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What are Potentially Unwanted Programs (PUP)

It is clear by the name – unwanted programs – that they are software or apps you don’t want on your computer, laptop, phone, tablet, or other devices. Then how do they get on your computers? We’ll discuss the different tricks some software use, to install these unwanted programs.

There are typically two ways such crapware gets delivered. First, it could be bundled by the developer themselves, or secondly, download sites may require you to download their wrappers or download managers, which would then foist PUPs.

Potentially unwanted programs are programs that come bundled mostly with freeware and install themselves, with or without your knowledge, on your devices. This happens especially when you are installing a freeware. The software installation package tricks you into accepting the installation of third-party programs, that you do not really want. Moreover, not only freeware but some paid software also install third-party programs that you don’t want!

Detect PUPs/PUAs

The potentially unwanted programs which come in the form of browser add-ons and toolbars are readily identifiable. Others like programs that run in the background are not easily identifiable. You may have to check your Windows Task Manager to find out the PUPs.

Remove Potentially Unwanted Applications (PUA)

Check the add-ons. For the ones you do not understand, run an Internet search to see if they are important. If not, turn them off. Even if they are not PUPs, turning them off will add to your browsing speed.

If you see some unknown toolbars, you can remove them via this panel or you can visit the Control Panel to remove them. In case of some nasty toolbars which refuse to go away, you can use some Free Toolbar Cleaner Tools or Browser Hijacker Removal Tools.

Another method is to check the Task Manager. This would be a tedious task, but if you are experiencing extreme slowness in your Windows computer, check out each process. As mentioned earlier, some websites tell and recommend what the programs are and whether to keep them or not. Certain freeware like Should I Remove It will also guide you in this matter. Based on the recommendations, you may check out the programs corresponding to the process, take an educated decision and then uninstall them.

These days, several security software are programmed to search and find out potentially unwanted programs. Check out the interface of your anti-virus and see if it has any such option in its Settings. If it has, you are lucky. Just run a scan to detect a list of PUPs and then remove them.

Read: What is Potentially Unwanted Modification (PUM)?

Prevent PUPs from Installing

Several tricks are employed by software installation packages to get your consent to install potentially unwanted programs. When you go through the custom installation process, even if you have little knowledge of computers, you will still be safely installing just the program you want.

Check the wording carefully too. Sometimes they may use two negatives and trick you into not unchecking the box – and installing the third-party offer.

If yours is a multi-user PC, you can block other users from installing programs.

Final Words

Another trend I have noticed lately is that some developers launch the software as genuine freeware, without pushing any third-party offers initially. Blogs, download sites, and websites cover them and link to them. Once, some time has passed by, they start bundling Potentially Unwanted Programs. So one has to be careful at all times.

If you have any observations to make, please do so for the benefit of others.

See how you can make Windows Defender protect you against Potentially Unwanted Programs too.

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How To Remove Potentially Unwanted Programs?

The beauty of having a computer and internet connection is the ability to download dozens of convenient, helpful, and useful programs. But it is always crucial to download all software directly from the official website or another reputable source. Unknowing users often turn to sketchy third-party download websites. They get their programs there for two main reasons:

They don’t know that they shouldn’t

They want to download a free version of a paid product or service

What makes third-party services risky? They often lace different software with malware, adware, or other unwanted programs. It can cause significant damage to your computer.

That’s why you need to be more educated on recognizing, avoiding, and removing Potentially Unwanted Programs (PUPs). Here’s everything you need to know.

spying on users,

accessing their data.

Moreover, malicious actors are smart. They often include fine print somewhere in the Service Agreement, which users often don’t even look at.

You need to be extra careful when installing anything. If you notice that, all of a sudden —

your browser has suspicious extensions and toolbars,

you get emails from a service you never signed up for

— the chances are PUPs have infected your PC.

Moreover, if the performance of your computer suddenly drops, that’s a clear sign that something is wrong.

