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JavaScript Tutorial Summary

This online JavaScript guide is geared to make you a JavaScript pro! It will help you learn JavaScript step by step. You will learn all the JavaScript basics in this guide.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is an open-source and most popular client-side scripting language supported by all browsers. JavaScript is mainly used for enhancing the interaction of the webpage with users by making it more lively and interactive. It is also used for game development and mobile application development.

Javascript Syllabus First Steps in Javascript Basics for Beginners

👉 Lesson 1

What is JavaScript?

— A Complete Introduction with Hello World! Example

👉 Lesson 2

JavaScript Variables

— Declare Variables in JavaScript, Assign a Value with Example

👉 Lesson 3

JavaScript Array Methods

— Create Array with Example in JavaScript

👉 Lesson 4

JavaScript Loops

— For, While and Do While LOOP in JavaScript (with Example)

👉 Lesson 5

Conditional Statements

— IF, Else, Else IF Conditional Statements in JavaScript

👉 Lesson 6

JavaScript String Format

— Methods with EXAMPLES

Javascript Advance Stuff! JavaScript Interview Questions, Tools, Books & Tutorial PDF

👉 Lesson 1

JavaScript Courses

— 90 Best JavaScript Certification Courses

👉 Lesson 2

JavaScript Books

— 14 Best JavaScript Books for Beginners and Experts

👉 Lesson 3

BEST JavaScript IDE

— List of Top 20 BEST JavaScript IDE

👉 Lesson 4

JavaScript Interview Questions

— Top 85 JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers

👉 Lesson 5

JavaScript Tutorial PDF

— Download Javascript Tutorial PDF for Beginners

What will you learn in this JavaScript Tutorial for Beginners? Are there any prerequisites for this JavaScript Tutorial?

Nothing! This is an absolute JavaScript beginner guide to learn JavaScript with examples. However, if you have some basic knowledge of HTML and CSS, it will help you learn faster and more efficiently.

Who is this JavaScript Tutorial for?

This JavaScript for beginners tutorial is for students who want to learn about Web application development and software development. This tutorial is also helpful for the professionals working in web application development to enhance their knowledge and skills.

Why learn JavaScript Programming Language?

JavaScript is the most popular client-side programming language which is widely used for web application development in every industry. There is a huge demand in the IT industry for candidates having knowledge of JavaScript. Therefore, learning JavaScript is beneficial for you to get a good job and also enhance your skills and knowledge as well.

How do JavaScript engines work?

JavaScript Engines are complicated. But it works on some simple basics:

Then it converts or compiles the script to the machine language.

After that machine code runs.

What can in-browser JavaScript do?

JavaScript’s functionality depends on the environment it’s running in. For example, chúng tôi supports functions which allows JavaScript to read and write arbitrary files, perform network requests, object-oriented, etc. The roles that JavaScript plays in both client-side (front end) and server-side (back end) development of applications can vary wildly.

In-browser JavaScript also allows you to perform webpage manipulation, interaction with the user and with the web server.

Show dynamic content based on the user profile.

Support features like auto-validated form entries and interactive drop-down menus.

Send requests to remote servers, Upload and download files.

JavaScript code can also create movement and sound

Ask questions to the users, Get and set cookies, show messages, switch browser tabs.

Allows the data to be stored in the local storage.

What can’t in-browser JavaScript do?

JavaScript’s capabilities in the browser are quite limited for the sake of the user’s safety. It helps to prevent any unauthorized webpage from accessing private information.

Examples of such limitations are:

JavaScript on a webpage may not allow you to copy, execute or read/write arbitrary files on the hard disk. It doesn’t offer any access to Operating system functions.

JavaScript allows you to communicate over the net to the server where the current page came from. Although, it does not allow you to receive data from other sites/domains.

What makes JavaScript unique?

Here, are the three most important features which make JavaScript unique

It offers full integration with HTML/CSS.

Simple things are done quickly without any complication or following strict rules.

Supported by all major browsers and JavaScript is enabled by default.

Alternatives to JavaScript

The syntax of JavaScript not suited for everyone as different project demands different features. However, some modern tools like a Coffee script, Typescript, and Dart allowing developers to code in another language and then auto-convert into the JavaScript code.

Where is JavaScript Today?

ECMAScript is a specification governed by ECMA international aimed at standardizing JavaScript. The latest version is ECMA9 also called JavaScript 9. It is supported by all major browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc. Though each browser has an array of unique commands that are not part of the standards.

