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JSP actions which use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine. We will learn more in detail about various JSP Action elements like client request, server response, HTTP status codes.

In this tutorial, you will learn-

JSP Client Request

When the web page is requested, it sends information to the web server in the HTTP header.

We can use this information using HTTPServletRequest object.

Information sent by the browser is stored in the request header of HTTP request.

We are using different headers to send information to the request object.

Headers in JSP

Different headers in JSP are described below:

Header Description Example

Accept It specifies MIME types that browser or other clients can handle Image/png or image/jpeg

Accept-charset It uses the character set used by the browser to display the information ISO-8859-1

Accept- Encoding It specifies type of encoding handled by the browser Gzip or compress

Accept-language It specifies clients specified language En,en_us

Authorization Header used by clients when trying to access password protected web pages

Connection It indicates whether client can handle persistent HTTP connections(browser can retrieve multiple files) Keep-alive

Content-length Applicable to post requests. It gives size of post data of bytes

Cookie Returns cookie to server(those which were previously sent to the browser)

Host Specifies the host and port of the original URL

If modified since It indicates that it requires only a page if it has been changed or modified

If unmodified since It indicates that it requires a page only if it has not been changed or modified

Referrer Indicates URL of referring URL page

User-agent Identifies browser or client making request

HTTP Header Methods in JSP

Following methods are used to read the HTTP header in JSP page:

Cookie[] getCookies() – returns an array containing cookie objects that the client has sent

Enumeration getAttributeNames() – contains enumeration of names of attributes for request

Enumeration getHeaderNames() – contains enumeration of names of header .

Enumeration getParameterNames() – contains enumeration of getting parameter names in the request.

HttpSessiongetSession() – returns the current session associated with the request or if does not have a session then it will create a new one.

Locale getLocale() – returns the preferred locale that client will accept content chúng tôi has been assigned to the response. By default, the value will be default locale of the server.

Object getAttribute(String name) – returns the value of named attribute as an object.

ServletInputStreamgetInputStream() – retrievesbody of request as binary data.

String getAuthType() – returns the name of authentication scheme to protect servlet

String getCharacterEncoding() – returns name of the character encoding used in the body of the request.

String getContentType() – returns the MIME type of body of the request.

String getContextPath() – returns the part of request URI indicates context path of URI

String getHeader(String name) – returns the request header as a string

String getMethod() – returns the name of the HTTP method like GET, POST

String getParameter(String name) – returns the parameter of the request as a string.

String getPathInfo() – returns the path information associated with the URL

String getQueryString() – returns the query string that is associated with the request URL

String getServletPath() – returns the part of URLs of the request that calls the JSP

String[] getParameterValues(String name) – returns the array of string objects containing the values that request parameter has


In the example below, we are using different methods using request object

<% HttpSession gurusession = request.getSession(); Locale gurulocale = request.getLocale (); String path = request.getPathInfo(); String lpath = request.get(); String servername = request.getServerName(); int portname = request.getServerPort(); Enumeration hnames = request.getHeaderNames(); while(hnames.hasMoreElements()) { String paramName = (String)hnames.nextElement();

String paramValue = request.getHeader(paramName); }

Explanation of the code:

Code Line 17: Using request object, we are getting the session object of that particular session, and we get the object value of that session

Code Line 19: Using request object, we are getting locale of that particular session i.een_US locale for that JSP.

Code Line 21: Using request object, we are getting path info for that JSP. In this case, it is null as there is no path for URL mentioned.

Code Line 23: Using request object, we are getting context path, i.e., root path

Code Line 25: Using request object, we are getting the server name.

Code Line 27: Using request object, we are getting server port.

Code Line 29-35: Using request object, we are getting header names which come out as enumeration, and hence we get all header values in the header names.

In this, we get all header values as a Cookie, host, connection, accept language, accept encoding.

When you execute the above code, you get the following output:


We are getting the series of values like session name, locale name, path name, server name, port name, host, context path and all the header values of that JSP.

JSP Server Response

When a request is processed and then the response is generated from the web server. It consists of a status line, response headers, a blank line and document.

It is the object of HTTPServletResponseclass, which is a response object.

The status line is a version of HTML.