Here are some basic rules to keep in mind the next time you want to sign up for services or download anything from websites that aren’t reputable:

Although already mentioned a couple of times throughout this article, somehow, users still forget about it. Always make sure to download software ONLY from official websites or licensed third-parties. That is the best way to avoid downloading any Potentially Unwanted Programs.

This is especially vital when downloading security software. Free virtual private network (VPN) or antivirus software doesn’t always have your interests at heart.

Malicious actors always use clever techniques to try and disguise their evil intentions. If you find a website that doesn’t have any FAQs, Privacy Policy, or lacks a lot of relevant information in general, stay clear of it.

Check if the site has a lot of spelling and grammar errors. Or if it uses a domain name that is similar to a popular brand or company name, but with some differences. If that’s the case, the chances are that the website is malicious.

Also, does the suspicious website require any sensitive information? For example, your name, address, phone number, or payment info? Then get out of there as soon as possible.

If everything seems fine, then you can proceed with the download. But do read all instructions, checkboxes, and user license agreements. Also, always read the fine print, because that’s where vital information usually is.

If PUPs have infected your device somehow anyway, don’t worry. They are usually less dangerous than viruses and malware, but they’re still awfully annoying. Here’s what you can do to get rid of these pesky programs:

This is the easiest fix that usually solves the issue. Open Windows Settings, go to Apps, and check every program that’s on the list. If you notice a suspicious program that shouldn’t be there, uninstall it.

Sometimes, you can’t remove PUPs with a simple uninstall. Then use antivirus or anti-malware software to locate and forcefully remove these pesky applications.

If random toolbars, extensions, or search engines appear on your browser, you can remove it by restoring the browser to its original settings. You can do so by going to Settings and locating the Reset Browser Option.

You can remove most Potentially Unwanted Programs yourself. But it is much better to put in place security measures to prevent installing them in the first place. Enhance your computer’s safety by installing security software such as VPN, antivirus, anti-spyware, anti-malware, and ad blocker, and you’ll be good-to-go.

Sampling Bias And How To Avoid It

Sampling bias occurs when some members of a population are systematically more likely to be selected in a sample than others. It is also called ascertainment bias in medical fields.

Sampling bias limits the generalizability of findings because it is a threat to external validity, specifically population validity. In other words, findings from biased samples can only be generalized to populations that share characteristics with the sample.

Causes of sampling bias

Your choice of research design or data collection method can lead to sampling bias. This type of research bias can occur in both probability and non-probability sampling.

Sampling bias in probability samples

In probability sampling, every member of the population has a known chance of being selected. For instance, you can use a random number generator to select a simple random sample from your population.

Although this procedure reduces the risk of sampling bias, it may not eliminate it. If your sampling frame – the actual list of individuals that the sample is drawn from – does not match the population, this can result in a biased sample.

Example of sampling bias in a simple random sampleYou want to study procrastination and social anxiety levels in undergraduate students at your university using a simple random sample. You assign a number to every student in the research participant database from 1 to 1500 and use a random number generator to select 120 numbers.

Although you used a random sample, not every member of your target population –undergraduate students at your university – had a chance of being selected. Your sample misses anyone who did not sign up to be contacted about participating in research. This may bias your sample towards people who have less social anxiety and are more willing to participate in research.

Sampling bias in non-probability samples

A non-probability sample is selected based on non-random criteria. For instance, in a convenience sample, participants are selected based on accessibility and availability.

Non-probability sampling often results in biased samples because some members of the population are more likely to be included than others.

Example of sampling bias in a convenience sampleYou want to study the popularity of plant-based foods amongst undergraduate students at your university. For convenience, you send out a survey to everyone enrolled in Introduction to Psychology courses at your university. They all complete it in exchange for course credits.

Because this is a convenience sample, it is not representative of your target population. People who take this course may be more liberal and drawn towards plant-based foods than others at your university.

Types of sampling bias

Type Explanation Example

Self-selection bias People with specific characteristics are more likely to agree to take part in a study than others. People who are more thrill-seeking are likely to take part in pain research studies. This may skew the data.

