Trending December 2023 # The Differences Between Permissioned And Permissionless Blockchains # Suggested January 2024 # Top 19 Popular

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One of the biggest divisions in blockchain technology is permissioned versus permissionless blockchains. The basic distinction is pretty clear: you need approval to use a permissioned blockchain, while anyone can participate in permissionless systems. The original Bitcoin blockchain was and is still completely open, for example, but as companies and institutions start to adopt the technology, they’re willing to sacrifice trustlessness and transparency for better access controls and easier customization.

Why do we care? As similar as the two systems might sound, they really shouldn’t be used for the same things. People probably won’t be so keen on using a permissioned cryptocurrency, for example, since one of the biggest draws of crypto is that no one can control how it works or where it goes. Conversely, a company like Maersk, which uses blockchain to track its shipping logistics, doesn’t want to put all of its confidential data onto a permissionless blockchain.

How permissioned and permissionless blockchains are similar

Both permissioned and permissionless blockchains have some important characteristics in common:

They’re both distributed ledgers, meaning that there are multiple versions of the same data stored in different places and connected through some type of network.

They both use some form of consensus mechanism, which means they have a way for multiple versions of the ledger to reach an agreement on what they should all actually look like.

They are both theoretically immutable in the sense that the data they store can’t be changed without having sufficient power over the network. Even then, the blocks are linked by cryptographic hashes that will change if any data is altered.

Put simply, both permissioned and permissionless blockchains use cryptography and decentralization to varying degrees to accurately store data in a format that is difficult to hack or alter.

Permissionless blockchains

Most of the blockchains you’ve probably heard of fall into this category: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Dash, and Monero. All the others are public blockchains that anyone can transact on or even join as a validator.

All the data stored on these chains is publicly available, and full copies of the ledgers are stored all around the world, which is what makes these systems very hard to hack or censor. No one runs the blockchain, no one can restrict access to it, and you can remain relatively anonymous since you don’t need to identify yourself to get an address and perform transactions.

This type of blockchain tends to generate buzz since it’s what underlies most cryptocurrencies and the most exciting decentralization solutions. The hype is deserved, since permissionless public blockchains can potentially revolutionize services that previously required trusted middlemen – not just currency. An immutable blockchain of cars could give you the ability to look up reliable data on every part, service record, and transaction associated with a used car instead of trusting the guy on Craigslist, for example.

Of course, this system is far from perfect. It can be slow, difficult to build for and scale up on, too transparent to keep sensitive data on, hard to control access to, energy-intensive, and complex. That’s why permissioned blockchains are becoming a more popular solution for companies and institutions looking to use blockchains to replace more traditional systems.

Permissioned blockchains

In a nutshell, permissioned blockchains are only open to those who are allowed access. Anyone who wants to validate transactions and/or view data on the network has to be approved by the central authority first.

This is especially useful for banks, companies, and other institutions that have to comply with regulations and might not be fans of losing complete control of their data. Instead of building on a large, decentralized blockchain like Ethereum, they can instead create a custom solution run only by institutions that they approve of.

Imagine a watermelon company taking their supply chain to the next level:

The company decides to build a blockchain system to track its delicious fruit from farm to store. They need to ensure that nobody slips in any subpar watermelons and want to know exactly who is involved in each step, so they decide on a permissioned blockchain that only authorized users can access.

They build a Melonchain and give each stop on their supply chain a way to access it and add data, which is validated by a network of servers run by the company. This way, whenever data about a melon is logged, it can be looked up in the ledger and cryptographically verified later.

Certain data about each watermelon, like harvest date and location, is made public for consumers, while other data, like exact movements along the supply chain, are kept confidential to help the company retain its competitive edge.

Facebook’s Libra cryptocurrency is another good example. It might go fully public in the future, but at the time of its launch, only a select number of companies that have invested and been approved will be allowed to operate it, and users may have to sign up with real identities.

Access controls

High customizability

An easier time changing to comply with regulations

Better energy-efficiency

Potentially better scalability

More centralized

Less transparent

More vulnerable to hacks and manipulation

More easily censored

Less anonymous

Which one is better?

Permissionless and permissioned blockchains are just branches of the same technology that have developed in response to different needs. Both of them are useful in their own way, and are, for most practical purposes, different technologies.

This means that the benefits brought by a permissionless blockchain don’t map directly over to permissioned systems, so just because a company says it’s using blockchain technology doesn’t necessarily mean it’s that much more private or decentralized than a traditional database. The permissioned-permissionless distinction is where the buzzword really starts to break down, making it a pretty important piece of the puzzle to know.

