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Introduction to Manual Testing

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Manual Testing on Software

The software can be tested in two ways by a human manually and automatically by a computer. Each technique has its benefits and drawbacks but shares the fundamental objective of maintaining software quality. We will concentrate on manual testing in this article.


Below are the six types described below.

1. White Box Testing

The software testing strategy includes black box testing and white box tests. Here we discuss white-box tests, referred to as “glass box” tests, structural tests, and clear box tests, and open box tests. It tests inner coding and software infrastructure to verify predefined inputs on anticipated and desired outputs. It is based on an application’s inner functioning and revolves around testing the internal framework.

The programming abilities needed for this sort of testing are the design of test instances. The main objective of white-box testing is to concentrate on the flow of inputs and outputs via the software and to strengthen software safety. Due to the inner system view, the word “white box” is used. The clear box or name of the white box indicates the capacity to look inside the software’s external shell.

2. Black Box Testing

Black Box Testing is a software test method that examines the software’s functionality without looking into its inner structure or coding. A specification of the needs indicated by the client is the main cause of black-box testing. This technique is used to choose a feature and provide an input value to check whether the function provides an anticipated performance.

If the feature yields the right output, it will be tested if otherwise, it will fail. The test team reports the results and then tests the next task. After all, features have been tested, if serious issues occur, the development team will be returned for correction.

3. Integration Testing

Integration Testing is the second stage after unit testing of the software testing method. Units or individual software components are being evaluated in a group during this test. The integration test level focuses on exposing flaws when parts or units are interacting.

Unit testing utilizes test modules, which are combined and tested during integration testing. The software is designed with a number of software components written by various programmers or coders. The objective of integration testing is to verify that communication between all modules is correct.

4. Acceptance Testing

Acceptance tests are official tests based on user requirements and the handling of functions. It determines whether or not the software complies with specific customer demands. It is done as a sort of Black Box test where the necessary amounts of customers participate in the system acceptance test. It’s software testing’s fourth and last level.

But there are still minor mistakes to identify when the system is in the current scenario used by the end-user. The software has now gone through three stages (unit testing, integration testing, and system testing) where changed requirements are present and can not be efficiently conveyed to the development team during the growth of a project.

5. Unit Testing

Unit testing includes the inspection of each software unit or element. It’s the first software test level. The objective behind unit tests is to validate the efficiency of the unit element. A device is one test component of a computer scheme and has been tested during the application software design stage. This test is to check the accuracy of the isolated code. A single function or application code is a unit element.

Testing approach White Box used by designers for unit testing. Unit tests are the first level of tests performed prior to inclusion and other test concentrations in a test level structure. The testing method utilizes modules that reduce the unit testing frames’ reliance on stubs, drivers, and mock items to help in unit testing.

6. System Testing

System testing involves testing the software system completely integrated. Software integration is generally produced by a computer system (every software is only one computer system component). The software is created in units and then interfaced to produce a full computer system with other software and hardware. In other words, a system consists of a group of software for the performance of various functions, but software alone can not accomplish the job.

System testing is a sequence of distinct types of trials for carrying out and testing against demands for the complete functioning of the embedded software computer system. System testing is tested in Black Box as it involves testing the software externally. The testing of minor defects follows the user’s viewpoint.

How to Perform in Manual Testing?

Read the project documentation/guides software and comprehend it. If available, also study the Test Application (AUT). Draft test cases covering all of the documentation demands. Check and reference Team Lead, Customer test cases (as appropriate) Once bugs have been corrected, run the failed test instances again to confirm that they have passed. Black box testing and white box testing is used to perform all test instances manually.

Differences Between Manual and Automation Testing

Automation Testing involves using testing tools Manual testing needs intervention by human beings for testing. Whereas it requires a qualified workforce, long time, and expenses.

Some test kinds like ad hoc and monkey testing are more suitable for manual execution, and any request can be tested manually. Automated tests are only suggested for stable systems and are mainly used for regression testing.

Automation software for automation testing is used for the boring portion to perform the same test instances time and again. Repetitive and boring manual testing can become.

Below are the pros and cons explained.