You're reading Javascript Tutorial For Beginners: Learn Javascript Step By Step

Step Chart In Excel – A Step By Step Tutorial

Watch Video – Creating a Step Chart in Excel

A step chart can be useful when you want to show the changes that occur at irregular intervals. For example, the price rise in milk products, petrol, tax rate, interest rates, etc.

Let’s take the example of a Petrol hike in India. It can happen any day (as decided by the government) and the value remains constant between these changes. In such a case, a step chart is the right way to visualize such data points.

Unfortunately, Excel does not have an inbuilt feature to create a step chart, however, it can easily be created by rearranging the data set.

Step Chart in Excel

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

The difference between a Step Chart and a Line Chart.

Creating a Step Chart using the “Line Chart technique”.

A line chart would connect the data points in such a way that you see a trend. The focus in such charts is the trend and not the exact time of change.

On the contrary, a step chart shows the exact time of change in the data along with the trend. You can easily spot the time period where there was no change and can compare the magnitude of change in each instance.

Here is an example of both the line chart and step chart – created using the same data set (petrol prices in India).

Both of these charts look similar, but the line chart is a bit misleading.

It gives you the impression that the petrol prices have gone up consistently during May 2024 and June 2024 (see image below).

But if you look at the step chart, you’ll notice that the price increase took place only on two occasions.

Similarly, a line chart shows a slight decline from September to November, while the step chart would tell you that this was the period of inactivity (see image below).

Hope I have established some benefits of using a Step Chart over a Line Chart. Now let’s go ahead a look at how to create a step chart in Excel.

First things first. The credit for this technique goes to Jon Peltier of chúng tôi He is a charting wiz and you will find tons of awesome stuff on his website (including this technique). Do pay him a visit and say Hello.

Here are the steps to create a step chart in Excel:

Have the data in place. Here I have the data of petrol prices in India in 2024.

Have a copy of the data arranged as shown below.

The easiest way is to construct the additional data set right next to the original data set. Start from the second row of the data. In cell D3, enter the reference of the date in the same row (A3) in the original data set. In cell E3, enter the reference of the value in the row above (B2) in the original dataset. Drag the cells down to the last cell of the original data.

Copy the original data (A2:B18 in the above example), and paste it right below the additional dataset that we created.

You will have something as shown below (the data in yellow is the original data and green is the one that we created). Note that there is a blank row between the header and the data (as we started from the second row). If you are too finicky about how data looks, you can delete those cells.

You don’t need to sort the data. Excel takes care of it.

That’s it! You’ll have the step chart ready.

How does this work:

To understand how this works, consider this – You have 2 data points, as shown below:

What happens when you plot these 2 data points on a line chart? You get a line as shown below:

Now to convert this line chart into a step chart, I need to show in the data that the value remained the same from 1 to 2 January, and then suddenly increased on 2 January. So I restructure the data as shown below:

I carry forward the data to the next date when the change in value happens. So for 2nd January, I have two values – 5 and 10. This gives me a step chart where the increase is shown as a vertical line.

The same logic is applied to the restructuring of the data while creating a full-blown step chart in Excel.

While it would be nice to get an inbuilt option to create step charts in Excel, once you get a hang of restructuring the data, it won’t take more than a few seconds to create this.

Related Tutorials:

Other Excel Charting Tutorials You Might Like:

A Step By Step Guide For Data Visualization Using Tableau

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Introduction to Data Visualization using Tableau

Our goal as Data Analysts is to get the insights from our data in such a way that everybody who sees them can easily understand their implications and how to act on them.

Tableau is a data analytics and visualization tool. It’s the leading (33% market share followed by Power-BI) data analytics and visualization tool in the market. Tableau comes with a very easy drag-drop interface which makes it easy to learn and you can work on almost every type of data in Tableau.

This makes it an excellent choice for data analysts.

Table of Contents

This article will give you a walkthrough of all essential features of the Tableau, which you must know in order to work on it:

Installing Tableau on your System

Getting Started with Tableau!

Tableau Visualizations – Charts, Tooltips, Maps

Tableau Visualizations – Formatting, Colors

Parameters, and Calculated Fields in Tableau

Analytics in Tableau (Forecasting, Clustering)

Creating Dashboards in Tableau

Crafting your own Story in Tableau

Tableau provides us various services according to our business need Tableau Desktop, Tableau Public, and Tableau Online, all these offer Data Visual Creation. Choice of Tableau depends upon the type of work.

Tableau Desktop is a program that allows you to execute complicated data analysis tasks and generate dynamic, interactive representations to explain the results. Tableau also lets you share your analysis and visualizations with the rest of your company, allowing everyone from coworkers to top management to look into the data that matters to them.

