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Last Updated on March 6, 2023Ryzen 9 7950X3D review roundup Ryzen 9 7950X3D overview
AMD has promised that its X3D chips will outperform Intel’s in both gaming and productivity while using less power. To determine the accuracy of this claim, we compared AMD’s flagship 7950X3D to Intel’s Core i9-13900K and Core i9-13900KS chips.Ryzen 9 7950X3D: Specs
One of the most significant and exciting aspects of the new Ryzen 9 7950X3D from AMD is the inclusion of the innovative 3D V-cache technology. This technology introduces an additional layer of cache memory, which provides a massive boost to the processor’s performance and efficiency. Specifically, the 7950X3D features an impressive 144MB of cache, which is divided into three levels of cache: L1, L2, and L3.
The first two levels of cache (L1 and L2) are similar to those found in previous Ryzen processors, providing fast and efficient access to frequently used data. However, the third level of cache (L3) is where the 3D V-cache technology comes into play. This cache layer is stacked on top of the existing L3 cache, using a vertical stacking design that increases the amount of cache memory available while maintaining low power consumption.
The result is a significant improvement in overall processor performance, with faster data access and reduced latency. This is particularly beneficial for tasks that require large amounts of data to be processed quickly, such as high-resolution gaming, video editing, and other content creation tasks. The 3D V-cache technology is a game-changer for the Ryzen 9 7950X3D, giving it an edge over competing processors and cementing its position as one of the most powerful CPUs on the market.Ryzen 9 7950X3D: Performance
With the release date of AMD’s new 7000X3D processors now available, and reviews starting to emerge, it is becoming clear that these chips could determine the future of AMD’s processor line and potentially shift the balance in the ongoing Team Red vs. Team Blue battle with Intel processors. According to public benchmarks conducted thus far, the Ryzen 9 7950X3D from AMD is giving the Core i9-13900K from Intel a run for its money, with similar levels of performance observed in most of the games tested. However, there are some notable exceptions where the X3D outperforms the Core i9-13900K by a significant margin, showcasing the immense capabilities of AMD’s new chip.
This is particularly significant for gamers and content creators who require high-performance processing power to handle demanding tasks with ease. With the competition heating up, it will be interesting to see how AMD’s new processors perform in real-world scenarios and whether they can indeed surpass Intel’s offerings, marking a significant turning point in the battle for processor supremacy.Ryzen 9 7950X3D: Conclusion
In a preemptive move against AMD’s new Ryzen 9 7950X3D, Intel launched its own $699 Core i9-13900KS processor, boasting an impressive 6GHz boost clock and a premium price tag. However, despite these features, it offers only marginally better performance than the more affordable $589 Core i9-13900K.
As such, the latter is the true contender against AMD’s new chip. Both the K and KS versions of the Core i9 suffer the same fate when compared to the Ryzen 9 7950X3D. At stock settings, the 7950X3D is 12% faster at 1080p gaming, and even when overclocked, the Intel chips still fall short, trailing behind by 9%. This is disappointing news for Intel, as its processors consume more power but cannot outperform the Ryzen 9 7950X3D.
The Ryzen 9 7950X3D from AMD is an impressive feat, boasting a 26% improvement over its predecessor, the 7950X, and giving AMD’s Zen 4 architecture the overall performance lead. This performance gain is nearly on par with the 32% improvement seen with the previous generation Ryzen 7 5800X3D over the non-V-Cache 5800X, despite both chips featuring a single CCD.
This highlights the success of AMD’s new thread scheduling techniques, enabling the company to leverage 3D V-Cache acceleration on a dual-CCD processor effectively. The Ryzen 9 7950X3D is a true game-changer, and it will be interesting to see how Intel responds in the ongoing battle for processor supremacy.
You're reading Ryzen 9 7950X3D Review Roundup – And Overview
Last Updated on February 28, 2023
We are about to see AMD do what it does best. In February, the new X3D class under the Ryzen 7000-series will be launched and we can’t wait to see them succeed. With this release just around the corner, everybody wants to know how the new CPU stacks up against its older rivals, making the Ryzen 9 7950X3D vs the Ryzen 9 7950X a prime-time bout in the chip ecosystem.Ryzen 9 7950X3D vs 7950X: Specs Comparison
We need to start off by talking about 3D V-cache. This is the technology AMD used for the first time in 2023 when it released the Ryzen 7 5800X3D. That processor blew our minds at the time. However, although its gaming performance was outstanding, it was quite normal in other aspects as productivity work.