• The new user can learn very easily

Tools to Perform it

Now we’re going to see some of the tools below:






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Learn Various Types Of Selectors In Jquery

Introduction to jQuery Selectors

When working with JavaScript, you will often find yourself in a situation where you must find and modify some content on the page. In these cases, you must use the selector support in JQuery. JQuery makes it quite easy to find page elements based on their types, values, attributes, etc. These elements are based on CSS selectors, and once you have had some practice, you will see that finding elements in the pages is a cakewalk. Depending on their use, we can classify different types of JQuery Selectors for other kinds. Let’s take a look at some of the most used selectors.

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Using a Selector

Following is a syntax of a JQuery Selector:


If you need, you can chain multiple selectors by adding a “.” Between the methods.

$(selector).method1().method2().method3(); Types of Selectors in JQuery

Here are the different types of Selectors in JQuery.

1. Basic JQuery Selectors

We can select page elements using their ID, Class, or tag names. If needed, a combination of these can also be used. Following are some basic selectors:

: header Selector — This basic selector type lets us find elements with their HTML headings. To do this, we use the verbose $ (“section h1, section h2, section h3”) selector, or we can also use the much shorter $(“section :header”) selector.

:animated Selector — This selector is used to find all animation elements. Remember that for the animation to be selected, it has to be running when the selector is run.

2. Selectors based on Index

:eq(k) Selector — This selector returns the element at index k. It supports negative index values too.

:lt(k) Selector — This selector returns all elements with an index less than k. As above, negative values are also accepted

:gt(n) Selector — This selector is similor: lt (k) Selector except it works for Index values greater than or equal to k.

3. Child Selectors

You can use JQuery to select children of any element based on their type or index.

:first-child — This selector will return all elements which are the first child of their parents.

:first-of-type — This JQuery selector selects all elements that are the first sibling

:last-child — As the name suggests, this selector will select the last child of the parent.

:last-of-type — This will select all children that are last of their type in a parent. If there is more than one parent, it will select multiple elements.

:only-of-type – We can use the only-of-type selector to find all elements with siblings of the same type on the page.

:only-child – In situations where you need to find and select elements that are the only child of their parent, you can use this selector. If a parent on the page has more than one child, it will be ignored.

4. Attribute Selectors

Elements can be selected based on their attributes; the following are some common attribute selectors:

$(“[attribute~=’valuehere’]”) — This returns all elements with attributes where the value contains a given the word delimited by spaces.

$(“[attribute*=’valuehere’]”) — It will select elements where the value contains the given substring. As long as the value matches, the location won’t matter

5. Content Selectors

As the name suggests, these JQuery Selectors find and select content inside elements.

:contains(text) — This selects elements with specified text content inside. One thing to remember when using this selector is that the test here is case-sensitive.

:has(selector) — It will return elements with at least one element inside that matches the specified selector. For example, $(“section:has(h1)”) will return with all sections that have an h1 element.

:empty — This selector will return the elements of the page that don’t have any children, including text nodes.

:parent — This selector selects all the elements of the webpage that have at least one child node. You can consider it as an inverse to the: empty JQuery Selector.

6. Hierarchy selectors

$(“ancestor descendant”) – It selects all the descendant elements of a parent. In our case, the descendant could be a child, grandchild, and so on.

$(“previous + next”) – In case we need to select all elements that match the “next” selector and that have the parent “previous”. The selected elements will also be immediately preceded by “previous, ” the sibling.

7. Visibility Selectors

Two selectors: visible and: hidden, are also available in JQuery. These finds visible or hidden elements on the webpage. Any element in the webpage is considered hidden if:

Its display properly is set to none.

Its width and Hight are defined as zero.

It has type=hidden mentioned in the form element.

Any ancestors of the element are already hidden.

8. Form Selectors

JQuery has sorter versions of selectors for input elements of web forms to save time and hassle.

For example, while $ (“button, input[type=’button’]”) will work to select the button on the page, we can use $ (“:button”) to do it quickly.

Similarly, we can use $ (“: radio”) to select the radio button.


Selectors are one of the important features of JQuery, the selection on JavaScript is not as intuitive and robust, but with the addition of selectors via JQuery, programming for the web has become easier.

