 parser, which is intended to help improve page-rendering speed. Overall performance was a key goal for Mozilla developers with Firefox 4.

Firefox 4 Beta 1 also takes aim at offline storage for Web apps with the new IndexedDB engine. Additionally, the Web Console feature provides a new way for developers to see what’s actually going on inside of websites.

For add-on developers, Firefox 4 Beta 1 includes the Jetpack SDK , a new approach to building and deploying add-ons. With Jetpack, add-ons can be installed in the browser without the need for a restart. Mozilla has been working on Jetpack since at least May 2009, when the effort was first announced.

Mozilla had originally targeted the first public beta of Firefox 4 to be released by the end of June, so the actual Beta 1 release is off by just under a week. Mozilla had set October or November as the original target for the final Firefox 4 release.

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.

Microsoft Advertising Announces Open Beta For New Automotive Ads

Today, Microsoft Advertising is announcing an open beta for Automotive Ads, a new ad unit, in the United States and United Kingdom.

What are Automotive Ads?

In addition to SERP placements, Automotive Ads are also eligible for native placements on the Microsoft Audience Network, which can be targeted through first and third-party audiences.

– John Lee, Microsoft Advertising Head of Evangelism

How Are Ads Displayed?

Currently, within Bing’s SERP, Microsoft Ads delivers Automotive Ads on the right rail and also on the Bing image results page. Microsoft is planning to begin delivering Automotive Ads on the mainline (just under the search bar) soon, as well.

Automotive Ads are currently only delivered on desktop but mobile formats are coming soon.

Getting Started With Automotive Ads

Setting Up the Feed

Once you have access, step number one is to provide a feed. You can do this by going to “Tools” and then “Business Data” within your ad account. (Unlike shopping, there is no merchant center or additional account required to manage the feed). As a bonus, because Microsoft recognizes that many organizations in the automotive space are reliant on APIs to manage inventory data, there are existing APIs in place to help simplify feed management.

Some of the required feed attributes include: Vehicle Id, Title, Make, Model, Year, Trim, Final URL, Image URLs, State of Vehicle (New/Used/CPO), and price

Other nice-to-have feed attributes include: Body Style, Engine, Drivetrain, Transmission, Fuel Type, Interior Color, and Exterior Color

It’s highly recommended to set up the feed to automatically refresh, which will help to ensure that the feed, and therefore your campaigns, stay up to date.

Optimizing Your Photos

Microsoft recommends that the first few images included in the feed are exterior views, though additional images can include interior views.

Images should show a clear view of the vehicle and shouldn’t be too zoomed out to get a good look. Images should be free of watermarks and promotional text.

If images are updated, be sure to update the image URL within the feed in order for the new image to be reflected in the ad.

Results of Early Beta Testers

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had 7-16% lower CPCs than their non-brand targeted search campaigns and third-party sites have seen as much as a 28-40% drop in CPCs.


Microsoft Ads Announcement

Microsoft Insights Automotive Case Study, Feburary 2023

All Final Fantasy Games In Order By Release Date

“Sin is Jecht.”

Final Fantasy is the acclaimed Japanese anthology sci-fi media franchise. The household name includes about 103 games, various animated films, a short anime series, manga, and other media.

We’re looking at the 15 titles that make up its core series. Main series games are numbered, and the number goes from 1 to 15. On top of these, we’re adding the relevant sequels and remakes. The total number of main Final Fantasy games is 21.

The Final Fantasy “anthology” takes elements from classic European, Asian, and Middle-Eastern tales.

The anthology series started in 1987 with the original Final Fantasy for NES. 

Nowadays, you can find official remakes or remasters for older main series games.

Most FF games have critical and commercial success as well. The series has seen a steady increase in sales. Currently, the main titles have over 164 million sales worldwide.

On top of that, several main FF games are best-sellers of their years or console generations. In particular, FFVII, FFVIII, and FFX are the series’ best-selling titles.

The 2023 FF remaster is part of the Final Fantasy Pixel Remaster Series.

The original Final Fantasy title is a turn-based RPG game by “Square.”

The game debuted for NES in 1987, and there’re various remakes for other consoles. For example, you can find a 2023 remaster on Steam with new audio, graphics, and remodeled 2D characters.

The story follows the Light Warriors, each one carrying one of the four “Crystals.” The Four Elemental Fiends darkened the Crystals, so the young heroes must restore the light to save the world. The party explores and levels up by randomized turn-based combats.

The original game was not intended as a series. However, its success sprawled the Final Fantasy franchise. For that reason, it’s the most influential RPG Nintendo has ever had.