Response Headers in JSP

Response headers in JSP are mentioned below:

Header Description

Allow It specifies the request methods like GET, POST that server is requesting

Cache-control The response document can be cached. It can be public, private and no cache. No cache specifies that document should not be cached

Connection It instructs whether the browser should use savedHTTPConnections or not. Close value represents that browser should not use persistent in HTTPConnections and “keep-alive” means using persistent connections

Content-disposition To ask the user whether to save the response to disk or not

Content-encoding Page has to be encoded during transmission

Content-length Number of bytes in the response

Content type It specifies the MIME type of response

Expires Specifies till when the content should be considered out of date and should not be cached

Last modified It indicates when the document was last modified

Location It should be included with all responses which have status code has 300 as status code

Refresh It specifies how to find the updated page.

Retry-after It can be used with 503 response to tell client of how soon it can repeat request

Set-cookie Specifies the cookie associated with the page

HTTP Response Header Methods in JSP

Following are the methods in JSP using response object:

String encodeRedirectURL(String URL) – encodes the URL in redirectURL method.

String encodeURL(String URL) – encodes the URL by including session ID.

Boolean containsHeader(String name) – it contains a header in the JSP or not.

Boolean isCommited() – response has been committed or not.

Void addCookie(Cookie cookie) – adds cookie to the response

Void addDateHeader(String name, String value) – adds response header date name and value

Void addHeader(String name, String value) – adds response header with name and value

Void addIntHeader(String name,int value) – adds response header with name and integer value

Void flushBuffer() – forces content in the buffer to the output to the client.

Void reset() – clears data in the buffer.

Void resetBuffer – clears the content buffer in the response without clearing status codes.

Void sendError(intsc,Stringmsg) – sends an error response to the client using status code.

Void sendRedirect(String location) – sends a temporary redirect response to the client.

Void setBufferSize(int size) – sets buffer size of the body

Void setCharacterEncoding(String charset) – sets character encoding

Void setContentType(String type) – sets the content type of the response

Void setContentLength(intlen) – sets the content length of the response

Void setLocale(Locale lcl) – sets the locale type of the response

Void setStatus(intsc) – sets the status code of the response


In this example, we are covering different methods getLocale,flushbuffer, getWriter, get ContentType, setIntHeader.

<% Locale lcl = response.getLocale(); out.println(“Locale is : ” + lcl + “n”); response.flushBuffer(); PrintWriter output = response.getWriter(); output.println(“This is from writer object”); String type = response.getContentType(); out.println(“The content type : ” + type + “n”); response.setIntHeader(“Refresh”, 5); Date dt = new Date(); out.println(“Today’s date is : ” +dt.toString() + “n”);

Explanation of the code:

Code Line 13: Using response object, we get locale object of this JSP session

Code Line 15: Using response object, flushbuffer is used to force the buffer content into client

Code Line 16: Using response object, we get writer object which get output in the output stream

Code Line18: Using response object, we get content type i.e. MIME type of response object

Code Line 21: Using response object, it is used to autoload in every 5 seconds as 5 is set as the second parameter

When you execute the above code, you get the following output:


Here we get the output as this is from writer object from getWriter, which gives us object and we can output in the output stream.

We get the locale as en_us and content type as text/html

We get charset as ISO 8859

Today’s date as the current date.

JSP HTTP Status Codes

When the request is processed, the response is generated. The response status line consists of HTTP version, a status code and an associated message.

The message is directly associated with the status code and HTTP version, and it is determined by the server.

By default 200 is set as a status code in JSP, so we don’t need to set explicitly.

We can set as response.setStatus() method

The codes fall in following 5 categories:

100-199 – Here client indicates that it should respond with some action

200-299 – It signifies that request is successful

300-399 – They are used for files that have been moved and usually include a location header indicating new address

400-499 – Indicates error by the client

500-599 – Indicates error by the server

Some of the common status codes are below:

200 – Indicates everything is fine

301 – It has moved permanently

304 – Not modified since last change

400 – Bad request

404 – Not found

405 – Method not found

500 – Internal Server Error

503 – Service unavailable

505 – HTTP version not supported

HTTP Status Code Methods in JSP

Some of the status code methods in JSP are listed below:

Public void setStatus(intstatusCode): It sets the status code whichever we want to set in that JSP chúng tôi will give us the message of status code which has been set

Public void sendRedirect(String URL): It generates 302 response along with the location header giving URL of the new document

Public void sendError(intcode,Stringmsg): It sends the status code along with the short message and it is formatted inside HTML document.


In this example, we are sending error to JSP page explicitly.

Explanation of the code:

Code Line 10: Using response object we are sending the error to a page with two parameters.

Status code – It can be any of the above. In this case, we have described as 404

Message – It can be any specific message that we want to show the error

If you execute the above code, you get the following output:


Here we get error code as 404, which was sent from the code and also displays”Guru Page not found” message seen in the output.