According to the specs revealed by AMD and the benchmarks, that will change. 3D V-Cache is a technology used in computer graphics to improve the performance of rendering 3D scenes. It is a cache system that stores the vertices of 3D models in a highly optimized and efficient format, allowing for faster access and processing when rendering the scene. This can lead to a significant improvement in the performance of 3D applications, such as video games and animation software.
This was part of the problem with the dichotomy of the 5800X3D. It had enough cache to run games great but it was efficient enough for multithreading tasks. Thanks to the efficiency of the TSMC’s 5nm node adding up to the performance-per-watt feature the Zen 4 architecture brought to life, that problem is solved and the Ryzen 9 7950X3D can provide the amazing 144MB of cache while still performing amazingly in multithreaded tasks.
That reflects in the specs. The Ryzen 9 7950X3D barely had a decline over the Ryzen 9 7950X. We might see some little performance drop in multithreaded, tasks due to the lower TDP and base clock speed, but it’s definitely not going to be anything like with the previous 3D V-cache processor.Ryzen 9 7950X3D vs 7950X Price
If you want the best gaming feature processor at the moment, the Ryzen 9 7950X3D is the way to go. However, this must come at a cost. The 7950X was released under an MSRP of $700, which is a sound price for a CPU that is well put together, fast, and efficient. If we compare this price to Intel, we won’t see much difference.
Nonetheless, Intel does deliver better specs and performance for the price. So AMD must do something about it. We don’t have an official price for the Ryzen 9 7950X3D but if AMD wants to get competitive with Intel, they must do something bold.
The Ryzen 9 7950X3D can’t be too expensive. AMD must release this product at around the same price as the 7950X, so it can compete with Intel. We’ve seen some speculations of the CPU MSRP being around $799 but they are not official, though.Ryzen 9 7950X3D vs 7950X: Performance
The Ryzen 9 7950X and the Ryzen 9 7950X3D have similar core and thread counts, base and boost clock speeds, and TDP. However, the Ryzen 9 7950X3D has 64MB more cache than the Ryzen 9 7950X. This additional cache can improve the performance and processing speeds of the Ryzen 9 7950X3D.
We’ve seen many instances where the Ryzen 7 5800X3D gives a close battle to the 7950X. This is more than enough proof that the 3D V-cache technology works for gamers. And although we don’t have benchmarks for the 7950X3D, we can make fair assumptions: the new processor from AMD will beat every other processor in the market at the moment. According to AMD, we might expect up to a 50% improvement in performance.
Even more so, according to the manufacturer, the 7950X3D is expected to have a performance improvement of up to 24% in gaming when compared to Intel’s Core i9-13900K, as well as an improvement ranging from 4% to 52% in productivity-related tasks. This is noteworthy as the previous version of the processor, with 3D V-Cache, was primarily optimized for gaming performance but not as much for productivity.Final thoughts
We are definitely eager to see this release. The world of gaming is about to be revolutionized by the amazing 3D V-cache plus the already-proven highly efficient architecture of the 7000-series. AMD will trade blows with Intel’s most recent 13900K and KS and we are going to receive all the benefits from that battle.
Regarding the comparison, it’s clear that the 7950X3D didn’t have to leave too much on the table this time. The X3D processor keeps the most significant parts of the predecessor and improves on what AMD knows how to do best: cache memory.
Now read: where to buy the Ryzen 9 7950X3D
Best Motherboard For Ryzen 9 3900X in 2023
Motherboard recommendations that pair beautifully with the Ryzen 9 3900X
This article will dive into the best motherboard for the AMD Ryzen 9 3900X – the Intel Core i9-9900K killer. Or so AMD positioned the enthusiast chip when it hit store shelves back in July 2023. Did it deliver on that lofty promise? A contentious point for sure and one fueling gamers with plenty of fat to chew. What’s certain is that the Ryzen 9 3900X is one of if not the best gaming CPUs produced by AMD to date. Yes, it’s been superseded by the ever so slightly better specced Ryzen 9 3900XT, but all things considered, what’s not to love about a 1- core computing powerhouse for under $500?