FF changed the leveling system. The new method is recurring across the series.

Final Fantasy II debuted in 1988 for the “Family Computer,” a Japanese-only NES version. 

The game didn’t premiere outside of Japan until many years later. In fact, FF IV debuted in the USA and Europe as FFII. Currently, you can find a remastered version on Steam, which is also part of the Final Fantasy Pixel Remaster Series. 

The story centers on four young orphans. They lost their parents during the war when the Palamecia Empire invaded their hometown. The characters join a rebellion against the empire.

The game introduced a staple of the series, “Chocobos,” and the Easter Egg “Cid.” Also, it changed the XP leveling system for an activity-based progression. The latter means characters evolve according to the skills they use and acquire. 

Final Fantasy III introduced a new class system.

Currently, you can find it on Steam. It’s also part of the Final Fantasy Pixel Remaster Series. 

FFIII’s story focuses on four orphans, drawn to a light Crystal. The Crystal gave them powers and instructed them to restore balance and save the world. 

The game introduced a job-change system, which means characters could change classes over time. 

There’re many FFIV ports to other consoles, an enhanced remake, and a 3D remake for the Nintendo DS. You can also find it on Steam as part of the remaster series.

The story follows dark knight Cecil. He’s fighting against Golbez, a sorcerer seizing powerful crystals to destroy the world. A group of allies joins the quest to defeat the evil villain.

FFIV introduced the “Active Time Battle” system (ATB), present in other FF games. ATB is a timer that urges players to choose a movement before the enemy attacks. Lastly, the game introduces set classes for each character.

Final Fantasy V enhanced the series’ Job System.

Final Fantasy V debuted in 1992 for the Super Famicom, the Japanese-only SNES version.

There’re ports to PlayStation, Game Boy, and other consoles. In particular, the PS version is one of the console’s greatest hits. Currently, you can find it on Steam.

The game follows Bartz, a wanderer researcher investigating a fallen meteor. There, he learns about the four Crystals that control the elements. The Crystals are also sealing Exdeath, an evil sorcerer. Bartz and his party must prevent the villain from resurging in the world.

The game introduced player customization via an expanded Job System (classes). Also, it’s the first FF to have a direct sequel, although it’s not a game. 1994 anime series Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals continued the game events.

It’s the first game not directed by the series creator, Hironobu Sakaguchi. Yoshinori Kitase took the role after Hironobu’s departure. 

The story follows a cast of 14 playable characters in an Industrial Revolution world. The plot is about a rebellion against a military dictatorship. Contrary to previous games, the overall theme is mature, dark, and violent. 

The game also improved the overall graphics, setting, and soundtrack by tenfold. It’s a retro-RPG watershed, part of dozens of greatest-of-all-times games lists. 

The 2013 PC port has various new features: cloud saves, achievements, micro-transactions (Character Boosters), and optimization.

The game follows Cloud Strife, a mercenary. He joins Avalanche, an eco-terrorist group trying to stop a mega-corporation from using the planet’s life force as energy.

Cloud and the group pursue Sephiroth, a former member of the corporation. Alongside a group of endearing friends, he must find a way to save the world.

Although the game follows the series’ basic formulas, it’s one of the most beloved and successful entries. It sold over 13.3 million copies, and it’s regarded as one of the most influential games ever. Moreover, it won multiple GoTY awards and popularized the RPG genre for consoles.

Final Fantasy VIII follows a stable formula.

Moreover, it’s the first FF game to have a vocal piece as part of the OST. Other changes include dismissing magic points for spellcasting and realistic proportions for characters.

The story follows Squall Leonhart, leader of a mercenary group. They are in conflict with Ultimecia, a sorceress. However, the game’s main focus is Squall, as he struggles with his roles as leader, companion, friend, and lover.

Final Fantasy XIX is one of the series’ best-sellers.

Final Fantasy IX debuted for PlayStation in the year 2000. According to many video game lists, it’s known as one of the best games of all time.

Similarly, the game has Easter Eggs, allusions to the rest of the series. Moreover, it introduces new features like “Active Time Event” cutscenes, otherwise known as “Quick Time Events.” There’s also a complex skill system.

Final Fantasy X overhauled the series’ graphics.

Final Fantasy X debuted in 2001 for PlayStation 2. There’re also HD Remasters for PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita, PlayStation 4, Windows, Nintendo Switch, and Xbox One. 

FFX introduced many gameplay elements. In particular, every character shares the same passive three. The three was a massive grid, and each character started in a different position, which represented a class. In time, though, a character’s path could overlap another class. 

