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AI is perceived as a strategic priority by 83% of businesses, and 54% of executives agree that the implementation of AI improved productivity. However, 78% of the ML projects do not have a chance to reach the deployment phase.
For AI to have a positive impact on productivity, it is important to understand the sources of the challenges faced during model deployment. ML model testing can help businesses achieve this goal, and in this article, we will discuss its benefits and various types.What is model testing?
Model testing is the process of assessing whether an ML model produces the desired outcome or not. If a model passes the tests, it is ready for deployment. However, if it fails, it must be developed and tested again.
Though evaluation and testing can be used interchangeably, there is a significant difference between them. An evaluation enables the observation of the performance of a model based on the relevant metrics. However, it is not possible to detect the source of the problems through evaluation. Understanding the origin of the problems can be possible via model testing procedures.What are the benefits of model testing in ML?
ML model testing enables data scientists to conduct quality assurance of data, features, algorithms, or model parameters to:
Eliminate malfunctions and increase robustness: Conducting different tests to assess different aspects of the model enables the root cause of potential problems.
Ease the deployment process: It helps to check whether the model works in the intended manner before it is productized.What are the differences between testing software and ML models?
The subjects of the tests are the main difference between software testing and ML model testing. Software testing involves testing the code to prevent bugs. On the other hand, ML model testing also involves testing the data and the model as well as the code to ensure that the ML model performs as expected.
The internal logic of the testing operation also differs in these two contexts. In software testing, the aim is to observe if the software can produce the intended outcome. In ML model testing, what is expected is not the occurrence of a specific behavior, but the smooth functioning of the learned logic of the model. Testing is more complex in ML because unlike fixing a failed unit, it requires interpreting and determining which aspect of the ML model is not functioning.
There is also a difference in the level of achievement expected from software and ML models. Evaluating a software application and an ML model differs because ML models do not have a deterministic structure. The aim of an ML model is to reach a realistic accuracy rate within a range of 70-90%. The traditional software setting, however, does not allow for a margin of error, since it is not probabilistic.What are the different types of ML model testing?
Some common testing methods include:
Manual Error Analysis: This method can be used to determine where the model has errors, if there is a pattern in the errors, and to determine the reasons for these errors.
Naive Single Prediction Tests: This method aims to assess whether the model can make an accurate prediction or not. To understand this, it is tested through a simple example. It is important to note, however, the probabilistic nature of ML makes this testing method not functional as it is. It should be supplemented with other methods.
Minimum Functionality Test: This procedure can be appealed to address the shortcomings of the methods above. This method allows the evaluation of specific components of an ML model instead of presenting a panoramic view.
Invariance Tests: By using this method, model developers can determine to what extent a change in the input affects the output. Therefore, through this testing procedure, it is intended to create an ML model that is blind to the correct variables.
If you have other questions about model testing, we can help:
Cem regularly speaks at international technology conferences. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School.
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Introduction to Bug in Software Testing
Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersLife Cycle of Bug in Software Testing
The Bug Life cycle is also known as a Defect Life cycle. It is a phase of a defect that occupies the different states during its lifetime. It starts when a testing device finds a new defect and ends when the testing device removes that defect and it is ensured that the defect is not replicated. It is now time to understand, through a basic diagram as shown below, the true workflow of a defect life cycle.
Below is the Diagram of the Bug life cycle:Status of Bug
Let us see each component of the bug life cycle.1. Open
The programmer begins the bugs analysis process here, where possible, and works to repair it. If the programmer thinks that the defect is not sufficient, then an error depending on the particular reason may be passed to the following four states, Reject or Not, namely Duplicate.2. New 3. Assigned
The development team is allocated a newly created fault for operating on the fault at this level. This will be delegated to a designer by the project leader or the team’s boss.4. Pending Retest
Upon fixing the defect, the designer will give the tester the fault for retesting the fault and the state of the defect stay in pending re-test ‘ until the tester works on re-testing the fault.5. Fixed
If the developer completes the task of repairing a defect by making the necessary changes, the defect status can be called “Fixed.”6. Verified
If the tester has no problem with the defect after the designer has been assigned the defect to the testing device and thought that if it was correctly repaired, the defect status is assigned “confirmed”.7. Re-open 8. Closed
If the defect is absent, the tester changes the defect status to ‘Closed’.9. Retest
The tester then begins the task of re-testing the defect to check whether the defect is correctly fixed by the developer as required by the requirement.10. Duplicate
If the developer considers the defect similar to any other defect, or if the defect definition blends into any other defect, the defect status is changed by the developer to ‘duplicate’.Parameter of Bug in Software Testing
Date of issue, approvals, author, and status.