Before you can begin using Tableau, you need to download the Tableau setup from the link and then accept all the licenses and agreements. After installation, you will get a home screen same as the given picture below.

After installation, if you find this Homescreen you are good to go:

Getting Started with Data Visualization using Tableau

Once you have installed Tableau in the system, let’s start with some real-world Data Visualization using Tableau.

Load Data in Tableau

We will be using global superstore data throughout the article, which is perfect for learning purposes. This link will take you to a page where you may download the dataset. The downloaded file is a zip file that contains an excel that looks like the given picture below:

Now we have an excel file and Tableau installed let’s load the data set into Tableau. Tableau also gives us some flexibility to create new columns, rename, split, edit alias, join tables, some preprocessing before loading the data into Tableau. The below image will demonstrate to you how to load data and perform some preprocessing.

Tableau supports various data formats which can be loaded by choosing those options. Under a file we see various options to load data from the local directory and under to a server, we see options to load data from cloud servers. for loading CSV files we select Text file options, for excel and SQL files we choose their respective options.

Connect Tableau to the data file:

the Drag Sheets Here area, as shown in the above gif.

After loading we can perform data cleaning, data preprocessing, feature extraction to some extent.

Understanding different Sections in Tableau

Up until now, we have Tableau loaded with global-superstore data and now we can see Tableau work-page. Tableau work-page consist of different section. Let’s understand them first before plotting our graphs.

Source: Local

Menu Bar: Here you’ll find various commands such as File, Data, and Format.

Dimension Shelf: This shelf contains all the categorical columns under it. example: categories, segments, gender, name, etc

Measure Shelf: This shelf contains all numerical columns under it like profit, total sales, discount, etc

Page Shelf: This shelf is used for joining pages and create animations. we will come on it later

Filter Shelf: You can choose which data to include and exclude using the Filters shelf, for example, you might want to analyze the profit for each customer segment, but only for certain shipping containers and delivery times. You may make a view like this by putting fields on the Filters tier.

Marks Card: The visualization can be designed using the Marks card. The markings card can be used to change the data components of the visualization, such as color, size, shape, path, label, and tooltip.

Worksheet: In the workbook, the worksheet is where the real visualization may be seen. The worksheet contains information about the visual’s design and functionality.

Data Source: Using Data Source we can add new data, modify, remove data.

Current Sheet: The current sheets are those sheets which we have created and to those, we can give some names.

New Sheet: If we want to create a new worksheet ( blank canvas ) we can do using this tab.

New Dashboard: This button is used to create a dashboard canvas.

New Storyboard: It is used to create a new story

Creating Visuals in Tableau

Let’s begin with the real data visualization using Tableau-

Tableau supports the following data types:

Boolean: True and false can be stored in this data type.

behavior when applied to valid date or DateTime fields.

Number: These are values that are numeric. Values can be integers or floating-point numbers (numbers with decimals).

String: This is a sequence of characters encased in single or double quotation marks.

Geolocation: These are values that we need to plot maps.

Follow these steps:

drag the dimension and measure in row and column input field and it will automatically suggest a graph best fitted on data.

you can also remove the axis just by dragging and dropping them under the marks card (remove field).

From the above image, you might have observed that the default aggregation on the measure is sum but you can change the aggregation to sum, avg, min, max, etc, you can also customize the axis name, orientation, size, show-hide axis as shown in the above image.

Enhancing The Analysis:

In order to create a beautiful interactive visual, you must understand the following features:

a. Marks card

Marks card is very important for plotting graphs. In marks card we have:

Colour button which is used to give different colors to different categories and measures,

Size button is used to give size which depends on how big a value is. The bigger the value means bigger the size of a particular mark

Tooltips, here you can add information like ( profit, quantity, sales, discount, category, state, etc.) which will be visible on hovering over the graph

The Details button allows you to display more information without affecting the table’s structure. which is used to show details about particular points. dragging a field on details buttons will show the details of that point, and this feature is majorly used for maps to show more details of a particular point.

b. Filter

After creating some plots you might want to use different filters, to do so follow these steps:

On the filter shelf, you can drag any measure or dimension whichever you want to apply a filter on.

As you drop the field a box will appear, now you can select any particular category, or top-n rows according to measure values or you can write some rules to select top rows or by using some parameters.

c. Hierarchy

You can quickly establish hierarchies with Tableau to keep your data organized.

Hierarchy is basically nesting the same type of related data together. Tableau calendar data is an example of a hierarchy.

d. Parameter

A parameter is a workbook variable like a number, date, or string that can be readily managed by the user to replace a constant value in a calculation.