In this article, we have learnt about client request and server response on how the request is intercepted and how the responses are manipulated.

JSP actions which use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine.

When the web page is requested, it sends information to the web server in the HTTP header.

When a request is processed and then the response is generated from the web server. It consists of a status line, response headers, a blank line and document.

When the request is processed, the response is generated. The response status line consists of HTTP version, a status code and an associated message.

You're reading Jsp Client Http Request & Server Response With Example

Ecuador Considers Nsa Leaker Snowden’s Asylum Request

Ecuador is considering U.S. National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden’s asylum request and has been maintaining diplomatic contact with Russia, said Ricardo Patiño Aroca, Ecuador’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Integration, on Monday.

“Ecuador is considering Mr. Snowden’s asylum request,” said Patiño during a press conference in Hanoi during a visit to Vietnam’s foreign minister. The event was live-streamed on the Internet in Spanish and an instant English translation was provided by the BBC.

“All of us know he has arrived in the Russian Federation,” Patiño said. The Russian government must decide how to handle Snowden in accordance with the country’s laws, Patiño said. However, when asked directly, Patiño said he did not know where the leaker was. “Specific information as to his whereabouts … we can not share that at this moment. We don’t have it and we can’t share it,” Patiño said.

Snowden requested the Ecuadorian government to grant him asylum because the U.S. has announced a criminal investigation against him, he wrote in his asylum request, said Patiño. Because he has been accused of being a traitor, life in prison is among the possible sentences, Snowden wrote, according to Patiño.

In his request, Snowden also mentioned that Ecuador granted asylum to Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, who is currently staying in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, Patiño said. Snowden compared his situation to Bradley Manning’s, who leaked U.S. diplomatic cables to Wikileaks and who, Snowden said, was treated inhumanely during his time in a U.S. prison, according to Patiño.

Snowden supplied The Guardian and the Washington Post with leaked slides ostensibly detailing the Prism program.

Snowden also said he believes he will not receive a fair trial in the U.S. and thus requested asylum, according to Patiño.

Earlier on Monday, Snowden was reportedly on route to Ecuador from Moscow via Havana. However, he wasn’t in the plane that he was thought to be in, according to an Associated Press reporter

Patiño declined to discuss how Snowden would reach Ecuador if his asylum request is granted.

Patiño questioned whether what Snowden did was treason. “We have to ask who has betrayed whom,” he said. A global espionage plot like Prism—the U.S. government’s surveillance program, whose details were leaked by Snowden—does not only affect U.S. citizens but would violate the rights of every citizen in the world, Patiño said. Revealing such a monitoring program might not be treason against the world’s citizens but is more likely to be treason against a group of powerful leaders, he suggested.

WikiLeaks’ Julian Assange has been granted asylum by Ecuador and has been holed up in the country’s London embassy for close to a year.

The current NSA leaks would have been helpful at the time of the Iraqi invasion that was “based on completely false information,” Patiño said. “Wouldn’t it have been convenient to have known that before?” he asked, adding that knowing the truth up front could have prevented the deaths of hundreds of thousands, and could have avoided the sorrow of a nation.

Reporters’ questions at the press conference suggested that sheltering people like Assange and Snowden could be harmful for the Ecuadorian-U.S. relationship. “Of course we are aware of the consequences of our decisions,” Patiño said, when asked what effect the possible asylum for Snowden would have on Ecuador’s relationship the U.S. However, the U.S. and Ecuador are both sovereign countries that make sovereign decisions, he said.

Moreover, Ecuador has requested the extradition of Ecuadorian citizens who fled to the U.S. on several occasions, Patiño said. In those cases the U.S. exercised its sovereignty and decided not to extradite those people, owners of banks, who have harmed millions of Ecuadorians, he said.

Ecuador places human rights above any other principle, Patiño said, adding that is one of the main reasons Snowden’s asylum request is being considered. Patiño also quoted several articles from the Ecuadorian constitution, one of which states that spying on citizens is illegal.

He also referred to the protection of human rights in the U.N.’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adding that the fourth and fifth amendment in the U.S. Constitution also address related issues.

Webmail Vs Desktop Email Client: Which Should You Choose?

Webmail vs desktop email client: which should you choose?




With the rapid development of the internet in the early 2000’s, emails changed forever. In the early days, the only way to read and send email was to use a dedicated email client but as the Internet became more widespread , users moved from dedicated email clients to webmail.

Despite the number of users moving to webmail services, many users still prefer using a dedicated email client on their PC. If you can’t choose between a dedicated email client and webmail, we’re going to compare the two and help you determine the best solution for you.