The game is also one of the greatest titles of all time. It’s also my personal favorite.

Final Fantasy XI is not available anymore.

Final Fantasy XI Online is an MMORPG. It debuted in 2002 for PlayStation 2 and Windows. It was the first MMORPG to offer cross-platform play.

The game has evolved steadily since its debut, even if Square Enix is placing more focus on FFXIV.

The game is still running and receiving fair developer and player-base support. You can find it on its official page. However, only the PC version is available.

You play as a warrior of the Crystal in Vana’diel, a fantasy world. You undertake a vast array of quests to progress the plot. Lastly, the story revolves around defeating the Shadow Lord, an entity that commands a legion of demons.

X-2 debuted in 2003 for PlayStation 2. It’s a cannon sequel to FFX, which means it’s the first sequel in the Final Fantasy main series.

The story continues with former co-protagonist Yuna, as she searches for Tidus after the last battle.

The game adds character classes, multiple endings, and a ludicrous spell system.

FFXII is a commercial and critical success. It won multiple GoTY awards and sold over six million copies.

Final Fantasy XII debuted for PlayStation 2 in 2006. The game introduced many novelties, like open-world, a fluid battle system, a controllable camera, and more.

For example, it has a “Gambit System.” It allows players to control the character’s AI during battle. There’s also a “License system,” which determines character abilities and equipment. Lastly, the game has side quests, which revolve around hunting optional bosses in the open world.

The setting is Ivalice, a fictional land where Archadia and Rozarria empires live. There’s an endless war between them, and Archadia conquers Dalamasca, a smaller kingdom. You play as Ashe, Dalmasca’s process leader of a resistance movement against the Archadian Empire.

Currently, FFXII – The Zodiac Age is available on Steam. It’s a PC remaster that enhanced the Job system.

Revenant Wings is a Nintendo DS sequel for FFXII. It debuted in 2007. You play as former co-protagonist Vaan, a sky pirate, on a treasure hunt.

FF13 introduced fast-paced combat.

Final Fantasy XIII debuted for PlayStation 3 in 2009, Xbox 360, and Windows. It’s also available for the Xbox One and the Xbox Series via backward compatibility.

The game changed the battle formula and introduced a fast-paced combat system with active-timer elements. Moreover, it overhauled the ability system (“Crystarium”) and the class system (“Paradigm”).

The game follows Lighting, a former soldier. She lives in the floating world of Cocoon, ruled by a deity. When the rulers begin purging the citizens, Lighting and his allies must save Cocoon from the evil Gods.

Final Fantasy XIV was a 2010 MMORPG. It debuted for Windows, but it wasn’t very successful on release day.

Either way, the setting is the fictional world of Eorzea. Players take control of a customizable character, explore the land, and participate in a war against the Garlean Empire invasion. Moreover, there’s the threat of the Primals, deities in a war against the Garleans.

The game had a very negative response at launch. Graphics, gameplay, interface, and the overall plot were unfinished. As a response, Square Enix ended subscription fees and postponed console versions indefinitely.

FFXIII – 2 is 2011s FF13 sequel for PS3 and Xbox 360. Studio tri-Ace joined Square Enix to deliver a much better product than before.

The game follows a time-travel plot. It introduces a gameplay mechanic that lets the protagonist, Serah Farron, travel back and forth time.

Serah is looking for her older sister, Lighting, lost in time after her last battle against Pulse.

Lighting Returns is the final part of the FFXIII trilogy. It debuted in 2013 for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Windows.

The plot happens 500 years after the previous title. Lighting awakes from hibernation, 13 days before the world’s end. Once again, she must save the world from its dark fate.

A Realm Reborn is the main FF Online game available.

A Realm Reborn premiered in 2013 for PS3 and Xbox 360. It’s currently available for PS4, PS5, and macOS as well.

After the commercial and critical failure of the original game, a new Square Enix team overhauled the title. As a result, the 2013 version debuted in place of the 2010 premiere.

The “new” game fixed most of the issues that plagued the MMORPG. Moreover, it added new content, a new game engine, and better server infrastructure. More importantly, the team revamped the gameplay, the story, and the interface.

The plot is largely the same, though. Your avatar joins the war against the Garlean Empire.

Nowadays, the game sits as one of the best and most populated MMORPGs.

Final Fantasy XV has six available DLCs.

The game features an open-world, an action-based combat system, quick weapon swapping, elemental magic, a vehicle to travel, and camping. Further gameplay elements became available via various DLCs, such as a multiplayer option.