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Ml Model Testing: What It Is, Benefits & Types Of Tests In 2023

AI is perceived as a strategic priority by 83% of businesses, and 54% of executives agree that the implementation of AI improved productivity. However, 78% of the ML projects do not have a chance to reach the deployment phase.

For AI to have a positive impact on productivity, it is important to understand the sources of the challenges faced during model deployment. ML model testing can help businesses achieve this goal, and in this article, we will discuss its benefits and various types.

What is model testing?

Model testing is the process of assessing whether an ML model produces the desired outcome or not. If a model passes the tests, it is ready for deployment. However, if it fails, it must be developed and tested again.

Though evaluation and testing can be used interchangeably, there is a significant difference between them. An evaluation enables the observation of the performance of a model based on the relevant metrics. However, it is not possible to detect the source of the problems through evaluation. Understanding the origin of the problems can be possible via model testing procedures.

What are the benefits of model testing in ML?

ML model testing enables data scientists to conduct quality assurance of data, features, algorithms, or model parameters to:

Eliminate malfunctions and increase robustness: Conducting different tests to assess different aspects of the model enables the root cause of potential problems.

Ease the deployment process: It helps to check whether the model works in the intended manner before it is productized.

What are the differences between testing software and ML models?

The subjects of the tests are the main difference between software testing and ML model testing. Software testing involves testing the code to prevent bugs. On the other hand, ML model testing also involves testing the data and the model as well as the code to ensure that the ML model performs as expected.

The internal logic of the testing operation also differs in these two contexts. In software testing, the aim is to observe if the software can produce the intended outcome. In ML model testing, what is expected is not the occurrence of a specific behavior, but the smooth functioning of the learned logic of the model. Testing is more complex in ML because unlike fixing a failed unit, it requires interpreting and determining which aspect of the ML model is not functioning.

There is also a difference in the level of achievement expected from software and ML models. Evaluating a software application and an ML model differs because ML models do not have a deterministic structure. The aim of an ML model is to reach a realistic accuracy rate within a range of 70-90%. The traditional software setting, however, does not allow for a margin of error, since it is not probabilistic.

What are the different types of ML model testing?

Some common testing methods include:

Manual Error Analysis: This method can be used to determine where the model has errors, if there is a pattern in the errors, and to determine the reasons for these errors.

Naive Single Prediction Tests: This method aims to assess whether the model can make an accurate prediction or not. To understand this, it is tested through a simple example. It is important to note, however, the probabilistic nature of ML makes this testing method not functional as it is. It should be supplemented with other methods.

Minimum Functionality Test: This procedure can be appealed to address the shortcomings of the methods above. This method allows the evaluation of specific components of an ML model instead of presenting a panoramic view.

Invariance Tests: By using this method, model developers can determine to what extent a change in the input affects the output. Therefore, through this testing procedure, it is intended to create an ML model that is blind to the correct variables.

If you have other questions about model testing, we can help:

Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.





6 Types Of Content You Need To Be Creating And Why

Content isn’t really king, it’s the kingdom. It is made up of various pieces that combine to create something greater: an effective content marketing strategy

You’ve no doubt heard marketers proclaiming that “content is king,” but that’s a vague and misleading statement. Really, a content strategy is more like the kingdom because it’s made up of various individual pieces that combine to form something greater. There are many different facets to an effective content strategy, and — unbeknownst to many marketing departments — there’s isn’t just one type of content that rules them all.

What content marketing ultimately boils down to is reaching your potential customers in a way that intrigues and engages them. Actually reaching them is the crucial first step, since you have to stand out from the crowd of 20 billion web pages that are viewed each month.

With so much content competing for views, it’s up to you to capture your audience members’ attention and make them want to engage with you. In order to effectively reach your ideal audience, make sure these six types of content are included in your toolkit.

1. Blog posts

Blog posts are a core part of any content marketing strategy because they give you the freedom and flexibility to go in any direction you want, while also strengthening your SEO. You could create a blog post about the launch of a new product line, posts that explain your processes, or even content that discusses your biggest successes — the space for creativity is vast.

Create pillar posts to take your blog one step further. Pillar posts will serve as the core content of your blog; they allow you to go in-depth on a specific topic and give you a valuable piece to link to in your guest content, using specific keywords. Not only does this drive more traffic to your pillar posts, but it also helps them rank higher in search engines.