Image credits: blockchain workflow

Andrew Braun

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The Differences Between Pop3 And Imap

Some of us have numerous email addresses with services like Gmail, Hotmail and Yahoo to name a few. In such a situation, it may be preferable to have all email addresses managed by one email client for ease of accessibility instead of having to painstakingly check each one at a time. Internet Messaged Access Protocol (IMAP) and Post Office Protocol (POP3) are two methods of accessing mail stored on a server with a mail client such as Microsoft Outlook.

The main difference between these two protocols is that IMAP has a two way communication path, whereas POP3 has a one way communication path.

For IMAP: Emails you have marked “read” in your mail client would be updated on the mail server and the subsequent changes appear in your webmail inbox. Even if you are performing these actions offline, the changes will be reflected online as soon as you have reconnected to the Internet and your mail application has synchronized with the server.

For POP3: Any emails you may have read may still show as “new” in your webmail inbox, and any replies you have sent may not be in your webmail sent items (depending on your provider and how you configure the POP account). This pronounced contrast can cause great inconvenience to some users who may prefer that their mail client and mail server are properly synchronized to lessen confusion and avoid repeating the same exercise.

People who are forced to use a POP3 account (for work, for example), may be able to use a proxy approach to get around POP3’s limitations. Many services, like Hotmail or Gmail, allow you to add an external POP3 account which will be automatically synchronized with your webmail platform. This means you could use the web-based mail service via IMAP in your mail client and all changes would be synchornized to the server, preventing unnecessary duplication.

The question now remains, which is the preferred protocol? POP3 or IMAP? It really does depend on how you use your emails. If you are the type of person that access your email account from multiple locations (thereby random PCs) and would like to ensure all changes you make are automatically synchronized online, then IMAP is your preferred option. If you are a user that only accesses your email from one location and is not particularly anxious about storage space on their computer (downloading emails), then POP3 would be recommended.

Image credit: Two Sided Arrow Road Sign by BigStockPhoto


JJ runs a company that specialises in IT Support and cloud IT Solutions in Australia. He also moonlights as a tech blogger.

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Differences Between A Plc And An Rtu

You may have heard of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), but what do these devices actually do? And more importantly, which one do you need for your business?

PLCs are used to control machines by reading input signals and executing pre-determined programs in order to achieve a specific output. RTUs, on the other hand, are used to collect data from machines and send it back to a central location for analysis.

Depending on your needs and level of complexity, there is an automation device that can provide you with complete control over your operations while keeping costs low.

Don’t worry, we’re here to help. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the differences between a PLC and an RTU. Once you’ve finished reading, you’ll be able to confidently choose the right device for your needs.

What is a PLC?

A PLC (programmable logic controller) is a type of industrial computer that controls and monitors industrial processes. They are used extensively in manufacturing and process industries and can be found in a variety of applications, such as water and wastewater, oil and gas, metals and mining, and pharmaceuticals.

A PLC is typically used to control a process or sequence of processes, such as a manufacturing line or an assembly line. They can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks, such as starting and stopping a process, regulating the flow of materials through a process, and detecting faults in a process.

On the downside, they’re more expensive than RTUs. They also require more programming and maintenance and can be harder to use for some operators.

What is an RTU?

An RTU, or Remote Terminal Unit, is a type of PLC, or Programmable Logic Controller. It’s a compact device that monitors and controls a process at a remote location.

RTUs are often used in industrial settings, where conditions are too harsh or too dangerous for people to be present. They’re also used when there’s a need to monitor or control a process over a large area.

RTUs can be used to monitor and control everything from temperature and pressure to the speed of a motor. They can also be used to activate or deactivate equipment based on preset conditions.

On the downside, an RTU can be expensive to install and maintain. They also tend to rely on aging technology, which means they can be slower than other systems. Additionally, since they are not as capable as PLCs in terms of processing power and data storage, this may limit their usefulness for certain applications.

Differences between PLCs and RTUs

The following table highlights the major differences between PLC and RTU −




Programs and operating systems

PLCs are typically programmed with a computer.

RTUs can be programmed on-site or remotely. RTUs also tend to use proprietary software, making them more expensive than PLCs.


PLCs consist of a processor and multiple input and output devices connected to it.

An RTU can be a standalone device or device networked with multiple distributed controllers.

Power sources

PLCs require lower wattage because they are typically used in industrial settings and only need to operate for short periods of time.