In the above image, our goal was to choose the top N countries having maximum sales but here we wanted to let the user select how many top countries they want to list. To accomplish so, we’ll need to create the following parameters:

Select a data type from the Data Type drop-down menu, in my case, I have chosen to int range from 1–100 list and the current value will be 5.

Here we wanted to choose top-N countries based on the sales. drag country field to filter shelf and choose top tab and then choose variable1 in by field section and choose SUM(SALES).

Now slide the parameter value and observe the difference.

e . Calculated field

Tableau gives us the option to create a calculated field where we can create our own new field( column). Tableau comes with many functions like if-else, switch, case, date diff, level of dimension which is extensively used for our visualization

To segment data

level of details(LOD)

To change a field’s data type, for example, from a string to a date.

To aggregate data

handling date time

To filter results

To calculate ratios

Creating Calculated Field:

Here our goal is to calculate delivery days using order date and ship date:

Give the Rule to calculate delivery days in the rule box. here we will use the DATEDIFF function to subtract two dates.

Type Rule: delivery days = DATEDIFF(‘day’, [shipdate],[order date])

now drag the delivery days field in rows or cols.

since calculated field is the most powerful features of Tableau.

f. Format

Data Analytics in Tableau

In the Analytics tab, we have several analytical tools like forecasting, clustering, trend line, Average line, constant line, etc. let’s see in action.

Source: Local

Steps to perform Analytics:

From the Analytics tab on the left side, you can choose various options.

Dragging and dropping a constant line on a particular X, or Y-axis draws a line at a given constant value.

The trend line is not the same as forecasting. The trend line only tells us if the overall trend is increasing or decreasing.

Maps in Tableau

We can easily draw maps in Tableau if we have geographical data aka a location field (country, city, state, etc). Tableau has 2 types of maps, symbol map, filled map.

Source: Local

Steps to create Maps:

Drag Country field in the worksheet, it will draw a symbol map.

Dropping city on Details will show the names of cities on the map.

you can also decide the colors of different states based on the sales amount on the filled map.

sort them by giving their specific country, city , state, pin-code etc.

Colors: You can adjust colors of visualization based on categories and on the magnitude of measure values.

Source: Local

From the above image you see that the color of bars has decided by the profit amount, more profit means more bluish in color, more loss means more reddish in color

adjusting colors is so simple in Tableau:

Drag a dimension or measure in the color shelf under the marks card.

Now you see colors are now visible as a legend.

you can choose a wide variety of colors, modes of coloring like stepped or continuous bar and

you can edit the range of colors as well.

Tooltip: When we hover over a particular point on the graph we see a box showing up details about that particular point, this is basically a tooltip. we can add information to show as a tooltip, let’s see an example.

As you can see dragging a field on the Tooltip button adds details in the tooltip which can be seen on hover, we can also customize the text, color, font of the tooltip.

Designing a Dashboard in Tableau

Combining multiple views with filters, interactivity, legends on the same page is simply our dashboard. it helps us to see all views on the same page with fully interactive features. Let’s see an example.

Steps to create a dashboard in Tableau:

Adjust the layout of the dashboard. you get fixed or automatic sizes based on the screen size to choose from.

On the left-hand side, you can see that our all graphs (viz) are visible so you simply need to drag and drop them into the dashboard.

You can drag as many as sheets you want to include in our dashboard.

dashboard. If you find managing spaces and layout difficult in the dashboard try floating sheets.

You can also apply filters on different visuals present in our dashboard. More information on the dashboard may be found here.

Storytelling in Tableau

The story in the Tableau is narrated walkthrough of one or more sheets or dashboards. each view in the story is called a Story Point.

In storytelling, we take a visual and write a narration about the insight that has found from visual

Creating a story is the same as creating a dashboard, just drag our visual on the story page and give narration. You can add as many visuals as you want along with narration.

Source: Local

Actually creating story points in Tableau is easy. You can see an example of creating a Story Point and experience Tableau’s free on-demand training at the same time! Go to Tableau’s training page.

Saving your Tableau Work:

Tableau comes with autosave features so you don’t need to worry if you couldn’t save your work manually.

You can save your work in various ways:

Tableau Desktop

Tableau Server

Tableau Public


The Undo Button Is Your Friend

Pay Attention to Visual Cues

Save Early and Often

Final Thoughts on Tableau

This is all you need to know about Tableau in order to create good-looking charts and dashboards. I tried to cover as much as I could although it’s not the ending. You can learn more about formatting, calculated field, pages, animation, extensions, etc. in order to go in-depth with Tableau you must practice different kinds of data and it will help you analyze and present data efficiently and in a nice manner. I highly encourage you to go through the free learning material given by Tableau.