Webmail or desktop email client – which one to choose?

Email clients were a key component of every operating system since the creation of email services. Outlook Express was a default email application on older versions of Windows, therefore gaining extreme popularity with Windows users. Although Microsoft removed Outlook Express from Windows, many alternatives appeared soon after.

READ MORE: Top 5 Windows 10 TV box units to connect your Smart TV

Today, there are many Outlook Express alternatives but most of them don’t have the same simple user interface that many users are used to. The simplistic design of Outlook Express is what made it so unique and appealing to users — many webmail services and email clients lack that.

Webmail services rely heavily on JavaScript

Most webmail email clients rely heavily on JavaScript, and if you don’t have JavaScript enabled in your browser for some reason, you’ll have to enable it in order to check your email. On the other hand, desktop email clients don’t require JavaScript at all so you won’t have to go through the tedious process of enabling JavaScript every time if you want to read or send an email.

[irp posts=”26354″ name=”Best Windows 10 Email Clients and Apps to Use”]

Webmail services usually don’t support custom domains for free

Webmail lacks support for custom domains. If you own your own company and  use a custom domain, you won’t be able to use that domain with most webmail services unless you choose to upgrade to premium. Some webmail services such as Outlook don’t have support for custom domains at all, so you might want to think twice before choosing webmail over a desktop email client.

You can’t manage multiple email accounts from webmail

Desktop email clients are also a better choice if you use two or more email address. If you use both Gmail and Outlook, for example, you’ll have to log in to each of the two services in order to check your email. This isn’t a problem for most regular users but if you rely heavily on email for communication, checking two or more webmail services several times a day and responding to emails might become a tedious process.

You can’t access webmail without internet connection

Expert tip:

READ MORE: Top Windows 10 Optimizer Software for a snappier PC

Webmail comes with limited storage space

Many webmail services come with limited storage space. If you regularly send and receive attachments, you might run out of webmail storage sooner than you think. After you run out of space, you won’t be able to receive new emails until you delete some older messages or until you purchase a premium option that gives you more space.

The only limitation of doing this is your hard drive size. But on the flip side, with enough room you’ll never have to delete any email messages or attachments or worry about the remaining space for your emails. Some desktop email clients, such as OE Classic, use public domain SQLite/MBX database to store your emails, which means that you can easily export your emails and save them on a different computer for backup.

Desktop email clients require initial setup

Desktop email clients are great, offering more freedom to the user with less restrictions. They might require a little more setup, though, before you start receiving your emails. With webmail services, you only have to navigate to a specific website and all your emails will be there. Although desktop clients don’t require you to visit any website or to start your browser in order to check your email, they do require some initial configuration.

Before you can start reading your emails, you have to create your account, a process usually consisting of adding your email address and your password along with the address of the mail server. This process might seem a bit daunting to some users, which is why they choose webmail services instead. With webmail services, there’s no need to enter a web server’s address: everything you need is automatically configured with only an email and password needed to be created.

Webmail services are synced across all of your devices Webmail services don’t require third-party applications

Webmail services can also be useful if you aren’t allowed to install any third-party applications on the computer that you’re currently using. For example, if your company’s policy forbids installing third-party applications, webmail might be a better solution for you in this case.

What is the better option: webmail or email client? It all depends on your needs. If you can’t install third-party applications and you want your emails synced across all devices, then webmail is a better choice for you. In addition, webmail offers more simplicity and that’s something many users prefer.

Some email clients like OE Classic feature a simple design resembling Outlook Express, something many users are looking for. Many email clients work exceptionally well with webmail services, so if you can’t decide between a webmail and desktop email client, you can easily combine the two and have the best of both worlds.

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Python Post Request: A Concise Guide To Implementing And Optimizing

Python is a versatile and widely-used programming language that provides extensive libraries and functions for various tasks. One such library is requests, an elegant, simple, and user-friendly HTTP library that can send POST requests, which are crucial in sharing data with servers and processing it accordingly.

A Python POST request is a method used to send data to a server. This is typically used when you need to submit form data or upload a file to the server. In Python, you can execute POST requests through the Requests library’s post() method, which allows you to send data to a specified URL. You can share data in various formats, including dictionaries, lists of tuples, bytes, or file objects.

Understanding Python POST requests is fundamental if you’re a web developer or programmer working with web APIs (application programming interfaces). By learning how to send data using the Requests library, you can maximize the potential of Python while simplifying and streamlining the code.