Nonresponse bias People who refuse to participate or drop out from a study systematically differ from those who take part.

Undercoverage bias Some members of a population are inadequately represented in the sample. Administering general national surveys online may miss groups with limited internet access, such as the elderly and lower-income households.

Survivorship bias Successful observations, people and objects are more likely to be represented in the sample than unsuccessful ones. In scientific journals, there is strong publication bias towards positive results. Successful research outcomes are published far more often than null findings.

When seeking volunteers to test a novel sleep intervention, you may end up with a sample that is more motivated to improve their sleep habits than the rest of the population. As a result, they may have been likely to improve their sleep habits regardless of the effects of your intervention.

Healthy user bias Volunteers for preventative interventions are more likely to pursue health-boosting behaviors and activities than other members of the population. A sample in a preventative intervention has a better diet, higher physical activity levels, abstains from alcohol, and avoids smoking more than most of the population. The experimental findings may be a result of the treatment interacting with these characteristics of the sample, rather than just the treatment itself.

How to avoid or correct sampling bias

Using careful research design and sampling procedures can help you avoid sampling bias.

Define a target population and a sampling frame (the list of individuals that the sample will be drawn from). Match the sampling frame to the target population as much as possible to reduce the risk of sampling bias.

Make online surveys as short and accessible as possible.

Follow up on non-responders.

Avoid convenience sampling.

Oversampling to avoid bias

Oversampling can be used to avoid sampling bias in situations where members of defined groups are underrepresented (undercoverage). This is a method of selecting respondents from some groups so that they make up a larger share of a sample than they actually do the population.

After all data is collected, responses from oversampled groups are weighted to their actual share of the population to remove any sampling bias.

Example of oversampling to avoid sampling biasA researcher wants to study the political opinions of different ethnic groups in the US and focus in depth on Asian Americans, who make up only 5.6% of the US population. The researcher wants to study each ethnic group separately, but also gather enough data about Asian Americans for precise conclusions.

They gather a nationally representative sample, with 1500 respondents, that oversamples Asian Americans. Random digit dialling is used to contact American households, and disproportionately larger samples are taken from regions with more Asian Americans. Of the 1500 respondents, 336 are Asian American. Based on this sample size, the researcher can be confident in their findings about Asian Americans.

Weighting is applied to ensure that the responses of Asian Americans account for 5.6% of the total. This allows for accurate estimates of the sample as a whole.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions about sampling bias Cite this Scribbr article

Bhandari, P. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article

How To Enable Or Disable Nvidia In

Nvidia’s GeForce Experience brings with it a lot of benefits, including the Nvidia in-game overlay. This feature allows you to start broadcasting your game, perform instant replays, and record gameplay with just a tap of a button.

The Nvidia in-game overlay also lets you adjust Nvidia GPU settings on the fly to achieve optimal performance in your game, regardless of whether you’re trying to beat your high score or win a close game of Overwatch. This guide will show you how to open the Nvidia in-game overlay and troubleshoot potential issues.

Table of Contents

How to Enable The Nvidia In-Game Overlay

The overlay works with most games, but it requires you have GeForce Experience installed first. Many modern systems including Windows 10 and Windows 11 come with this application pre-installed, especially if they use an Nvidia graphics card. However, if you need to download the latest version, you can do so from the Nvidia website.

After you have installed GeForce Experience, you can open the overlay at any point by pressing Alt + Z. Doing this opens up several other features, too. You can take a screenshot with the overlay open by pressing Alt + F1, or you can enter Photo Mode by pressing Alt + F2. 

Once in Photo Mode, you can change the way the game looks on-screen to snag screenshots with special effects. You can lay a 3×3 grid over the game, or you can apply different filters to what’s on-screen. 

The filters include options like Colorblind Mode, which makes it easier for people that are colorblind to distinguish things in the game. You can also apply a Black and White filter, or a Painterly filter that makes the game look like it’s illustrated with brushstrokes. These filters only remain in place for the screenshot; as soon as you navigate away from the Photo Mode menu, the look of the game returns to normal.