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How To Run Python Scripts: Step By Step Guide

What is the Script in Python?

A script in Python can be defined as a file that consists of Python code or a program. It ends with an extension as .py

An interpreter can execute a script in two distinct ways, as listed below: –

A script can be executed as a module or as a script itself.

A code that is written in an interactive Python command prompt session manner.

How to run Python code and scripts interactively?

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) The programmer must open the command line in the interactive mode.

Step 2) In the next step, invoke the python interpreter in the command line by typing the following command: –



Step 3) The programmer can sequentially write Python code and execute them in the same order.

The following program can be typed in the command line as shown below:

Example: –

Python Code:

python print ('hello world Guru99')


hello world Guru99

Let us take another Python code that could be written in the command line interactively.


Python Code:

Python a=25 b=50 ... print ("a is more than b") ... else: ... print ("b is more than a") ... b is more than a >>>


b is more than a

Following is the screenshot: –


The above code compares two arguments and finds which argument is greater. Ensure the statements are properly indented to avoid indentation errors. To exit the windows commanded line, press Ctrl+Z and follow with an Enter.

How to run Python script files interactively from Windows GUI?

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) Open the command line and type the Python command followed by the script file name.

Step 2) Ensure that the script file is already created.

Step 3) The script file should end with either .py or. pyw. As a next step, open the Windows command prompt.

Following would be the code to be written in the command line to invoke a Python script:

Python Command line Code:



Hello, world!

How to run Python scripts from an IDE

An integrated development environment is also referred to as IDE in short form. It offers a virtual setup of file and folder hierarchy. It allows the programmer to build Python projects quickly. IDE provides the organization of files into different folders.

These different folders belong to one common directory.

Spyder and PyCharm are two Python IDEs that enable the programmer to run Python programs.

Let us take an example of executing a Python script in PyCharm IDE:

Step 1) As the first step, create a new project in PyCharm.

Step 4) Go to the new option and create a new Python file.

Step 5) Give the name of the Python file

Here we have given Guru99Example.

Step 6) In the blank Python file created in PyCharm IDE, write the following piece of code as shown below: –

Python Code:

print ('hello world Guru99')

This code will open the console window within IDE, and the following would be the output:


PyDev console: starting. Python 3.10.6 (tags/v3.10.6:9c7b4bd, Aug 1 2023, 21:53:49) [MSC v.1932 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32 >>> runfile('C:/Users/OS Name/PycharmProjects/Guru99Example/', wdir='C:/Users/OS Name/PycharmProjects/Guru99Example') hello world Guru99

Following is the Screenshot:


The above code is a simple example of how to print hello world in the PyCharm IDE.

How to run Python scripts using a file manager?

Here are the steps to run the Python script using file manager:

Step 1) Open Notepad and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World Guru99’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension as either .py or. pyw.

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

When executed, it opens a command line screen for a moment. Refer to the below screenshot: –

To ensure the screen remains for a while, add the following statement in the Python script file as shown below: –

Python Code:

input ('Press provide enter to exit...')

Until and unless there is no input from the user, the screen continues to run and display Python output.

However, if the Python script has some error, the execution of the input command is interrupted or aborted. Due to this, the user may not be able to see Python script execution using file manager.

How to run Python scripts using script file name and command line?

Here are the steps to run the Python script using script file name and command line:

Step 1) Open Notepad and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World Guru99’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension as either .py or. pyw.

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

It helps to validate the path of the script file with the command line path. Open a command line and type the script file name as created above with the name followed by the extension .py. Refer to the below screenshot: –

Alternatively, the script file created above can be run as a python module. Type the following command as shown below: –


python -m example


hello world Press provides enter to exit...

Refer to the following screenshot:


The above code follows the following syntax:


Python -m

The above -m parameter searches for the sys. Path for the module referred to and executed the code as part of the _main_.

How to run Python Scripts on Linux

Here are steps to do this:

Step 1) The programmer must open the Linux terminal in the interactive mode.

Step 2) In the next step, invoke the Python interpreter in the Linux terminal by typing the following command: –



Step 3) The programmer can sequentially write Python code and execute them in the same order.

The following program can be typed in the command line as shown below:

Example: –

Python Code:

python3 a=25 b=50 ... print ("a is more than b") ... else: ... print ("b is more than a") ... b is more than a >>>


b is more than a

Following is the screenshot: –

Alternatively, Here are the steps to run the Python script file using a Linux terminal:

Step 1) Open the text editor and add some Python code.