RTUs require higher wattage because they need to remain powered for long periods of time in order to monitor remote locations.

What Scenarios Are Better Suited for PLCs or RTUs?

Now that you have a better understanding of the differences between a PLC and an RTU, it’s time to decide which one is the better option for your needs. Here are some scenarios that are better suited for PLCs or RTUs.

When it comes to larger projects, such as controlling electrical power distribution or a factory assembly line, a PLC is typically the better choice. The PLC’s powerful computing capabilities make it ideal for these types of large-scale controls.

On the other hand, when you need to remote control and monitor equipment in more remote locations, such as wind turbines or solar power systems, an RTU is often the better option.

The RTU has added features like data logging and communication protocols that make it more suitable for these types of projects.

Uses of PLCs and RTUs

Now let’s dive into the uses of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Remote Telemetry Units (RTUs). PLCs are primarily used in industrial settings, while RTUs are more often used in remote monitoring applications.

PLCs serve as the workhorse of any industrial process. They’re used to communicate with the sensors, control valves, motors and other components that make up an automated process. This allows them to control operations like mixing liquids or opening and closing gates, for example. They’re also able to read analog values from sensors like temperature or voltage, helping them to carry out decisions or respond to changing conditions.

On the other hand, RTUs are designed for remote monitoring applications. They’re typically used to collect data from devices around a wide area network, such as water pumps and wind turbines. The data collected by the RTU is then sent back to a central location for analysis and monitoring. Additionally, they can be used for alarm notification systems or control of remote actuators like switches or valves when required.


In the industrial world, there are two main types of controllers that are used to manage machines − programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and remote terminal units (RTUs). While both have their own specific functions, many people don’t know the difference between the two.

Well, that depends on your specific needs. If you need to control machines by reading input signals and executing programs, then a PLC is the right choice for you. If you need to collect data from machines and send it back to a central location for analysis, then an RTU is the right choice for you.

What Are Differences And Similarities Between The Indian Council Act 1861 1892 1909


The British government passed the Indian Council Acts in 1861, 1892, and 1909, which were significant pieces of legislation for the administration of British India. These actions had a big impact on the political landscape of India and how the British government interacted with the Indian population.

In this article we will tell you about What are differences and Similarities between the Indian Council Act [1861,1892,1909]? These laws all had different clauses and goals, but they also had some things in common.

What Was the Indian Councils Act 1861?

The Indian Councils Act 1861 was an Act of the British Parliament that changed the executive council of India into a cabinet that utilized the portfolio system. The British government wanted to involve the Indian people in the drafting of laws, so it was introduced. On August 1st, 1861, this Act was passed.

Main Provisions of the Act:

By involving Indians in the legislative process, it created the first representative institutions. Viceroy nominated some Indians to be non-official members of his expanded council.

Raja of Benaras, the maharaja of Patiala, and Sir Dinkar Rao were nominated by Lord Canning.

Bombay and Madras’ legislative authority has been restored.

New legislative councils being established for Punjab, North Western Frontier Province, and Bengal

Viceroy could establish procedures for easy council business transactions.

It acknowledged Lord Canning’s “portfolio system.”

Drawbacks of the Act:

The Act’s biggest flaw involved the choice and function of the Additional Members.

The Indian members were not allowed to vote against any bills, and most bills were passed in a single session without debate.

What Was Indian Councils Act 1892?

The British Parliament passed the Indian Councils Act 1892, which made a number of changes to the make-up and duties of legislative councils in British India. The number of members in the central and provincial councils was increased most significantly by the act.

Main Provisions of the Act:

Members were no longer prohibited from voting on the budget or posing follow-up questions, but they could now discuss it.

The Secretary of State for India must give his or her consent before the Governor-General in Council can establish any member nomination guidelines.

made a stipulation for the indirect and limited use of elections to fill non-official positions in central and provincial councils.

Nomination for non-official members of the central legislative council (based on recommendations from district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamindars, and chambers), as well as governors for the provincial legislative council

Drawbacks of The Act

The annual budget was not subject to Indian control.

It prohibited the INC from having discussions about financial issues.

People were not allowed to ask any more questions.

What Was the Indian Councils Act of 1909?

The Indian Councils Act of 1909 was also known as the Morley-Minto reforms, after the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs, Lord John Morley, and the Viceroy, Lord Minto.

It first used the election method in an effort to broaden the authority of legislative councils, satisfy the demands of the Indian National Congress’s moderates, and increase Indian participation in governance.