If you do want to continue to play the game with the filters in place, that’s where the third option comes in: Game Filter. With the overlay pulled up, press Alt + F3 to bring up Game Filters. You can choose any of the filters you used for Photo Mode–along with a few new additional options, like the ability to remove the in-game HUD–and play the game differently. 

This feature adds accessibility options, since colorblind players can use the Colorblind filter to better see the game. You can also access Performance metrics to measure the voltage, temperature of your GPU, and more. Keep in mind that using some features of the overlay, like the custom filters, can affect your frame rate.

How to Fix Nvidia Overlay

If you find that you can’t open the Nvidia overlay or that it doesn’t respond when you give commands, there are several steps you can take to troubleshoot and correct the problem. 

Restart Your PC

The first and easiest step is to simply restart your PC. It takes only a couple of minutes and can resolve most common issues with your software.

Update Your GPU Driver

Out-of-date drivers are another one of the most common causes of problems with the Nvidia overlay. You can fix the Nvidia overlay by updating your drivers to the most recent version. 

Open GeForce Experience.

Select Drivers at the top of the screen.

Select Download at the top of the screen.

After you download the file, you may need to restart your PC before it takes effect.

Check For Microsoft Windows Updates

If your drivers are up to date, then the problem with opening the Nvidia overlay might lie in Windows itself. 

Open Windows Settings.

Select Update & Security.

Select Check for updates.

If there’s an update available, Windows will download and install it. After this is complete, restart your PC and test the Nvidia overlay once more.

Run GeForce Experience as Administrator

Sometimes you might need to run GeForce Experience as an administrator for it to have access to all the privileges it needs to run properly. 

A window will pop up asking for confirmation. Select Yes.

Once GeForce Experience opens, launch a game and then press Alt + Z to open the overlay. This method will run it as an administrator just one time, but if it works, you’ll want to run it as an admin every time. 

Select the GeForce Experience icon and choose Properties.

When the Properties menu opens, select the Compatibility tab.

Select Run this program as an administrator and then select Apply.

Doing this will ensure GeForce Experience runs in administrator mode every time.

The Nvidia in-game overlay is easy enough to activate and use, and opens up a lot of potential for users. You can change your gameplay experience with a filter, take customized screenshots, or even use accessibility features. It’s a useful program, and free to download. 

How To Run Nmap Without Root Or Sudo

Unfortunately, having to use sudo to run Nmap can be problematic, especially if you are not in the sudo group.

Fortunately, you can use capabilities to run Nmap without root or sudo privileges.

What are capabilities?

Linux capabilities are Linux kernel attributes that allow programs and processes to utilize privileges otherwise reserved for the root user.

In essence, Linux capabilities share root user powers or privileges, making it possible for unprivileged processes to run as privileged ones, which means they don’t undergo permission checks.

There are numerous Linux capabilities. You can learn more about Linux capabilities in the man pages.

The essence of this guide is to show you how to use three capabilities: CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_NET_ADMIN, and CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE to give Nmap the privileges it needs to run without checking for root user permissions.

Note: be cautious when setting elevated capabilities, as a malicious user can exploit the Nmap’s Scripting Engine to get access to full sudo privileges and use scripts to exploit local host vulnerabilities. Therefore, use these settings carefully or restrict Nmap’s access to specific groups.

The following are Linux capabilities we grant to Nmap to remove the need for sudo and root permissions.

CAP_NET_RAW: setting this capability allows a process to access and use raw packet data and sockets.

CAP_NET_ADMIN: this capability gives the process the capacity to perform various network activities like IP firewall administration, interface configuration, set service type of TOS, change routing tables, etc.

CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE: This capability binds a socket to Internet domain privileged ports.

Step 1: Install libcap

To set Linux capabilities, you need to install the libcap package. This package allows you to use the setcap command. Use the command:


apt-get install


Now that we have libcap installed, we can use the setcap command to modify Linux capabilities.