No matter how much power it packs under the hood, the Ryzen 9 3900X is nothing without an equally performance-oriented motherboard to call home. And as we edge closer to the second anniversary of the chip’s launch, there are plenty of options out there. With so many motherboards to choose from, making that all-important choice can quickly turn into a tricky challenge. To that end, we’ve compiled a list of motherboard recommendations that pair beautifully with the Ryzen 9 3900X.
Products at a GlanceHow we picked
So, how do you determine if a motherboard is a sound investment or an absolute dud? The short answer is a careful balance of performance and features. When searching for the best motherboards, we put more weight on performance than anything else, and all our recommendations will get the most out of the Ryzen 9 3900X. Factors such as form factor, VRM quality, and design, chipset cooling, power connectors, connectivity, PCIe 4.0/DIMM slots, overclocking potential, build quality, and storage options (M.2, SATA) also guided our choice.
Chances are you’ve bought or plan to buy a Ryzen 9 3900X intending to piece together an enthusiast-grade rig. As such, we’ve only included motherboards that utilize AMD’s PCIe 4.0-ready X570 chipset instead of the lesser B450 and last-gen X470. You can indeed find cheaper boards with those other chipsets (especially if you’re not fussed about PCIe 4.0), but with the aim of future-proofing to a certain extent, we’ve bypassed them entirely.
Below, you’ll find five motherboard recommendations alongside a brief review of each, highlighting why they stood out for us as the best motherboards for the Ryzen 9 3900X.
Best Motherboard For Ryzen 9 3900X in 2023
Impressive feature set
Strong performance and stability
After a few sketchy years, GIGABYTE has done well to redress its reputation by pumping out a succession of quality motherboards, best embodied by the AORUS range. The GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master is one such offering and one geared to tap into the full potential of the Ryzen 9 3900X.
While this roll call of features is impressive, it’s coupled with strong performance and stability, whether on the gaming or productivity front. The GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master ranks up there with some of the best X570 motherboards in a similar price range, even some priced much higher.
All this comes packaged in one of the sleekest motherboards out there, with an attractive design aided by quality components throughout, ample RGB lighting, and a polished layout that should satisfy aesthetically conscious builders there.
The GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master is a high-end motherboard, so the features, overkill VRM, and expansion possibilities may be too much for some. As such, we only recommend the board for those who’ll make full use of what it has to offer. Otherwise, you’re better off opting for a less feature-rich alternative to save some cash.
Unique Strix line-up design
Only two M.2 slots
Much like the GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master, the ASUS ROG Strix X570-E Gaming sits somewhere between a mid-range and flagship motherboard, delivering a wealth of features, strong performance, and stellar looks. The ROG Strix name implies a certain quality, something this board channels in droves, alongside the line-up’s head-turning style, notably the commanding heatsinks and Aura Sync RGB.
Performance is up there with the AORUS Master, and there’s a sense the board offers the Ryzen 9 3900X the perfect ecosystem to thrive, whether that’s high-end gaming or those demanding multi-core tasks.
The build quality is also on point, as seen in the welcome touches to the cooling solution and power management – active chipset heatsink, 16 power stages, ProCool II power connector, MOS heatsink with a heatpipe, M.2 heatsinks, and durably components throughout. Other features include 2.5 Gbps LAN, Intel Gigabit, Wi-Fi 6, a generous I/O (HDMI, DisplayPort, plenty of USB 3.2 ports, and more), eight SATA ports, four DIMM slots up to 4400MHz, two PCIe 4.0 x16, and outstanding audio thanks to SupremeFX S12204 audio.
We have to nitpick to find much to dislike about the ASUS ROG Strix X570-E Gaming, and pushed, we’d have preferred an extra M.2 slot like the GIGABYTE board above. Then again, this only matters if you plan to use all the slots, and in most cases this a fairly irrelevant omission that actually helps lower the cost somewhat.
Similar to the AORUS Master, the ASUS ROG Strix X570-E Gaming offers an awful lot. The question is whether there’s too much there for your needs. If you’ll make use of it all, the board is a perfect match for the Ryzen 9 3900X.