The setting is Eos. The Niflheim empire dominates much of the land. They stole a powerful Crystal from the Lucian Royal family. Meanwhile, you play as the Lucian throne heir, traveling the world to restore the Crystal to where it belongs.

Either way, everything is new, even the story. You “re-play” the events of the same game as if it were another “timeline,” and mysterious beings are pushing the events towards their original casualties.

Moreover, the game overhauled the combat system. It’s an action game featuring real-time action, strategy, and RPG elements.

Xbox and PC players are still waiting for the proper ports. It debuted as a timed PlayStation exclusive, but there’s still no word of other versions.

That said, there’s a PlayStation 5 version, the Final Fantasy VII Remake Intergrade.

Final Fantasy I -1987

Final Fantasy II -1988

Final Fantasy III -1990

Final Fantasy IV -1991

Final Fantasy V -1992

Final Fantasy VI -1994

Final Fantasy VII – 1997

Final Fantasy VIII -1999

Final Fantasy IX – 2000

Final Fantasy X -2001

Final Fantasy XI – 2002

Final Fantasy X-2 – 2003

Final Fantasy XII – 2006

Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings – 2007

Final Fantasy XIII – 2009

Final Fantasy XIV – 2010

Final Fantasy XIII – 2 – 2011

Lighting Returns: Final Fantasy XIII – 2013

Final Fantasy XIV – A Realm Reborn – 2013

Final Fantasy XV – 2024

Final Fantasy VIII Remake – 2023


Yes, there’re various Final Fantasy games for Android and iOS. That includes the original game, FF IX, FF VIII, FF VII, FF VI, FF III, FF II, and FF. There’re also 3D remakes of older games, plus dozens of spin-offs, some of which are free-to-play.

Who Created Final Fantasy?

Japanese game designer Hironobu Sakaguchi created the Final Fantasy franchise. He’s a former”Square” employee, the company that later became Square Enix.

Square Enix holds the rights for the franchise. Sakaguchi left the company in 2003. Currently, he’s working on mobile games for his own company, Mistwalker. Recently, he created the mobile series Terra Battle, as well as Terra Wars.

Why did Final Fantasy Leave Nintendo?

Square moved away from Nintendo during FFVIII’s development. They needed the extra power the CD-ROM format could offer to deliver the game’s pre-rendered sequences. As such, they moved production towards Sony’s platform.

Are There Common Elements Across Final Fantasy Games?

Many gameplay elements and details are present throughout the series. Most games blend sci-fi and fantasy inspired by European, Asian, and Middle-Eastern tales.

The base inspiration creates recurring spells like “Holy,” “Ultima,” or “Meteor.” Other examples include regular “summons” like “Masamune” or reappearing swords like “Excalibur.”

Aside from the classic elements, the core games share other design elements. These include interfaces, art styles, character styles, sound effects, and similar OSTs.

Are There Characters Present in Every Final Fantasy Game?

Each title is a stand-alone experience, happening on entirely new universes with no connection.

Still, the studio has a couple of “recurrent” characters across all titles. The first one is “Chocobos,” the cute and weird bird characters can ride. There’re also “moogles” and “cactuars,” races that serve as the franchise’s pets. 

Another one is “Cid,” a human character that appears or is mentioned across most FF media. Every installment features a different “Cid,” though, so it’s more of an Easter Egg. Biggs and Wedge are also common names, but the roles vary greatly. 

Lastly, there’s Gilgamesh, a legendary swordsman. He’s often a summon.

Chocobos are often present in open-world sections.

Are There Common Stories Across Final Fantasy Games?

Common stories include a group of rebellious heroes fighting against an evil organization, evil deities, or evil authorities. The hero is often reluctant, being “chosen” to take part in the story.

Are There Common Themes Across Final Fantasy Games?

Common themes include religious conflicts like the apocalypse. Similarly, some of the best games revolve around a nature vs. technology conflict.

Also, the lore of most games revolves around “Crystals,” “Magic Orbs,” or “Life Forces.” Control over these crystals often drives the plot.

Are There Common Gameplay Elements in Final Fantasy Games?

Final Fantasy games allow you to command a party of characters and progress by exploring and defeating enemies.

In combat, you have commands like “Fight,” “Magic,” “Item,” and some kind of “Summon.” You use a combat interface in battle, albeit every game in the series has different battle systems. However, every combat system revolves around turns, timers, and counters.

Design-wise, FF games are linear. However, they often have an open or semi-open world section where characters can use an airship to travel.

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