Step 2: Set Nmap capabilities

To set the Nmap capabilities that will allow it to run without root user privileges, execute the command:


setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin,cap_net_bind_service+eip $





Once you set the capabilities, you can verify they have been applied by using the getcap command.

getcap $





Note: it’s imperative to specify the full path to your Nmap installation folder.

Step 3: Run Nmap with the privilege flag

Now that we have these three capabilities set, we can run Nmap without sudo privileges by using the privilege flag to let Nmap know that it has these capabilities. To do that, execute:




Note: You have to use the --privileged option, otherwise Nmap won’t know that it has these privileges.

If you want to save the time it takes to type in the nmap --privilegedflag every time, you can set NMAP_PRIVILEGED environmental variable permanently by adding the export line to:

~/.xsessionrc: this works with most desktop/graphical environments and is inheritable by shells and terminals.

~/.profile: this works for shells that require login

~/.bashrc: works for bash

~/.gnomerc: only works for GNOME

Wrapping Up

Most Nmap port scanning and host discovery methods require root or sudo privileges. As discussed in the tutorial, you can override this functionality and run Nmap without being a root or in the sudoers group. Check out some of the best Linux port scanners you can use.

John Wachira

John is a technical writer at MTE, when is not busy writing tech tutorials, he is staring at the screen trying to debug code.

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How To Avoid Paying E

Have you received a wrong e-Challan on your name? Were you mistakenly fined? Or maybe you weren’t the real offender? Whatever be the case, if you think that you’ve been fined wrongly, you can now challenge the challan for verification. Here’s how you can avoid paying e-Challan by filing grievance online.

Avoid Paying e-Challan by Filing Grievance

After receiving multiple complaints, Delhi Police has now started a procedure to verify e-challans claimed to be issued wrongly by the vehicle owners. Once you get fined by the traffic police, you’ll get an SMS on your registered mobile number with the offence details. You can then choose to either the pay the fine or challenge the fine and plead guilty.

A wrong challan can be challenged virtually, directly from the web portal instead of going to the court. Follow the steps below to challenge your Delhi Police traffic challan.

Here, either enter your vehicle number or mobile number.

On the next screen, enter the OTP received on your phone.

You’ll now see all the challans issued to you including the offence date, image, notice, and amount.

Besides, you can also see the links to pay challan and apply for grievance.

Next, select the reason for challenging the challan, say, your registration number plate is not matching the image on the portal, someone was using a fake number plate or if your vehicle has been stolen.

Once you file the grievance, it will be checked and verified whether your claim is correct. If it’s found that you are not the offender or have been fined wrongly, the challan will be lifted off.

Tips to Avoid a Challan or Harrasment from Traffic Police

Always be conscious about traffic laws. Drive under the speed limit, especially in areas with speed cameras.

You can refuse to show documents to constables or anyone below the rank of ASI.

You can either show physical documents or digital copy on DigiLocker or mParivahan app- both are legal.

Only an asst. sub-inspector, police sub-inspector and police inspector are authorised to issue receipt and collect payment.

Constables or Head Constables cannot issue a challan, they can only record the violation.

If Constable threatens you for an spot fine, request for a receipt. They’ll likely let you go as they aren’t authorised for it.

Traffic police can only issue challans if they’re carrying a challan book or E-challan machine with them.

Always check the challan slip before paying any spot challan- it will contain the exact challan amount, offence, date, police offer’s name and signature, etc.

No police officer can seize your vehicle without issuing a valid receipt.

Traffic Police cannot take your keys forcefully or force you to get out of the vehicle. It is illegal.

It is illegal for a tow truck to tow a car if any human is inside.

Turban-wearing Sikhs cannot be fined for not wearing a helmet.

You can always ask a traffic cop who pulls you over to present his/ her identity to you. Note down their buckle number or name or ask them for their ID card. If they refuse, you can also refuse them to produce your documents.

In case of non-availability of documents, you get a grace period of 15 days to produce them acc. to Rule 139 of the Central Motor Vehicle Rules.

Wrapping Up

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