Impressive specs for a budget motherboard
TUF build quality and looks
Not the best performance available
The ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus hits a good compromise between price and features, securing the spot as our top budget pick for the Ryzen 9 3900X. Despite having a lower cost than other X570 boards, the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus retains all of ASUS’ TUF design flair with chunky VRM heatsinks and I/O plate, patterned PCB, and robust build quality.
The board is well served in specifications: four DIMM DDR4 up to 4400 MHz, eight SATA, ALC S1200A audio, two PCIe 4.0 x16, Gigabit LAN, 14 power stages, Digi+ VRM, USB 3.2 Gen 2 ports, Aura Sync RG, and a complete cooling setup with an active chipset heatsink, VRM heatsink, M.2 heatsink, fan headers, and Fan Xpert 4.
On the performance front, the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus is a great home for the Ryzen 9 3900X and is well-suited to a reasonably powerful gaming rig when paired with the right hardware. You will find better performance elsewhere, at a higher price, but the board more than holds its own and even surprises with how well it handles overclocking.
For those jumping over from Intel chips or novice builders that want to harness the power of the Ryzen 9 3900X, the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus represents an excellent introductory motherboard to the world of AMD CPUs. Given this is ostensibly a budget motherboard, the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus motherboard delivers some pretty impressive specs for the price. Ultimately, it’s an affordable way to jump onto the PCIe 4.0 bandwagon.
Very attractive price
No I/O backplate
If you want to save another $20 to $30 but still want an X570 motherboard, the ASRock X570 Pro4 is worth considering. Performance floats somewhere around middling; not impressive, but not sub-par either. The board performs more or less like the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus, minus the good overclocking chops. You undoubtedly get what you pay for, but the board can handle stock 3900X speeds without any trouble.
Standout features include a ten power phase design, four DDR4 DIMM with support up to 4066 MHz, two PCIe 4.0 x16 slots, two PCIe 4.0 x1 slots, on M.2 SSD slot, one M.2 Key E slot for Wi-Fi, 8 SATA, Gigabit LAN, and decent I/O spread with two USB 3.2 Gen2, 10 USB 3.2 Gen 1, and 7.1 HD audio inputs/outputs. We are a far cry from the GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master, for example, but there’s more than enough here to hook up a respectable gaming rig.
ASRock has cut corners to keep the price, and you can easily see where. The I/O lacks an integrated backplate, for example. Most apparent is the VRM heatsink, which feels inadequate for the board’s ten power phases, hampering the ASUS TUF Gaming X570-Plus’ overclocking potential. Similarly, the M.2 and chipset heatsinks appear more like an afterthought to complement the board’s aesthetic rather than a concerted effort to keep temperatures in check. Fortunately, this doesn’t affect performance in our experience, and temperatures remain within a respectable range.
5GIGABYTE X570 I AORUS Pro
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Mini-ITX form factor
Sophisticated power output and cooling solution
Attractive mid-range price with the performance to match
Odd I/O choices
Finally, we thought we’d throw in a Mini-ITX build for those planning to piece together a compact build. After weighing up what’s out there, we were impressed with another stellar offering from the folks at GIGABYTE, the GIGABYTE X570 I AORUS Pro.
As the name suggests, the board is a scaled-down version of the larger ATX AORUS Pro, and GIGABYTE has done well to miniaturize the board’s footprint while keeping its excellent design and performance intact.
The GIGABYTE X570 I AORUS Pro features one robust steel PCI 4.0 x16 slot, two DDR4 DIMMs with support for XMP profiles up to 4400 MHz and 64 GB of RAM, two PCIe 4.0 M.2 slots with one mounted on the back of the motherboard to save space, 8 phase power, Wi-Fi 6, Realtek ALC1220-VB audio, RGB Fusion 2.0, and Intel GBE LAN.
We were particularly impressed by the 8 phase power design, which delivers well-managed juice to all components. A sophisticated cooling setup props up this with a sizable chipset fan/heatsink that also doubles as an M.2 slot and a well-designed VRM heatsink. The board took overclocking in its stride and produced great results for us.