Severity and incident priority.
The test case showed the problem.
Incident definition with reproductive steps.Guidance for Deficiency Life Cycle Implementation
The entire team must understand clearly the different conditions of a bug before beginning the research on the defect life cycle.
To prevent confusion in the future, the defect life cycle should be documented properly.
Ensure that every person with any task related to the Default Life Cycle understands his / her responsibility for better results very clearly.
Every individual who changes the status of a defect should know the status properly which should provide enough information about the status of a defect and the reason for it so that everybody who works on that defect can easily see the reason for the defect.
The defect tracking tool should be handled with care in the workflow of the defect life cycle to ensure consistency between the defects.Conclusion
I hope you’ve got some knowledge of a defect’s life cycle. This article will also assist you conveniently in the future if you deal with software defects.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to What is a Bug in Software Testing. Here we discuss the life cycle of a bug, status, parameter, and guidance. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –
blog / Digital Marketing What is Digital Marketing?
Food, water, shelter.. and Wi-Fi. This is the new normal and our dependence on the internet is here to stay. It is now common knowledge that more and more customers are heavily relying on online channels for entertainment, information, shopping, and socializing. As this trend continues to grow, brands too are becoming more bullish. Companies are increasing their digital marketing efforts and budgets to explore multiple service touchpoints. Before we learn more about the world of digital marketing, let us first understand what is digital marketing and why is it such a lucrative career path.Brief History of Digital Marketing Web 1.0 Web 2.0 The Advent of Social Media Benefits of Digital Marketing
The results are easily quantifiable given the right tools. It’s easy to understand how a consumer engages with you and thereby run experiments on optimizing successful campaigns/formats.
The time taken for any potential customer to convert is significantly lesser with digital marketing. Ie, customers can take action almost immediately if your content is convincing.Types of Digital Marketing
Social Media Marketing
Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, Youtube, and Tiktok are some of the most popular social media platforms that marketers use to engage with the audience. Easier to reach people, easier to drive traffic and convert, no wonder marketers around the globe have specialized in understanding each platform and how best to leverage them.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
SEO is the craft of making sure your content becomes attractive to search engines. Constantly evolving, this deals with: How does your content rank over competitors so that it’s noticed by high intent consumers? It’s an art and science that most smart brands have invested heavily in.
This is an innovative way of getting other brands and individuals to drive traffic to you in exchange for a commission. Many top brands like Amazon (Amazon Associate program) use this.
If you’ve ever opted to become a subscriber or if you’ve ever purchased anything from a brand, email marketing then kicks in to keep you abreast of updates, sales, and so on. This is an ongoing initiative that keeps people coming back.
Digital AdvertisingWhy become a digital marketer?
Traditional marketing is expensive, time-consuming, and limited. Therefore, brands that wish to reach a larger audience, experiment, and spend lesser time and money, are choosing digital marketing. With more and more brands choosing the digital path, thousands of new jobs are cropping up across the globe. Now that we know what is digital marketing and what its benefits are, let us find out why becoming a digital marketer is in demand.
Here are the biggest reasons why people are becoming digital marketers:
Not only is this one of the most trending and future-proof career paths in the market today but also the salary of digital marketing professionals is desirable and growing. The average annual salary of a digital marketing manager is $66,326 in the USA, and £32,820 in the UK.
Scope for out-of-the-box thinking
Brands are able to reach a larger audience than via traditional means. They need people to put audiences in buckets by understanding their needs, interests, and buying habits. This challenging and exciting role involves a lot of strategies, creativity, and out-of-the-box thinking.
Digital marketing is highly cost-effective and produces results much faster. As a digital marketer, someone who is good with numbers and problem-solving can thrive in this industry.