This article is a comprehensive guide for developers looking to master the use of POST requests in Python. We’ll start with the basics, exploring what a POST request is and how it interacts with servers or APIs. We’ll then take a deep dive into practical applications, discussing how to correctly implement POST requests using Python’s Requests library.

Let’s dive in!

Before writing the code for Python post requests module, let’s quickly go over the protocols that you should be aware of when working with Python POST and requests package.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a set of protocols that enables communication between clients and servers.

Two common HTTP methods are GET and POST requests.

HTTP GET Request: Used for retrieving data from a server. Example: Fetching a webpage.

HTTP POST Request: Used for sending data to a server. Example: Submitting a form.

In Python, the Requests library is used for making HTTP requests. It abstracts the complexities of making requests behind a simple API, allowing you to focus on interacting with services and consuming data in your application.

To install the Requests library, use the following command in your terminal:

pip install requests

Once installed, you can use the library to make POST requests. Here’s a simple example:

import requests data = {'key': 'value'} headers = {'Content-type': 'application/json'} response =, json=data, headers=headers) print(response.status_code) print(response.json())

In this example, we import the requests library, define the url we want to make the POST request to, and create a data dictionary to send as the request body.

We also define a custom headers dictionary to set the content-type to JSON. Finally, we make the request using the method, passing the url, json, and headers. We then print the response status code and JSON content.

When working with POST requests in Python, you need to consider the following aspects before writing your response code:

HTTP methods (POST, GET)

URLs and endpoints

Constructing request data (e.g., dictionaries, JSON)

Custom headers and connection settings

Working with response data (e.g., status codes, content)

Once you have your features defined, you can then go ahead and use the request library to send or retrieve data.

To send a POST request using the Request library, you’ll first need to import the requests module.

You can do this using the following code:

import requests

Once you have imported the requests library, you can use the method to send a POST request.

The method accepts various parameters, such as the URL and the data you want the browser to send. Here’s an example of using the method:

data = {“key”: “value”}

response =, data=data)

In this example, we’re sending a POST request to the specified url with the data as our payload.

The method returns a response object containing information about the server’s response to our request.

When working with the response object, you might want to check for the status code, headers, and the content of the response.

You can access these properties using the following attributes:

response.status_code: This attribute provides the HTTP status code returned by the server.

response.headers: This attribute provides a dictionary containing the HTTP headers sent by the server.

response.text or response.content: These attributes provide the content of the response, either as a text string or as binary data, respectively.

Here’s an example of how to access these attributes for the response object:

print("Status code:", response.status_code) print("Headers:", response.headers) print("Content:", response.text)

In addition, the response object also provides useful methods for handling JSON responses, such as the response.json() method, which parses the JSON content and returns a Python object.

For example:

if response.headers["Content-Type"] == "application/json": print("JSON data:", response.json())

This will return a Python object and print it to the console.

In this section, we’ll discuss how to work with data and parameters when making POST requests using Python’s Requests library.

Specifically, we’ll discuss the following:

JSON Data and Dictionaries

URL Encoded Form Data

Let’s get into it!

When making a POST request with JSON data, you can use the json parameter to pass a Python dictionary object.

Requests will automatically encode the dictionary as JSON and set the correct Content-Type header.

For example:

import requests data = { "key1": "value1", "key2": "value2" } response =, json=data)

If you need to send JSON data as a string, you can use json.dumps along with the data= parameter and set the Content-Type header manually.

For example:

import requests import json data = { "key1": "value1", "key2": "value2" } headers = {"Content-Type": "application/json"} response =, data=json.dumps(data), headers=headers)

When sending data as application/x-www-form-urlencoded, you can pass a dictionary, a list of tuples, or bytes using the data= parameter.

Requests will encode the data and set the correct Content-Type header to get request. For example:

import requests data = { "key1": "value1", "key2": "value2" } response =, data=data)

Alternatively, you can pass a list of tuples as well:

data = [("key1", "value1"), ("key2", "value2")] response =, data=data)

To upload files using a multi-part POST request, pass a dictionary of file objects or file paths using the files= parameter.

Requests will set the appropriate Content-Type header.

For example:

import requests files = {"file": ("filename.txt", open("filename.txt", "rb"))} response =, files=files)

If you need to send additional data along with the file, you use the data= parameter:

data = { "key1": "value1", "key2": "value2" } response =, data=data, files=files)

These features improve the efficiency and flexibility of HTTP requests in various scenarios, such as handling timeouts and redirections, as well as working with proxies and certificates.

When making a POST request, you may need to set a timeout value, which determines how long the request should wait before giving up.