Step 2) Type print (‘Hello World’)

Step 3) Save the script file with extension

Step 4) .py extension file is used for programs that have Python.exe.

Step 5) In the next step, invoke the Python interpreter in the Linux terminal by typing the following command: –


python3 chúng tôi


hello world

Refer to the following screenshot: –


The python interpreter in the Linux terminal runs the script file that is saved at the desktop location.

Comparison of code, module, and script in Python

In the world of computing, the following is the comparison between module, code, and script:

Parameters Code Module Script

Definition A code is defined as a series of instructions. A module is defined as a series of codes arranged sequentially. A script can be defined as a file that comprises logical orders or a batch of organized codes.

Executability They are run through the Python interpreter They are imported first in a script or a piece of code and then executed using the Python interpreter The scripts are generally run through a Python interpreter.


A Python interpreter can be considered an interface or a bridge that helps execute code or a script. It runs the code in two manners:

It invokes a script or a module.

It invokes a code written in an active session.

Python interpreter works in the following manner: –

Post evaluation, it prints the results of the command.

It loops backward and performs the repetition of the process.

A Python interpreter is available in several forms, as listed below:

Interpreter Description

Jython Using Java programming language, Python programs can be run on java-based platforms.

PyPy Interpreter designed in a Python programming language.

CPython Interpreter designed using C language to run and execute Python programs in C-based platforms

IronPython It is an open-source project which used as an interpreter for .Net platforms.

The Python script is run under the multi-step process defined as Python Execution Model. Under this model, the statements defined in the script are processed and executed step-by-step.

Following are the basic requirements needed to execute a Python Script:

Make the Python script executable and install the interpreter beforehand on the computer.

You should have a code editor or an integrated development environment pre-installed in the computer’s operating system.

Add Python beforehand to execute code through the command line to the operating system environment variable.


A Python script can be executed using several methods.

You can execute using the command line or using IDE.

The programmer can use PyCharm and Spyder IDE to develop sophisticated Python scripts.

Ensure that the code adheres to indentation when using the if and else statements in the command line.

How To Create An Ebook In Canva (Step By Step)

This guide will also cover exporting your ebook as a PDF and answering the question that may be on many of your minds: are you allowed to sell Canva ebooks? 

So let’s get started.

How To Make An Ebook In Canva 

If you’ve ever made an ebook in InDesign, or a similar graphic design program, you’ll be glad to hear that creating an ebook in Canva is just as easy, thanks to how it handles adding and reordering pages. 

The following eight steps will cover everything you need to know about creating an ebook in Canva. 

Step 1: Find The Best Template For Your Ebook

Yes, you could start a brand new document and create your ebook from scratch, but there’s a much easier and quicker way by using one of the premade ebook templates. 

Finding the perfect premade ebook template is more challenging than it may seem at first. 

In the search bar on the homepage of Canva, search for Ebook Pages. 

Note: if you search for “ebook” or “ebook template,” you will mostly be presented with ebook covers, which is not ideal. 

After searching for ebook pages, you’ll have over a thousand templates that fit the phrase. The bad news is you’ll still be presented with mostly ebook covers. You’ll have to dig a bit deeper to find the templates you need. 

If you scroll down this section, you’ll find many more templates that you can use. 

Step 2: Resize Your Template (Optional)

Chances are, you won’t end up with the correct size for your ebook by choosing a random ebook page template. Thankfully, Canva makes this problem easy to solve by using the resize feature. 

Note: This step only works if you have a Canva Pro account, as the resize feature is not available for the free version.  

In the submenu that pops down, you want to change the measuring unit of your dimensions first, as changing the measurement will affect the rest of your dimensions. 

With your measurement set, you can now adjust the Width and Height of your template. 

Once you’re satisfied, you have two choices to confirm your decision. 

Copy & Resize – This option will resize the template to your chosen dimensions in a separate tab so you still have the original to edit later if you need to. 

Resize – This option will resize the template, making it permanent. Only use this option if you have no plans to edit the original template later. 

After choosing to Copy & Resize or Resize the template, it may appear as if nothing happened on your canvas. Don’t worry. You can rest assured that the template was resized to your chosen dimensions. 

Step 3: Add More Pages To Your Ebook

Now that your canvas is the correct size, it’s time to add more pages to complete your project. When you use an ebook template, the template usually comes with only one or two pages, so you’ll have to import the rest of the pages yourself. 

You have two ways to import additional ebook pages to your project from here. You can use the suggestions in the Side Panel or copy and paste ebook pages from other templates. 