Measurement and insights
Brands can easily pivot in the middle of a campaign and measure success more consistently when a good marketer is managing the projects. With more brands adopting digital marketing, more exciting job opportunities are coming up too!
Level playing field for brands
New and young brands also get an opportunity to compete with big brands if they are creative and innovative on digital platforms. This evens the playing field. This is a great opportunity for creative marketers to showcase their skills, set up award-winning campaigns, and boost their careers.
Minimal impact from external factors
There is minimal impact due to economic, political, and social issues on campaigns if marketers are resourceful and always thinking on their feet. In such cases, they can easily tweak, minimize damage, and move on.
Better planning and focus
There is no carbon footprint as paper, flexi banners, paint, and other such materials are not used. Digital marketers can move toward more green practices by adopting 100% digital techniques.
Using data to improve products and services
Data from digital campaigns can be used to plan better for future campaigns and to improve products and services too. A number cruncher with the ability to visualize data will enjoy this part of digital marketing too.Digital marketing in 2023: 5 trends to watch out for
With such a fast-paced field, you have to constantly keep evolving and staying abreast of trends. So what does the coming year have in store?
Video content will take priority similar to 2023, but the formats will become shorter
Are your website and content mobile-optimized? Focus on driving traffic with a mobile-first approach
Influencer marketing – leverage it all you can!
SEO will dominate most marketing strategies. Having a robust content marketing strategy can have long-lasting effects on brands
Experiential marketing that adopts AR/VR will be bigPopular digital marketing career paths
Digital marketing in its true essence is the process of using the internet or other digital forms of communication to reach out to potential customers. But digital marketing is a broad terminology that encapsulates anything from websites, blogs, and ad campaigns to social media, emails, and more! Digital marketing makes sense for every business, across industries. While the most common designation is that of a digital marketer or digital marketing manager, here are a few other careers that require digital marketing skills:
Paid Search (PPC) Brand
Paid Search (PPC) Non-Brand
Paid Social Media Marketing
Organic Social Media
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
Tik Tok Advertising
Wondering how to get started in the world of digital marketing? Emeritus can help. In addition to helping you find the perfect digital marketing podcast for your daily commute, we also offer online courses from the world’s best universities. Learn and explore how digital economies emerge and flourish, as well as how digital marketing will continue to influence the use of technology, consumer trends, and purchasing decisions. All our courses are continuously updated, and new ones are added to accommodate and adapt to the evolving industry and learner requirements. Find the right digital marketing course for you today.
A VPN, or Virtual Private Network is an extremely useful tool for every internet user, no matter how much time you spend online or what sort of stuff you do on the internet. A VPN gives you more security and privacy when you go online – things that are hard to come by in today’s information age.
Table of ContentsWhat Is a VPN and How Does It Work?
If you have a general idea of how the internet works, you probably know that your internet service provider (ISP) and some other organizations have ways of tracking your online activity. Your browser’s private browsing mode can’t help protect your data and give you peace of mind, while a VPN can do more than that.
VPN is a technology that protects your online activity by adding an extra level of encryption to your data. It connects your computer or a smartphone to a private network, allowing your data to go through an encrypted “tunnel”.
It travels from your device to some other point on the internet, often in another country, before making its way to the public internet. Your data stays hidden the entire time. All an ISP can see is that you’re connected to a private network.
When you connect your device to a VPN, it behaves as if it was on the same local network as the VPN. It allows you to access local network resources even if physically you’re accessing the internet from a different country. You can also browse the internet as if you were based at the VPN’s location. For example, if you’re using a USA-based VPN from outside the US, the websites will see your online activity as if it was coming from within the country.What IS a VPN Used For?
Some people associate using a VPN with the need to hide your online activity. In reality, a VPN comes with a number of benefits that can help any internet user in their everyday life. Here are a few reasons why you might want to start using a VPN.Secure Your Connection When Using Public WiFi
When you’re browsing the internet at home, your connection is via a password-protected router and a private WiFi network. However, when you connect to a public WiFi network – whether it’s at a coffee shop, a hotel, or an airport – your traffic isn’t protected anymore. Those networks offer open access to all users, which makes it much easier to intercept the wireless network traffic.