2. Guest-contributed articles

By positioning yourself as an industry expert among these new readers, they’ll be encouraged to check out your company website for more resources. When you create and place guest-contributed articles that link back to other valuable content housed on your site, you can increase the amount of high-quality on-site traffic.

Creating natural backlinks from those reputable, high-quality publications is one of the most effective ways to enhance your search engine optimization. When Google analyzes your ranking, one link from a credible site will be significantly more influential than multiple links from low-quality sites. Although guest-contributed articles can help you achieve major objectives like thought leadership and brand awareness, boosting SEO is one of their greatest benefits.

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Access the

If you want your guest content to reach its maximum potential, you need to establish strong relationships with the editors of your target publications. Their inboxes are flooded with emails daily, so grab their attention with a compelling pitch that offers unique insight on a subject you’re knowledgeable about.

When putting together your pitches, it’s crucial to keep in mind the audience and guidelines of the publications you’re targeting. This helps ensure the publications you want to be featured in will actually like what you’re sending them because it provides value to their readers and meets their needs. Pitching a topic that is relevant and authentic to both you and the publication you’re targeting is key.

3. Press mentions

When it comes to earning third-party validation, press mentions are an ideal tool for the job. When potential customers see your name and business profiled or mentioned in a publication they know and trust, in an article authored by another industry leader, your credibility goes up.

Press mentions can also increase your SEO, essentially ensuring that Google feels the same way your customers do about your company’s relevance in the industry. That boosted SEO will amplify your online presence, ultimately helping you increase traffic to your site.

But in order for your business to get that recognition, you have to be consistently creating content. PR and content marketing go hand in hand, so without valuable content, you’ll have a hard time securing those mentions.

4. Email marketing

The humble email. In the age of Slack, Google Hangouts, and a million other ways to keep in touch, is email even relevant? Absolutely. According to research from Adobe, white-collar workers spend an average of 3.1 hours every day in their inboxes. That’s a lot of time to capitalize on, but you have to ensure your email marketing is effective and beneficial to your subscribers.

Newsletters and drip campaigns are two essential components of an effective email strategy. Newsletters should be used to share content with your subscribers on a consistent basis. This tactic will enhance your content distribution efforts, provide ongoing nurture to your subscribers, and keep your business top of mind with them.

When you’re putting together your email newsletters and drip campaigns, make sure that you’re using valuable, high-quality content as the driving force behind them. Once you have that content, email marketing requires little upfront time, and it can be automated to produce the best results. Plus, a robust email campaign generates some of the highest ROI you’ll find in marketing, period.

5. Gated content

Gated content might include an insightful case study you compiled or a whitepaper put together by your team of experts. It’s longer than a blog post and — by definition — requires users to enter their email or contact information before they can download it. Because you can track which users are most interested in the expertise you have to offer and follow up with them later, gated content is a valuable lead generation tool that should be included in any holistic content marketing strategy.

6. Video content

If you’re not creating video content, you’re shutting the door to a huge swath of potential customers, a group that’s only going to grow larger over time. In fact, Cisco’s Visual Networking Index estimates that video viewing will account for 82% of all internet traffic by 2023. Depending on your industry, you can create explainer videos, how-to videos, demo videos, or videos that highlight testimonials from satisfied customers.

Studies show that viewers retain 95% of a message when they watch it in a video, compared to the 10% they retain when reading it in text. Incorporating this tactic into your media mix offers your audience a more digestible form of content, thus enhancing the impact of your message.

While videos often require a more substantial upfront investment, they can live on multiple platforms. Feature your brand video on your website and post it to your social media accounts, or use short clips of it in a variety of channels. A well-done video really is the gift that keeps on giving.

Final thoughts

An optimal content marketing strategy shouldn’t just utilize one of these types of content. Instead, it should be made up of a unique combination that suits your brand, your industry, and your audience.

No matter which types of content you choose to create, realize that the time is now to start populating your content kingdom — and homogeneity isn’t going to cut it.

Learn How Does Azure Monitor Work With Its Types?

Introduction to Azure monitor

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What is an Azure monitor?