How To Use The Side Panel Suggestions 

Once your blank page is ready, direct your attention to the Side Panel, in the search bar, type ebook pages.

Your results will be similar to when you searched for ebook page templates. Canva will bring up both ebook pages and cover templates in the side panel. Just ignore the covers and focus on the ebook pages. 

Now, you just need to add a new blank page, then rinse and repeat. 

Copy And Paste From Other Ebook Page Templates 

The second way to fill your project with ebook pages is suitable for those who want more control when finding the perfect template. 

Return to the Canva home page and search for ebook pages again. Scan through your choices and select an ebook page template. 

Repeat this process as many times as you have to.

Don’t worry about finding a hundred different templates. You just need to find a handful of suitable templates that work for your project. The next step will help you quickly fill out your project. 

Step 4: Organize Your Pages In The Grid View Panel

Once you’re satisfied with your chosen templates, it’s time to duplicate and reorder your pages. 

The most important options in this view are the controls above the first page. You have four options: 

Deselect Page – Use this option to deselect the currently selected page. 

Add Page – This option will add a page after the selected page. 

Duplicate Page – This option will make an exact copy of the currently selected page. 

Delete Page – Use this page to delete the currently selected page. 

Once you have the desired pages ready to go, you can easily reorder the pages by dragging the page where you need it in the page order. 

One of the most important things to remember is that you can duplicate multiple pages simultaneously. Doing this will speed up the process of filling out your project considerably. 

You can repeat this process as often as needed to get to your ebook’s page count. 

Step 5: Replace The Text On Each Page

The most important part of creating an Ebook on Canva is adding your own text. Now that the basic structure and pages of your ebook are set, you can start replacing the placeholder text that came with each template. 

Note: Before adding text in Canva, ensure all your text is written in a separate Word document, Google Doc, or your preferred word processor. Having your text ready in a separate document will make this process smoother than writing and designing your ebook simultaneously. Plus, you’ll have a backup copy of your text if something happens to Canva. 

You can also add a new text box if you need more space for your body copy.

Repeat this process for the rest of the placeholder text. Feel free to move your text blocks around to create a better-looking page.  

After you’ve replaced all the body text on the page, don’t forget to replace the title text if there’s a placeholder title. 

After changing the body text font, you may notice that the size of your text is now bigger or smaller. If this happens, you can change the size of your text by first selecting it, then using the Size Controls above the canvas.  

That’s all it takes to change the text on each template page. Repeat this process for all the pages in your project. 

Step 6: Replace The Images On Each Page 

Once you find an image that works, simply drag the image on top of the template image on your canvas to replace it. 

Repeat this process with all the template images on your page. 

From here, you can choose from one of the many filters available to match your ebook. 

Repeat this step to replace the images on each page of your project. 

Step 7: Choose The Correct Colors To Fit Your Ebook

The last visual update for your ebook is ensuring each page’s colors are consistent and blend well. 

If you’re not a color theory person, you can let Canva choose your colors.  

You can now choose from one of the many available color palettes to change every color on your page. 

You can also use different color palettes on each page if you want to as well. 

Step 8: Add Page Numbers 

Unfortunately, there’s no way to automatically add page numbers to your project. So you will have to add page numbers manually. 

Next, place the shape behind your page number. If you need to, select the number, then change its color with the Text Color Picker. 

Once you’re satisfied with your first number and the shape behind it, select both elements, then press Control + C (Win) or Command + C (Mac) to copy the elements. 

Then, scroll down to the next page and paste the elements down by pressing Control + V (Win) or Command + V (Mac) to paste the elements down. Doing this will paste the objects in the exact spot as they were on the first page.  

How To Export Your Ebook As A Multi-Page PDF In Canva

With your ebook finally finished, it’s time to export it as a PDF. 

Next, open the File Type drop-down menu, then choose PDF Standard or PDF Print. 

PDF Standard – Choose this option if you plan on presenting your PDF online as a downloadable document. 

PDF Print – Choose this option if you plan on printing your PDF. 

With your File Type set, make sure All Pages is selected under Select Pages. 

Press Download to download the PDF to your computer. 

Can You Sell Your Canva Ebooks?

You have the right to sell your Canva ebooks as long as you follow this rule: you must design the ebook yourself, or when using a template, you must completely change each template page to make it as unique as possible. 

You can’t throw together a collection of template pages and call it a day. You need to make each page of your ebook your own. To do this: 

Make sure each text block is filled with your own text. 

Make sure every template image is replaced with your own images, a free image, or an image you have the rights to. 