That’s why it’s a good idea to use a VPN next time you decide to connect to a public WiFi network to send an email or check your Instagram account.Take Back Your Online Privacy
Using a VPN is one of the simplest and most effective ways to gain back your online privacy and stop others from collecting your data.Access Geo-Blocked Content
One of the most popular reasons for getting a VPN service is to access geo-blocked websites. Sometimes you’ll find that certain content, streaming services, or websites are blocked or have restricted access based on your location. Using a VPN is the easiest way to bypass those restrictions.
This can be useful if you ever find that certain movies or TV shows aren’t available on your streaming platform in your region. Connecting to a VPN server from the appropriate country can easily fix that.
When traveling, you might find yourself in a country where entire websites and services are geo-blocked. For instance, if you want to access LinkedIn in Russia, you’ll have to use a VPN or other means of getting around geo-restrictions.Bypass Your School or Workplace Firewall
When using the internet at your school or workplace, you’re bound to come across blocked websites that management doesn’t want you to access. They do this by using firewalls that filter all web content and keep you away from the blacklisted sites.
There’s a number of workarounds that can help you bypass your school or workplace firewall. One of the easiest ways to do it is via the VPN service. When you connect to a VPN and start browsing, all the internet traffic is encrypted, and the firewall can’t see what you’re doing and what sites you’re visiting on the network connection. This way you can view the sites you want no matter the time and place.Save Money on Shopping
Aside from the obvious benefits you get from using a VPN, you can get some extra perks if you think outside the box. A VPN can help you save money on shopping. Admittedly, it does require some time and effort.
You can use a VPN to connect to different servers across the world and find the cheapest prices. The things you can save money on include streaming services, software subscription plans, flight tickets, and even hotels. In theory, you can find cheaper prices for everything. However, don’t forget that some of the price differences will be covered by exchange rates and bank fees.Do You Need a VPN?
While VPNs come with many benefits, they’re not flawless. The biggest downside of using a VPN is a connection speed drop. Since you’re sending your data to another location before it reaches the right server, your VPN connection speed is bound to be slower than your regular internet speed.
However, if that’s not a big problem for you, or if the connection speed drop isn’t significant, using a VPN is definitely a good idea. All that’s left is to choose the right VPN service for you. Luckily, there are plenty of options out there – from a Windows built-in option, VPN Chrome extensions, best free options for Mac, and the best VPN apps out there.
Jimmy Westenberg / Android Authority
You may have heard of a feature called ECG (or EKG) making its way onto wearables. Devices such as the Samsung Galaxy Watch 5, Apple Watch Series 8, Withings Scanwatch, and several other smartwatches, now come with an ECG sensor baked in. Find out what you need to know about ECG technology and why it matters in consumer wearables.
What is ECG?
Jimmy Westenberg / Android Authority
Short for electrocardiogram, an ECG is a test that measures the heart’s electrical activity. It is an easy, noninvasive way for a medical team to detect common heart problems. These can include everything from irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) to potentially blocked or clogged arteries. Your doctor may also use an ECG if you have previously had a heart attack or if you are experiencing concerning symptoms such as heart palpitations, a rapid pulse, or chest pain. Similarly, patients who have received heart-related treatments, such as the addition of a pacemaker, may have an ECG used to see how their health is progressing.
An electrocardiogram records the electrical signals produced by the heart. With each beat, an electrical wave causes your heart to contract and pump blood to the rest of the body. An ECG measures this electrical wave to help determine the strength and activity of your heart. Plotting these electrical signals in a graph, an ECG produces a reviewable electrocardiogram. Analyzing this graphical representation of the electrical activity in the heart (and the time between heartbeats) can help determine if your heart’s activity is normal, slow, fast, or irregular. It can also tell if parts of the heart are too large or overworked.
Also read: The best heart rate monitors and watchesECG vs. EKG: Is there a difference?
The only difference between ECG vs. EKG is the spelling of the abbreviation. ECG is an abbreviation for electrocardiogram or electrocardiograph — both English words — while EKG is an abbreviation for the German spelling of elektrokardiogramm. Functionally, electrocardiogram sensors and elektrokardiogramm sensors are the same.How does it work?