The I/O is somewhat of a let down though. For such a small board, it’s over-served with video ports (one DisplayPort 1.4 and two HDMI 2.0). We would have preferred more USB and other ports to complement the board’s four USB 3.1 Gen 1, Ethernet, one USB 3.1 Gen 2, Wi-Fi antenna connector, and audio inputs/outputs.Things to consider Features
When it comes to motherboard features, their desirability and ideal combination differ from build to build. If you’re going for a modest build and don’t need additional expansion or storage slots, then opting for less feature-rich boards is a great way to cut down on the overall cost. As long as performance-oriented features such a VRM, phase power, and chipset cooling are up there, it’s okay to cut costs on other parts.Form Factor
This point isn’t so much Ryzen 9 3900X-specific as the chip will slot into any AM4 socket motherboard, whatever the size, but more about how the motherboard fits into the chassis. Motherboards exist in three main form factors – ATX, Micro-ATX, and Mini-ITX.
When buying a case and motherboard, ensure they line up in terms of form factor, or you may find yourself with the troublesome problem of having a motherboard far too large to fit inside your shiny new chassis. The ATX, Micro-ATX, and Mini-ITX standard make avoiding this incredibly easy, so no excuses for messing this up.
Given that the Ryzen 9 3900X is an enthusiast chip, it’s more than likely you’ll be using it in an ATX build paired with other beefy components that demand a lot of more room because of both their footprint and cooling requirements. To that end, the majority of our recommendations are ATX boards. We’ve thrown in what we consider an excellent Mini-ITX option, though, for those eyeing up an ultra-compact build.Stick To The Big Name Brands
MSI, Asus, GIGABYTE, ASRock – household names among PC gamers and builders. And, with good reason. They have proven track records of producing quality PC components and have robust after-sales solutions in place if something goes wrong.
For peace of mind alone, we always recommend buying a motherboard from a reputable big name brand, if at all possible. The same applies to motherboards for the Ryzen 9 3900X. If you are forking out $500 for the chip, it makes sense to give it the best home possible.
As the PC’s central nervous system, the motherboard plays a vital role in ensuring all the other components communicate and work in unison. Skimping on such a crucial piece of hardware to save money is, in most cases, a recipe for disaster. Avoid obscure brands and knockoffs like the plague. You always get what you pay for, and it often isn’t all that much.Does the AMD Ryzen 9 3900X need cooling?
The provided cooler keeps the CPU temperatures low if you keep it at factory settings. However, there isn’t much leeway if you want to start overclocking the CPU. We suggest purchasing a cooler from a top brand if you want to reduce overheating issues. Check out our article on some of the best CPU coolers that we’ve found in the market.Is the AMD Ryzen 9 3900x good for gaming? Is the AMD Ryzen 9 3900x Worth it?
In our opinion, the CPU is worth purchasing, especially when looking at its performance when compared to its price, making it a great value midrange CPU. For those in the market for the most powerful CPUs check out our guide.Our Verdict
Editor’s ChoiceGIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master
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If in doubt, we highly recommend the GIGABYTE X570 AORUS Master. Feature-full and packing strong performance alongside good looks, the board is the perfect home for a Ryzen 9 3900X. A similarly impressive motherboard is the ASUS ROG Strix X570-E Gaming, another excellent option for those that want a wealth of expansion and storage options alongside good performance.
Finally, you can’t go wrong with the small but mighty GIGABYTE X570 I AORUS Pro for an ultra-compact build.
Here, however, we found greater agreement. Everyone was impressed by the instant pairing and by the intelligence in the AirPods – like auto-pausing when you remove them from your ear. Most people seem to agree that the sound quality is distinctly average but acceptable to most. And there’s also widespread agreement that the look is definitely on the dorky side …
Business Insider describes them as ‘a mixed bag,’ with Siri control the greatest drawback.
They fit nicely in my ears, they sound fine, and Apple finally solved the annoying Bluetooth pairing process. I also enjoyed having a new way to communicate with Siri.
At the same time, a lot about the AirPods make it apparent that this is a version one product, especially when it comes to controlling your music […] Unlike Apple’s wired EarPods, there’s no dongle for controlling your music, answering calls, or adjusting the volume. That means you have to do everything through Siri or directly on your phone. It’s easily the biggest drawback to the AirPods, and it will likely be a deal breaker for many unless Apple comes up with a software fix between now and launch.