Move around some of the elements, delete some, or add a few elements of your own. 

If you fail to make each template page your own, you could run into copyright issues that may cost you money down the line. In general, to avoid these issues, be sure to customize all the text and images as much as possible to create an ebook that in unmistakably your own. After all, that will leave the best impression on your readers anyways!

Happy Creating!

How To Create A Custom Gradient In Photoshop (Step By Step)

When you’re working with the gradient tool in Photoshop, being able to create a custom gradient opens up way more of the tool’s potential. So today, we’ll dive into how to do just that, along with how to save your custom gradients for later use.

But if you are not interested in creating tons of gradients from scratch, I’ll touch on a few places to find pre-made Photoshop gradients for free online too!

Let’s get started.

How To Create A Custom Gradient In Photoshop Step 1: Create Or Open The Document You Want To Apply The Gradient To

First, open or create a document of the size of your preference. You will apply the gradient to this document. In my case, I made a document of 3000 x 2000 pixels.

Then, go to the Foreground/Background swatches at the bottom of the Toolbar. The foreground swatch is the one in the front, and the background is in the back. These will be the colors of your default gradient. You can change those later within the gradient editor if you want, but it’s a good idea to do it beforehand.

Within the color picker, choose a color you like. In my case, that was the blue shade below.

Repeat the process above to change the background swatch color.

Step 2: Enable The Gradient Tool (G)

With the desired colors chosen, enable the Gradient Tool (G) in the Toolbar.

Step 3: Customize Your Gradient In The Gradient Editor

The Gradient Editor gives you many customization options. It’s a complete resource to create the gradient that looks exactly as you want.

The first section of the Gradient Editor is the Presets. The presets are grouped in folders.  

In the Basics folder, you can find the default gradient based on your foreground and background colors. You can also find a gradient that goes from the foreground color to transparent. There is also a basic gradient there that goes from black to white.

The other folders are divided into groups of colors or themes. For example, you can find folders with green shades and colors based on common cloud colors.

Moving down the Gradient Editor, you can find a gradient bar containing the foreground and background color you previously chose by default.

The arrows and blocks under the gradient bar are color stops, representing each color that composes the gradient.

Using the Smoothness slider, you can control how harsh or smooth the transition between the colors in your gradient is. The lower this parameter is, the more blended the colors will look.

Add as many colors as you want to the gradient until your gradient looks as you like. In my case, I added four colors.

Step 4: Save Your New Custom Gradient As A Preset

Your new gradient preset will appear at the bottom of the gradient presets section.

Step 5: Locate Your Custom Gradient After Saving It

After saving your gradient, you can access it at any time in the future by doing the following:

Now, scroll down the list of gradient presets to find yours. It will likely be at the bottom of the list if you’ve just saved it.

Step 6:  Apply The Gradient You Created

After you have created your gradient, applying it in a document or photo is easy.

You can control the appearance of your gradient by choosing a different style before applying it. To do this, select one of the Gradient types in the Options Bar.

The Linear gradient applies the gradient from one point to another in the area you are using it.

The Radial gradient applies the gradient in the shape of a circle.  

The Angle gradient applies a gradient with a focal point that extends itself in an angular direction.

The Reflected gradient creates a gradient that goes from the first color of the gradient to its end color. However, it also places the gradient’s end color on both sides, creating a mirror effect.

Lastly, the Diamond gradient creates a gradient in the shape of a diamond.

Where To Get Additional Custom Gradients For Photoshop

You won’t always have time to create a stunning gradient. That’s why it’s always a good idea to store extra gradients when needed.

I selected three great sources of free gradients so you can download them to use in your projects.

Brusheezy is a popular website that offers thousands of free downloadable Photoshop resources.

Even though the focus of this website is providing brushes, it also offers other resources, and gradients are among them. You can find a variety of gradients on this website, such as metallic gradients, gold gradients, and gradients sorted by themes, like floral gradients and photo aging gradients.

Ps files is dedicated to sharing Photoshop resources. You can find anything from brushes, flyers, and text effects on this website. All resources there are free to download and are uploaded by its members. You can join the website if you want and share your own resources too!

Gradients on the website have their own section. You can find many high-quality gradients there. Browsing the website, you can find stunning packages with hundreds of preset gradients.

Graphics Fuel is an excellent source of graphics, both free and premium. There you can find lots of design freebies, including PSD files and icons. Beyond that, they also publish design articles, so you can keep up with the latest trends and get more informed about the design world.

A quick search on the website can uncover some valuable gradient sources for free. For example, I found a nice collection of 24 vibrant gradients that can make your next project stand out.

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