In the past, this technology was exclusively used by medical professionals to evaluate patients. In an exam room or even in an ambulance, a medical technician attaches ten adhesive electrode patches to a patient’s chest, arms, and legs through this process. These patches connect the patient to a machine that interprets and displays the heart’s electrical patterns for a doctor to evaluate. The process is straightforward and completely painless.
So, if this way of performing an ECG is so simple, why do we need it on wearable technology? For starters, people with heart issues frequently need to monitor their heart health. If you can’t see your doctor right away, this can be difficult. Buying a wearable with an ECG sensor is a good way to keep an eye on things without setting up doctor appointments every other week.
Importantly, a wrist-based ECG is by no means a replacement for a professional medical ECG test. It may be helpful in some circumstances, but you should always consult your doctor regarding heart health.
Are there any downsides to ECG watches?
Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority
Now that we’re seeing Fitbit, Apple, Withings, and other companies integrate ECG sensors into their wearables, why doesn’t every smartwatch come with one? There are a few reasons. First, ECGs in consumer-grade wearables are certainly a niche feature. If you don’t have heart issues, you may not ever use your wearable’s ECG. Companies that make wearables know this, which is why we don’t see ECGs tacked onto every single smartwatch.
Additionally, to sell a wearable with an ECG, the sensor needs to receive medical clearance. ECGs need to be FDA certified in the US, while CE clearance is needed in Europe. We’ve seen this approval process completely halt devices from launching in certain regions.
The Withings Scanwatch, which was announced in January 2023, only gained approval by the FDA for sale in the US in October 2023. This came months after it gained CE clearance in Europe. Fitbit also ran into the issue with the Fitbit Sense. It actually launched the smartwatch on time in the US, though FDA clearance came a few months later. ECG functionality rolled out to the watch in October 2023.
Beyond government setbacks, some companies have imposed limitations on these sensors. Samsung, for instance, has made the ECG found in Galaxy Watch 5 and 4 series devices exclusive to those with Samsung phones. If you own another Android device, you won’t gain access to the sensor. Additionally, it’s worth mentioning that not all ECG sensors are made equal. The Coros Vertix 2‘s sensor only records heart rate variability values, and there’s no way to view the device’s actual ECG data readouts.
Which wearables have ECG sensors?
C. Scott Brown / Android AuthorityWhy should you consider buying an ECG watch?
Wrist-based ECG is primarily for people who need to evaluate their heart patterns regularly. Maybe someone has a heart arrhythmia or atrial fibrillation (AFib) they need to monitor. Perhaps they’ve previously suffered from a heart attack and are now hoping their wearable can catch any irregularities before it’s too late. Maybe heart issues run in their family, and this is one easy step they can take to be proactive.
In the end, if you are reading this article because you didn’t know what an ECG was, you probably don’t need one on you at all times. But for some, this functionality could be revolutionary, if for nothing more than peace of mind.FAQs
An ECG may be used to detect a number of complications including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, or a past or current heart attack.
If you experience chest pain, dizziness, confusion, shortness of breath, weakness/fatigue or the inability to exercise, heart palpitations, or a rapid pulse you may need to speak to your doctor about potential heart health concerns.
At a doctor’s office, ECG tests will generally take between five and ten minutes to perform.
What is a CPU? The CPU or Central Processing Unit is the number-crunching brain of a computer. Everything a computer does, from playing video games to helping you write an essay, is broken down into a set of mathematical instructions. The CPU takes those instructions and executes them.
The details of how it does this is, of course, much more complicated than that simple explanation. The most important thing you need to know is that the CPU is the main mathematical engine of a computer.
Table of ContentsThe (Extremely) Short History Of CPUs
The history of computing is long and complex. It also goes further back into history than digital technology, electronics or even electricity. An abacus is a sort of processor. So are mechanical calculators. The big difference is that these machines can only do one or a few mathematical tasks. They aren’t general purpose processors, which the modern CPU is an example of.
What makes a CPU a general purpose calculation device is the use of logic. In 1903 Nikola Tesla patented electrical circuits known as gates and switches. Using these circuits, you could build devices that perform logical operations, where you could have the machine act on certain conditions.