The Azure monitor supports the user to achieve maximum performance in services and applications. As discussed above, the below points stress the necessity and application of Azure monitor. It diagnoses and detects the bug in any application with its feature called application insights. It can compare the infrastructure flaws with container and VM insights. Then it can penetrate the application and monitor data with analytical log details to troubleshoot and work on deep insights. It supports operations at a finite scale by using its automated actions and smart alert systems. Finally, it can develop visualization with workbooks and Azure dashboards.

How does Azure monitor work?

The infrastructure of the Azure monitor has a high-level view. The metrics and logs are placed at the center of the Azure monitor, which works on two important types of information used by the Azure monitor. In the right of the Azure monitor, there are resources to work on the data monitoring events which populate the data stores. On the other end, Azure monitor work on different functions which work on the collected data. It also performs alerting, analysis, streaming, and other actions to its external connected systems.

In simple, it can be termed as: Azure monitor gathers the information from different sources like operating systems, applications, various resources of Azure in the formats of logs and metrics. It can then be processed to work on different functions like visualization, automation, integration, alert systems, and deep analysis.

Metrics are coined as a measurement to view aspects of resources. For example, it helps to check on the number of connections, disk IOPS, CPU utilization, swap space, memory utilization, etc. It is real-time and saved as a finite value with a periodic collection interval. Therefore, it is adapted to the environment better, and the collected logs are displayed as graphs concerning time and performance.

Logs are a collection of records with metadata and different properties that have a simple structure and provide an organized view of the SQL database. It is comprised of numerical information like metrics which has brief text with extra information. Traces and events are the best examples of logs. It is a dash of data that periodically collects the data which needs to be manipulated to view. The user wants to extract and filter the data from the logs by using a native query called kusto query language. It can be used to produce some logical visualization, and it can be pinned to dashboards.

Azure Monitor types collect

Application data: The information about the compiled code’s functionality and performance irrespective of any platform is collected from the application monitoring data.

Operating System data: The information about the operation system on which the user is hosting the application is collected in Guest monitoring OS data. It can be another cloud, Azure, or on-premise.

Resources on Azure data: The information about the process of an Azure resource is collected in Azure resource monitoring events.

The subscription on Azure data: Azure’s proper health check process manages the information about the management and operation of subscriptions in Azure.

Key requirements

The alert system is one of the key requirements for Azure monitor. It proactively alerts the user when the application is facing critical conditions and requires some corrective actions. The alert rules depend on metrics provided in real-time based on numerical values. In addition, it is based on logs which enable solving complex logic across the data from multiple resources.

Azure monitor application insights

Monitoring the information is useful only if it enhances the visibility of the process in the computing environment. The insights offer a customized monitoring experience for a few particular services. It provides minimal configuration and enhances visibility in the area of critical resources. Application insight always monitors the performance, availability, usage, swap space, and memory allocation of the web application deployed on on-premise or cloud. It structures the powerful data in the Azure platform to offer the user a deep view of the application’s performance. It allows the user to detect errors without any delay and report them to him. The application insight enables different points in development tools and combines them with visual studio to support the process in DevOps.

Azure Monitor Visualizing monitoring data

The visualization in Azure monitor offers tables and charts as effective tools for succinct the monitoring data to display it to a different set of audience. In addition, it has its features to visualize the monitoring data and structure the services of Azure to telecast to the audience. Apart from charts and tables, the monitor has attractive dashboards, workbooks, and power BI to consolidate the performance of the application and display it to the user for better understandings.


Once the Azure subscription is activated, the azure monitor performs and monitors all the addition of resources like web applications and virtual machines. The Azure monitoring begins to collect the data, and the activity logs are recorded when all the resources are developed or edited. The metrics explain the performance of the resources. The diagnostics enable options to allow the user to maximize the availability of the data, and the agent addition option is there to compute the resources to gather info from telemetry from guest OS.

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Modules Of Surefire Testing Framework

Introduction to Maven Surefire

Apache Maven is a building tool that also supports other operations for project management such as dependency management, documentation and unit testing. The build lifecycle of the maven is divided into multiple phases namely validate, compile, test, package, verify, install, and deploy. Maven surefire is a plugin that is used in the test phase of the build lifecycle of maven. This plugin helps in making the execution of unit test cases of a maven project or application and generate the reports of the testing results in the test phase of the build lifecycle. This plugin creates the reports in two different formats namely plain test files with .txt extension and XML files with .xml extension.