To set a timeout, you can use the timeout argument with the desired number of seconds:

import requests data = {"key": "value"} response =, data=data, timeout=5)

In the example above, the request will timeout if it takes longer than 5 seconds to complete. If the timeout is not set, the request might hang indefinitely, causing issues in your application.

Redirections, on the other hand, occur when the server directs the client to a new URL. By default, requests follows redirections for all request types. However, you can disable this by setting the allow_redirects parameter to False:

response =, data=data, allow_redirects=False)

If your application needs to make requests via a proxy server, you can specify the proxy using the proxies parameter as shown below:

response =, data=data, proxies=proxies)

In the example above, the proxies parameter contains a dictionary specifying the proxy URL for HTTPS requests.

Additionally, you may need to verify the server’s TLS certificate to ensure a secure connection. Requests verifies the server’s certificate by default.

However, you can disable this verification by setting the verify parameter to False like the following:

response =, data=data, verify=False)

Disabling certificate verification is not recommended, as it may expose your application to security risks.

Instead, if you have a self-signed or custom certificate, you can specify the certificate file using the cert parameter like the following:

tls_certificate = "path/to/certificate.pem" response =, data=data, cert=tls_certificate)

In this example, the cert parameter contains the path to the TLS certificate file. The requests library will use this certificate when verifying the server’s identity.

In the previous section, you learned how to make a POST request in Python. However, when making POST request, it’s common to run into errors.

Therefore, in this section, we’ll go over some common errors that you might encounter when performing POST requests using Python.

When working with the Python requests library, it’s important that you handle errors and debug your application. One of the key aspects to consider is working with response status codes.

Whenever a request is made to a server, it returns a status code that indicates the success or failure of the request.

The requests library provides an attribute called .status_code that allows you to access the status code of a response.

For example:

import requests print(response.status_code)

The above code will print the status code to the console.

To ensure the application handles errors appropriately, you can check the success of a request using the if statement and .ok attribute.

This attribute returns a boolean value, where True indicates a successful request and False indicates a failed one.

The code below lets you handle the status code:

if response.ok: print("Request was successful") else: print("Request failed")

It is good practice to handle specific status codes using conditional statements or defining custom exceptions in your application.

To debug issues in your application, it’s helpful to inspect the request and response objects returned by the Python requests library.

You can use various attributes and methods to get more information about the request and response objects.

Following are some of the attributes of Python POST request and response objects that you should be familiar with:

Request object:

request.headers: Provides a dictionary of request headers.

chúng tôi : Returns the URL of the request.

request.method: Indicates the HTTP method used for the request (e.g., ‘POST’).

Response object:

response.headers: Returns a dictionary of response headers.

response.content: Provides the response content as bytes.

response.text: Returns the response content as a string.

The following example demonstrates how you can inspect request and response objects:

import requests # Inspect request object print("Request headers:", response.request.headers) print("Request URL:", response.request.url) print("Request method:", response.request.method) # Inspect response object print("Response headers:", response.headers) print("Response content:", response.content) print("Response text:", response.text)

By inspecting the request and response objects, you can debug and handle errors in your application using the Python requests library.

To learn more about handling errors in Python, check the following video out:

Mastering the use of POST requests in Python opens up a world of possibilities. As you dive deeper into the realm of web development, data science, or automation, you’ll realize that POST requests are an essential tool in your toolkit.

This is because POST requests allow you to interact with a web page and services in a meaningful way. They allow you to create new data on the server, whether that’s uploading a file, submitting a form, or even just sending a simple message.

Continue practicing, experimenting, and refining your skills, and don’t be afraid to delve deeper and explore the vast capabilities that Python has to offer in the realm of web interactions. Happy coding!

The Ultimate Guide To Http Vs. Socks Proxies In 2023

HTTP and SOCKS are the two main internet protocols that proxy servers use to receive and forward client connection requests. Both provide anonymity while browsing and allow users to access geo-restricted content regardless of location. However, there are some situations where you should not use an HTTP or SOCKS proxy. You must first understand its benefits and limitations to make the most of an HTTP or SOCKS proxy. 

Read our data-driven comparison of the leading proxy service providers to determine which solution is best for your application.

Explaining the terms What is HTTP?

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is an application layer protocol that transfers information, such as text, images, audio, video, etc., between clients and web servers.

What is an HTTP proxy?

An HTTP proxy is an intermediary that receives and forwards HTTP requests between client machines and web servers. 

What is a SOCKS proxy?