Let’s take volume control, for example. If you’re listening to music and want to turn up the volume, you have to double tap one of the AirPods. That activates Siri, which in turn pauses your music (ugh!) so you can say “raise the volume.” Then the music resumes with the volume turned up. Compare that to simply tapping on the volume button on the wired EarPods, and you can imagine how annoying the process is.
Buzzfeed said the W1’s instant pairing was the best feature, and they also stay in well. The sound quality was okay, the design less so.
No settings menus, no tapping around, no button holding — once you open the lid of the floss-sized case, it’s done. The AirPods are paired. It makes normal Bluetooth look dumb […]
The AirPods must be full of dark magic, because they do NOT fall out. Something about their giant-‘80s-earrings-esque shape helps them latch onto your ears for dear life.
The sound won’t blow your mind, but they’re good enough for runs and talking on the phone, if that’s your thing […]
When they were in my ears, it just looked like I was wearing broken earbuds. The permanently angled stem that directs the microphone towards your mouth is curiously long. I wish they made you look a little bit less like a…cyborg.
CNET is not sold on the look, thinks the sound is okay – though still prone to pops and cutouts.
[Sound-wise], mostly they’re good. I liked listening to music with AirPods. I started finding myself preferring them to plug-in headphones, thanks to the freedom of movement they provided.
Until, of course, they produced some of the same little pops and interruptions I always get from Bluetooth earphones when I’m walking. I didn’t seem to get quite as many with the AirPods, but they sometimes happened…and skipping interruptions made me wish for something wired.
Engadget likes the pairing, usability for Siri & phone calls and the battery-life, but not the controls, design or audio quality. It thinks this is more of a proof of concept than a solid product today.
They’re elegant in some ways, with a simple pairing process and good voice-call quality. It’s too bad that Apple otherwise fell short in the sound department, and that you’re forced to talk to Siri to get just about everything done […]
If you’re reading this, Apple, this was a solid first attempt. Don’t give up on the concept, because I believe future AirPods could be great.
The Loop‘s Jim Dalrymple was impressed by the fit, the pairing and the intelligence, while the sound quality was better than expected.
I walked, jumped, ran, shook my head around, bent down, tipped over, and did every other move I could think of to make the AirPods fall out of my ears—they never did […]
All you have to do with the AirPods is open the case. The iPhone 7 recognizes they are available and brings up a screen on the iPhone with one button that says, “Connect.” Press it and you’re done. My AirPods were connected to my iPhone 7 Plus, Mac, and Apple Watch all at once. Not just one device, but all of my devices […]
I thought the audio quality of the AirPods was exceptional for Bluetooth headphones—actually it was just exceptional. I’ve been using them much more than the Lightning EarPods because they were so convenient and they sounded so good […] While they may not be for the audiophile, they are perfect for the average user and those that want convenience. That’s what Apple is going for here and they nailed it.
TechCrunch loves the pairing and the reliability, and was happy with the sound, but most of all liked the idea of keeping Siri in your ear.
“Pairing” the AirPods is incredibly easy, thanks to the W1 chip. The method is so easy in fact that Apple does not use the word pairing anywhere in its instruction manual — using the word ‘connect’ instead. It’s marketing, but it’s also a fair differentiation between the baroque drama that is most Bluetooth pairing sessions and the process of connecting AirPods […]
The W1 chip […] also does some quality-of-service work in the background. Think of it as a buttress under the Bluetooth’s rainbow bridge of questionable reputation […]
The sound quality is very solid. Nice thumpy bass and crisp highs produce a very listenable sound, though it’s far from audiophile quality […]
Before Apple’s AI becomes a true audio platform, it needs hardware that makes it easier to put Siri in your ear — and no real reason to take it out. Enter the AirPods.
TechRadar likes the intelligent connectivity and auto-pause, as well as the battery-life, but has mixed views of the design and is concerned about the ease with which they could get lost and the fact of another thing to charge.
They look and feel just like those familiar EarPods – minus the cable – and their play-and-pause connectivity is so intelligently designed, it’s enough to bring back the “magical” descriptor.
With five-hour battery life and a charging case for 24 hours of additional battery life, AirPods could stealthily set the bar fully wireless earbuds in October, all while everyone is focused on the past and the missing headphone jack [but …]
The funky design isn’t for everyone, [it’s] yet another thing to charge [and] what happens when you lose one?