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Modules of Surefire Testing Framework

Given below are the various modules framework:

SureFire Logger

SureFire API

Surefire Extensions


Maven Surefire Test-Grouping Support

SureFire Providers

ShadeFire JUnit3 Provider

Maven Surefire Common

Surefire Report Parser

Maven Surefire Plugin

Maven Failsafe Plugin

Maven Surefire Report Plugin

Maven Surefire Integration Tests

Surefire Shared Utils


Maven 3.1.0 or above maven 3.x version.

JDK (Java Development Toolkit) with version 1.7 or higher.


The surefire plugins help to export the reports of unit testing in plain text or XML format.

It can also be exported in HTML by taking some extra efforts.

The default path where the generated reports of surefire plugin are stored is /target/surefire-reports/AnyNameOfFile-*(.xml/.txt).

This surefire plugin has one goal defined for it that is surefire, test that specifies to run the unit tests of the maven project/application.

Compatibility with Different Test Providers

Maven surefire plugin works completely fine with any of the following combinations of the test source directories content.

Junit(5.x,3.8 or 4.x version)

POJO(Plain Old Java Object)


There is no need for any extra configurations to specify which provider is used and available for the test cases in the maven project. This is incurred from the dependencies that you add in your chúng tôi file.

For example, if you are using Junit 5 for testing, then there will be a dependency tag with JUnit 5 ‘s group id artifact id and version in the dependencies element of your chúng tôi file of the project.

How to use?

One of the most commonly used and preferred methods of using this plugin is to specify the version of this plugin in the plugins element of your chúng tôi file or parent chúng tôi file of your maven project.


This plugin tag should be added in plugins elements inside the pluginManagement tag of your chúng tôi 3.0.0-M4 is the latest version of the surefire plugin.

An alternative way to use the maven surefire plugin is to call the test phase of the maven builds lifecycle which will invoke this plugin automatically. The test phase of maven lifecycle of building a project can be called by using the following command:


mvn test

The surefire maven plugin includes all the test classes that are public and contain the word test in it whether the test word be situated in beginning or ending of the class name. However, this behavior can be changed with the help of excludes and includes parameters in configuration in the following way.


This will lead to exclusion of SampleTest file for unit testing and will include NeedToVerify class file for unit testing even when it does not contains the test word in its name because it was mentioned in include element of configuration element in chúng tôi file.

Example of Maven Surefire

Given below is the example mentioned:

Begin by creating a new maven project.

Consider the following example where we have two methods, one for calculating product and other for division in the class named Arithmetic. Create a new java class file named Arithmetic.

public class Arithmetic { public intproduct(int number1, int number2) { return number1 * number2; } public intdivision(int number1, int number2) { return number1 / number2; } }

This class file should be structured and located in the following way.

Now, we will create a test class named ArithmeticTest according to coding conventions the name of the testing class should be the name of the class which is being tested followed by the Test keyword. This will contain test methods whose naming convention is the name of the method being test prepended with test word. Hence, here are two testing methods named testProduct and testDivision.

Then select the methods you want to add in the test class file and mention the name of the test class file and the file being tested in the following window to create a test class file.


import org.junit.*; public class ArithmeticTest { @BeforeClass public static void setUpClass() { } @Before public void setUp() { } @Test public void testProduct() { Arithmetic arithmetic = new Arithmetic(); int number1 = 100; int number2 = 5; intactualvalue = arithmetic.product(number1, number2); intexpectedvalue = 500; assertEquals(expectedvalue, actualvalue); } @Test public void testDivision() { } @After public void tearDown() { } @AfterClass public static void tearDownClass() { } }

Note that all the methods above that are annotated with BeforeClass, Before, After and AfterClass are optional. Only test methods are required in test classes. Each method has its specific purpose and the time when it is executed.

Maven’s chúng tôi will contain.


This file should be structured and present in the following way.


We can test the maven projects with the help of surefire plugin and we can perform unit testing for multiple test cases and with any of the underlying source directories content like Junit, POJO(Plain Old Java Object), TestNG.

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