In the mid- to late- 1940s William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented and patented a device called a transistor, while working at Bell Laboratories. The transistor is the basic building block of a CPU. Transistors are relatively tiny computer components. The transistor is such an important invention that the three inventors were awarded a Nobel Prize for it.
A CPU consists of one or more microchips. This is an important invention because billions of transistors can be packed into a single CPU. This creates incredibly powerful mathematical engines.How Do CPUs Work?
The entire principle of a CPU is based on binary code. Human beings tend to represent numbers using a system called base 10 or the decimal system. The place values of each digit in a number go up by a factor of ten. So “111” contains one hundred, ten and one.
Computers and their CPUs can’t understand base 10 at all. Transistors work on the principle of either being on or off. Which means the logic gates you build from them can also only work with these two states. This is why, fundamentally, CPUs run on binary code. This number system has different place values. Instead if 1, 10, 100, 1000 and so on, the place values are 1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128 and so on.
So in binary “111” would be 7 in decimal numbers Since you add 1,2, and 4 together. If any of the numbers are a zero, you simply skip it and add the place value of the next 1. This way you can express any decimal value. Just note that binary numbers are often read from right to left, so the “1” place value would be at the far right.
Let’s put it in a table to make it crystal clear:
Binary Place Values1248163264128256The decimal number 7 in binary111000000
Can you see why it adds up to the number 7 in decimal? Let’s do the number 23:
Binary Place Values1248163264128256The decimal number 7 in binary111010000
So 111 is “7”, but “11101” is 23 because the fifth place value in binary is 16. Pretty cool, right? You can express any possible number that can be written in decimal this way. Which means computers built from transistors can work with any numbers as well.How Are CPUs Made?
The production process of modern CPUs is also, as you’d expect, pretty complex. The basic process involves growing large cylinders of silicon crystal. Its semiconductor properties make it ideal for building a binary integrated circuit.
These large crystals are sliced into thin wafers. The wafers are then “doped” with another chemical to fine tune its properties. The nano-scale circuitry is then etched into the wafer surface using light using a process known as photolithography.CPU Design and Performance
CPUs are not all made equal. The first proper ancestor of the modern CPU, the Intel 8086, had about 29 000 transistors in its integrated circuit. Today, a processor like the Intel i99900K has just over 1.7 billion transistors. The denser the logic circuits of a CPU, the more complex and higher the number of instructions it can perform per clock cycle.
Hang on, “clock cycle”? Yes, that’s the other major component of CPU performance. A CPU runs at a particular frequency, with each pulse of the CPU clock a cycle of calculations are done. If you take the same CPU and double it’s clock speed then (in theory) it should perform twice as fast.
That 1978 Intel 8086 ran at 5Mhz when it was launched. That’s five million clock cycles per second. The Intel i9-9900K? It starts at 3.6 chúng tôi 3600 Mhz, with the option to ramp things up to 5000 Mhz when possible.
To add yet another wrinkle to CPU performance, modern CPUs actually contain multiple “cores”. Each core is actually an independent CPU itself. It’s typical to have at least four such cores these days, but lately the norm has been for mainstream computers to have six or eight cores. High end professional computers may have in the region of a 100 CPU cores.
Having multiple cores means that the CPU can perform multiple sets of instructions in parallel. Which means our computers can do many things at once without issue. Some CPUs have “multithreaded” cores. These cores can themselves handle two separate tasks each. In Intel CPUs this is branded as “hyperthreading”.
So the total performance of a CPU comes down to a combination of:
There is, of course, more to it than these four main points. However, those are the four main considerations for making a CPU perform well.The Role of the CPU in Your Computer
The last thing we have to cover is what job the CPU plays in your computer. It is, after all, not the only integrated circuit microchip in your computer. For example, GPUs (graphics processing units) are often even more transistor-dense than a CPU.
They need their own cooling and power supply, as well as memory. It’s like a small extra computer! The same can be said for the chips that control your sound, USB and hard drive traffic. So why is the CPU special? These are the main reasons:
It can process ANY instruction, a GPU only does certain types of processing
It ties all the other components together, pushing and pulling data to make your computer work
The CPU is involved with all work the computer is asked to do to some extent
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