Wired wasn’t impressed by the look or the sound, but did like the pairing and the microphones …
Wearing AirPods is like wearing a toothbrush in your ear […] I say they look both weird and bad […]
Your $159 doesn’t buy you any better audio than you’ll get from the EarPods that come free in the box with your iPhone. I mean, look: they sound fine. Statistically, most people are fine with the EarPods, and they’ll be fine with the AirPods too. But if you’ve ever purchased a pair of headphones that cost more than $50, I’d bet they sound better than the AirPods. If you’ve spent more than $100, they definitely do […]
Take the AirPods out of their box, open up the lid to the dental-floss-dispenser case, and set them down next to your iPhone. A pop-up window appears from the bottom of your phone’s screen, asking if you want to connect your new AirPods. Of course you do! So you press the very large “Connect” button, and you’re done […]
The microphone is fantastic. The dual-mic setup, along with Apple’s clever noise-cancelling tech that uses subtle vibrations to know you’re speaking, makes for one of the clearest remote-input devices I’ve ever used.
One additional piece of good news: some of us had been under the impression that the ‘secret sauce’ of the W1 chip required matching tech in the iPhone 7, but it turns out that’s not the case. The W1 chip in the AirPods are able to perform their magic with older devices too (as far back as iPhone 5 with iOS 10).
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In a distributed DBMS environment, several challenges arise in concurrency control and recovery, which are not present in a centralized DBMS environment. This article will discuss these challenges and their potential solutions.Multiple Copies of Data Items
Dealing with multiple copies of data items is a significant challenge in distributed DBMS environments. Consistency among these copies is crucial for proper concurrency control, and recovery methods are responsible for making a copy consistent with others if the site storing the copy fails.Failure of Individual Sites
In the event of site failure, distributed DBMS should continue to operate with its running sites if possible. When a site recovers, its local database must be brought up-to-date with the rest of the sites before rejoining the system.Failure of Communication Links
The system must be able to deal with the failure of one or more of the communication links that connect the sites. Network partitioning may occur, breaking up the sites into two or more partitions, where the sites within each partition can communicate only with each other.Distributed Commit
Problems can arise with committing a transaction that is accessing databases stored on multiple sites if some sites fail during the commit process. The two-phase commit protocol is often used to deal with this problem.Distributed Deadlock
Deadlock may occur among several sites, so techniques for dealing with deadlocks must be extended to take this into accountDistributed Concurrency Control and Recovery Techniques
Distributed concurrency control and recovery techniques must deal with the challenges mentioned above and others. In this section, we review some of the suggested techniques to handle recovery and concurrency control in DDBMSs.
Distributed DBMS environments face unique challenges in concurrency control and recovery. These challenges must be addressed by implementing effective distributed concurrency control and recovery techniques. With the proper implementation of these techniques, a distributed DBMS can provide a reliable and robust solution for organizations dealing with large amounts of data.Distributed Concurrency Control Based on a Distinguished Copy of a Data Item
In distributed databases, replicated data items pose a challenge for concurrency control. To address this issue, several concurrency control techniques have been proposed that extend the concurrency control methods used for centralized databases. These techniques involve designating a particular copy of each data item as a distinguished copy, with locks for the data item associated with the distinguished copy. All locking and unlocking requests are sent to the site that contains the distinguished copy.
The primary site with backup site approach addresses the issue of primary site failure by designating a second site as a backup site. All locking information is maintained at both the primary and backup sites, and the backup site takes over as the primary site in case of failure. The primary copy technique distributes the load of lock coordination among various sites by storing distinguished copies of different data items at different sites. Failure of one site affects only transactions accessing locks on items whose primary copies reside at that site.
Choosing a new coordinator site in case of failure involves electing a new coordinator site through a complex algorithm. If no backup site exists or if both the primary and backup sites are down, the election process is initiated by a site that repeatedly fails to communicate with the coordinator site. The site proposes itself as the new coordinator, and as soon as it receives a majority of yes votes, it declares itself as the new coordinator.Distributed Concurrency Control Based on Voting
Distributed Concurrency Control Based on Voting is a concurrency control method that differs from other replicated items methods in that it does not rely on a distinguished copy to maintain locks. Instead, a lock request is sent to all sites containing a copy of the data item, and each copy maintains its own lock and can grant or deny the request.