SOCKS, which stands for Socket Secure, is an internet protocol that operates at OSI Layer 5

A SOCKS proxy server uses TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connections to accept client connection requests. SOCKS proxies, as opposed to HTTP proxies, receive and forward HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and FTP requests. HTTP proxies are used to transfer HTTP or HTTPS information between a client and server. 

What’s the difference between SOCKS4 and SOCKS5?

SOCKS proxies are classified into two types: SOCKS4 and SOCKS5. SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 are network protocols that handle incoming and outgoing traffic between clients and servers. Even though SOCKS proxies use these two protocols, there are some differences between SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 proxy comparison chart

Explained features:

TCP connection and UDP connection: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are communication protocols that allow data to be transmitted between a user and a web server. SOCKS4 only supports TCP connections, whereas SOCKS5 supports both UDP and TCP. 

Authentication: Unlike SOCKS4, SOCKS5 proxies provide several authentication methods to verify user identity while connecting to a proxy server, including null authentication, username/password authentication, and GSS-API authentication.

SSH tunneling: Another key difference between SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 is that a SOCKS5 proxy uses secure shell (SSH) encrypted tunneling to secure data transmissions. 

How do they work?  SOCKS proxy

SOCKS proxies use Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to transfer data between a client and a web server. Unlike the UDP protocol, which is used by HTTP proxies, TCP establishes a connection between the client and the server to ensure that data reaches its intended destination. After establishing the connection, the SOCKS proxy transmits incoming and outgoing data between the client and the destination. This slows down data transmission in the TCP protocol but ensures that data is delivered to the correct destination.

SOCKS proxies, as previously stated, use two SOCKS protocol types: SOCKS4 and SOCKS5. SOCKS5 is an enhanced version of SOCKS4. Unlike SOCKS4, SOCKS5 encrypts data in a  network traffic using the SSH (Secure Shell) encrypted tunneling method (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Representation of how SOCKS proxies work

HTTP proxy

An HTTP proxy communicates with web servers on behalf of the client who makes a connection request to servers by hiding their IP addresses. It monitors and transfers both incoming and outgoing HTTP data. We explained how HTTP proxies work in six steps with a high-level diagram (see Figure 3):

A client sends an HTTP request to the targeted website. 

HTTP proxy creates a tunnel between client and destination web server. 

HTTP proxy receives the request and assigns the client a different IP address to hide their real IP address. 

HTTP proxy makes the connection on behalf of the client. 

Once the website accepts the connection request, HTTP proxy accesses the website and forwards the requested HTTP information to the client.

Figure 3: Diagram of how HTTP proxies work.

It is nearly impossible to scrape a large amount of data without being blocked. Most e-commerce websites employ various anti-scraping techniques such as CAPTCHAs to prevent their websites from being scraped.

Bright Data’s Super Proxy Servers enable individuals and businesses to scrape massive amounts of data in record time by eliminating the risk of being detected and blocked by websites.

To explore how to tackle web scraping challenges, check out our in-depth guide on web scraping best practices.

Advantages of SOCKS proxies

A SOCKS5 proxy is more secure than an HTTP proxy because it supports multiple authentication methods to prevent unauthorized clients from connecting to the server.

Unlike SOCKS proxies, HTTPS proxies only use the HTTP protocol. While HTTP proxy servers can only process HTTP and HTTPs traffic between the client and the web server, SOCKS proxies can process a variety of protocols, including HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.

A SOCKS5 proxy is faster than an HTTP proxy since it supports UDP connections. UDP is faster and more efficient than TCP.

Oxylabs’ SOCKS5 proxies are used for traffic-intensive scraping, bypassing geographic restrictions, and avoiding IP bans or restrictions. SOCKS5 proxies support TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols, ensuring the successful delivery of user data to the destination site.

Source: Oxylabs

Advantages of HTTP/HTTPS proxies

HTTP(s) proxies provide an extra layer of security between the client and the server. Because data is encrypted with HTTPs proxies, no one can access incoming and outgoing network traffic (see Figure 4). Only the client, proxy server, and the destination web server can see what data is sent over the network.

Figure 4: Through network traffic, HTTPS proxy encrypts incoming and outgoing data.

HTTP proxies can interpret data in network traffic. HTTP proxies filter or restrict specific web content to protect the user’s machine from malicious activity. This is especially useful in web scraping projects. It is challenging to separate relevant and irrelevant data while scraping a large amount of data from various websites. After downloading the scraped data, you must remove any incorrect, irrelevant, or duplicate data from your dataset. HTTP proxies help businesses collect relevant data and avoid data that does not make sense.

NetNut residential proxies can interpret and work with HTTP traffic. The proxy provider offers 52M+ rotating residential proxies provided by internet service providers (ISPs), making them suitable for high-volume tasks like web scraping.