If a transaction requesting a lock is granted the lock by a majority of the copies, it holds the lock and informs all copies that it has been granted the lock. However, if a transaction does not receive a majority of votes granting it a lock within a certain time-out period, it cancels its request and informs all sites of the cancellation.
The voting method is considered a truly distributed concurrency control method, as the responsibility for a decision resides with all the sites involved. Simulation studies have shown that voting has higher message traffic among sites than do the distinguished copy methods. If the algorithm takes into account possible site failures during the voting process, it becomes extremely complex.Distributed Recovery
Distributed recovery in a distributed database is a process that has several issues. One of the major challenges is detecting whether a site is down or not. It often requires exchanging messages with other sites. For example, if site X sends a message to site Y and does not receive a response. It is difficult to determine if the message was not delivered due to a communication failure. If site Y is down and could not respond, or if site Y sent a response that was not delivered.
Another significant problem in distributed recovery is distributed commit. When a transaction modifies data at multiple sites. It cannot commit until it ensures that the effects of the transaction on each site are not lost. To achieve this, each site must record the local effects of the transaction permanently in its local site log-on disk before committing. The two-phase commit protocol is used to ensure the accuracy of the distributed commit.Conclusion
In conclusion, distributed DBMS environments pose several challenges in concurrency control and recovery that are not present in centralized DBMS environments. These challenges include dealing with multiple copies of data items, site failures, communication link failures, distributed commits, and distributed deadlock. To address these challenges, effective distributed concurrency control and recovery techniques must be implemented. The article reviewed some of the suggested techniques, such as distributed concurrency control based on a distinguished copy of a data item, distributed concurrency control based on voting, and distributed recovery. By implementing these techniques, a distributed DBMS can provide a reliable and robust solution for organizations dealing with large amounts of data.
Question:Explain the principles which play a major role in development of software.
A set of rules which is made on the basis a number of observations done by user is called the principles of software development. We have described the software development principles which are given below:
Quality on preference – Quality is the first objective of software development process. Because a low level of quality not accepted by the user or client. We have a lot of definitions about the quality product. According to customer he wants the best response on given time with a lot of capacity. The aim of developer should be make unique design software.
Possibility of high quality software – Scope of higher quality is always there. For getting the high quality many techniques, design inspections on time and hired the best employee for this can be adopted.
be on time delivery – The better way is to send the sample to the customer so that he can use that software and give feedback. On the basis of feedback developer can take charge and developed the software according to the need of customer.
Fix the problem – Before getting any solution of problem fix the problem which cause is customer needs. After getting the problem we are trying to use alternate solution of that problem basis on time, cost and risk factor.
Valuation of alternate design – When we know the need of customer then we observed much kind of algorithms and architectural so that with the help of them we can build the software. We select that alternate who have the quality of safety, alteration and more functional.
Selection of appropriate process model – Software development process model have a large area of choice just like waterfall, prototype and spiral module are the suitable examples for this. But there is a fact that every process is not suitable or in favor every time. So on the bases of need of software, area of applications and most importantly risk factor should be sensible.
Minimum gap between client and developer – According to famous Dijkestra intellectual gap may be describe, is the distance between the real world problem and the computerized solution to the problem. If the maintenance of the software is easy then the gap will be low. With the help of the object oriented design and jack system of development method we can find that the structure of software which will be near real world structure.
Design for change – The techniques or method which is used in development process of software should have capacity of change.
Reduce tricks – We should try to reduce of those programs and code who makes compaction in that process.
Management – In the comparisons of good technology, good management is the best option because it helps the employees to motivate them for doing their duties in the proper way. Management planning cannot be done for a long period because its base is time and situation which can change any time. With a lack of resources a person who has deep knowledge of management can provide a positive result in every case.
Right person is the base of success – For the success of any planning we need to experts, experienced and skilled person. An expert can provide the best output with those sources who are not enough in normal condition. On the other hand without experienced person became fail in this condition. So quality is the main part in the selection time of employees.
Use carefully – For getting the best output it is necessary to use different method and techniques with carefully otherwise they provide the wrong output.
Keep updated – In the present time, this world is more progressive and competitive so to survive in the present time it is necessary to stay updated every time for new technology and their risk factors.
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