Source: NetNut

HTTP vs SOCKS proxies: the main differences

Figure 5: The chart compares HTTP and SOCKS proxy servers in terms of different features.

Which is better for you: HTTP or SOCKS proxies?

We cannot say that HTTP(s) proxy servers are superior to SOCKS proxies or that SOCKS proxies are superior to HTTP(s). Depending on your use case, both HTTP(s) and SOCKS proxy servers bring their benefits. The important thing is to understand your needs and the outcomes you want. 

For example, if you aim to transfer data using the HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, or FTP protocols, HTTP proxies are not the best option. However, if you need to extract a large amount of data and avoid collecting irrelevant information to save time, you should consider using an HTTP proxy server, which filters content. 

Further Reading

If you want to learn more about web scraping and how it can benefit your business, feel free to read our articles on the topic:

Also, feel free to check our sortable/filterable list of proxy service /server.

If you want to learn more about HTTP and SOCKS proxies you can reach us:

Gulbahar Karatas

Gülbahar is an AIMultiple industry analyst focused on web data collections and applications of web data.





How To Use An Http Get Or Post For Ajax Calls?

We need to use JavaScript, and an AJAX library like jQuery, Axios, or Fetch API to make an AJAX call using HTTP GET or POST. Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) creates fast and dynamic web pages by updating content asynchronously without reloading the entire page. It uses JavaScript to send and receive data from a server, which can be in the form of XML, JSON, or plain text. This tutorial will teach us to use an HTTP GET or POST for Ajax Calls.

Ajax has two common types of requests: GET and POST.

GET Request

The GET request is used to retrieve data from a server. GET requests are commonly used to retrieve data from an API, as they do not make any changes to the server and are therefore considered safe and idempotent.


Users can follow the below syntax to use GET request for Ajax Calls using javascript’s ‘XMLHttpRequest’ object.

let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();"GET", "URL", true); xhr.send();

This will create a new ‘XMLHttpRequest’ object and opens a GET request to the given URL. Finally, the xhr.send( ) method is used to send the GET request to the server.

Note that you will have to provide the API URL from which you want to retrieve the data.


JSONPlaceholder API is a free and open-source API for testing and prototyping. You can use any other API also.

let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhr.onreadystatechange = function() { if (xhr.readyState === chúng tôi && xhr.status === 200) { let data = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText); let output = “”; for (let i = 0; i < 3; i++) { } document.getElementById(“posts”).innerHTML = output; } }; xhr.send();

POST Request Using XMLHttpRequest Object

XMLHttpRequest can be used to make POST requests, which is similar to GET requests but with the data sent in the request body rather than the URL. The open method is used to set the request method as “POST” and URL, the send method is used to send the data, and the onreadystatechange event is used to handle the response from the server. The content type and other headers can also be set as needed.


Users can follow the below syntax to use POST request for Ajax Calls.

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();"POST", "URL", true); xhr.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=UTF-8"); xhr.send(JSON.stringify(postData)); Example

function sendPostRequest() { var postData = { title: document.getElementById(“title”).value, body: document.getElementById(“body”).value }; var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhr.setRequestHeader(“Content-Type”, “application/json;charset=UTF-8”); xhr.send(JSON.stringify(postData)); xhr.onreadystatechange = function() { if (xhr.readyState === 4 && xhr.status === 201) { document.getElementById(“response”).innerHTML = “Post request successful: ” + xhr.responseText; } else { document.getElementById(“response”).innerHTML = “Post request failed: ” + xhr.responseText; } }; }

POST Request Using Fetch

fetch is a modern method for making network requests. It makes a POST request by passing the URL, and an options object as arguments. The options object specifies the request method as “POST” and sets the header “Content-Type” to “application/json”. The request data is passed as a stringified JSON object in the body property of the options object. The response from the server is then processed using .then() method, which returns the JSON data from the response.


The below example demonstrates a POST request using fetch. A simple form sends a POST request to a JSON placeholder API. On submit, the response data is displayed with formatting in an HTML pre tag.

let title = document.getElementById(“title”).value; let body = document.getElementById(“body”).value; let data = { title: title, body: body }; method: “POST”, headers: { “Content-Type”: “application/json” }, body: JSON.stringify(data) }) document.getElementById(“response”).innerHTML = JSON.stringify( data, null, 2 ); }); });

We have learned to use an HTTP GET or POST for Ajax Calls using JavaScript’s XMLHttpRequest object and using fetch with different examples.

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