Main Provisions of the Act

The Central and Provincial Legislative Councils increased considerably in size. The Central Legislative Council now has 60 members instead of its previous 16 members.

It allowed the provincial legislative councils to have a non-official majority while retaining official majority in the Central Legislative Council.

The elected representatives were to be chosen by proxy. The central legislature’s members would be chosen by the local bodies after an electoral college selected members of the provincial legislatures.

Drawbacks of This Act

The gap between Muslims and Hindus was widened by the establishment of separate seats.

An openly communist era in Indian politics began under this regime.

Even though the Provincial Councils had an unofficial majority, the election of nominated members overruled the unofficial majority, making the outcome irrelevant.

The ICA,1861 The ICA,1892 The ICA,1909

Definition It changed the executive council of India into a cabinet that utilized the portfolio system. The number of members in the central and provincial councils was increased most significantly by the act. It allowed the provincial legislative councils to have a non-official majority while retaining official majority in the Central Legislative Council.

Drawback The Act’s biggest flaw involved the choice and function of the Additional Members. The annual budget was not subject to Indian control.

The gap between Muslims and Hindus was widened by the establishment of separate seats.

Similarities Between the Indian Council Act [1861,1892,1909]

The British government introduced all three of these acts to alter the way India was run.

The laws expanded the pool of Indians who were eligible to take part in politics and government.

Additionally, they increased the legislative councils’ authority in India by giving them more power to discuss and debate laws.


Q1. What is the difference between Indian Council Act 1861 and 1892?

Ans: The Indian Council Act of 1861 established the government’s portfolio system, under which five members were assigned to various departments, and the Indian Council Act of 1892 granted members the authority to inquire about finances and the budget.

Q2. What was the Indian Council Act 1892?

Ans: The Indian Councils Act 1892, passed by the British Parliament, increased the number of legislative councils in India. The members also had access to ask questions about the budget. It signalled the beginning of India’s move towards a representative system of government.

Q3. What was the main objective of the Indian Council Act 1861?

Ans: Lord Canning proposed the 1861 Indian Councils Act. The primary goal of this Act was to establish an institutionalized council that includes Indians. The British intended to enlist Indian support through this Act.

What Is The Relationship Between Poker And Cryptocurrency

Trading cryptocurrency is similar to gambling. However, there is also a skill component. Top traders evaluate the risk-reward ratio and the harness techniques that have been learned to increase their profits. Trading cryptocurrency is a lot like playing poker, but with a little more skill and luck.

As the bear market for cryptocurrency continues to drag on, people who have made a lot of money with cryptocurrency are now looking to diversify. They may not be able to use the skills they acquired trading cryptocurrency as an expert in gambling. They do have the skills to cross over.

People have also played poker, and have also used cryptocurrencies. Because there is so much money to be made or lost, the adrenaline rush is common in these industries.

You can play cryptocurrency poker and win the same cryptocurrency if you’re successful. However, it is important to manage the regulatory issues surrounding crypto and the strict regulations, even though it can be tricky.

The Impact of Bitcoin Poker Online

The acceptance of cryptocurrency in the online poker industry can be traced back to in 2011 Black Friday when the US Department of Justice indicted 3 key figures in online poker. After major payment processors such as Neteller started leaving online gambling, major sites were shut down. The same thing happened to banks, who began refusing to accept deposits. Gamblers were unable to send or receive money.

A group of professionals began looking for an alternative financial tool, one that would allow players to connect directly with poker sites. The most viable option was cryptocurrency. Poker rooms were created to eliminate middlemen such as banks and accept cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin was difficult to acquire and a foreign concept until then. Either people would need to trade cash for the cryptocurrency, or they would have the opportunity to mine it. As time went on, online casinos and poker sites embraced this easier method of payment.

Why do Poker Sites Love Cryptocurrency so Much?

You may have noticed that Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency on the market. Others include Ethereum, Litecoin, and others. Many cryptocurrencies are accepted by poker sites.

There are many reasons why cryptocurrency poker sites are so popular. Let’s look at some of the reasons.

Nobody controls cryptocurrency

One of the main reasons that gambling sites have moved to cryptocurrency is that there are no restrictions on payments. The government banned gambling businesses from operating within the states where online gambling was illegal after the Black Friday events. Banks complied with law firms, and many transactions involving offshore gambling were rejected. However, the government cannot influence cryptocurrency as much as it can banks and financial institutions. Customers can withdraw and deposit cryptocurrency without interference.

Lower Fees

Trending Cryptocurrency

It is clear that cryptocurrency is a hot trend. They are attracting interest from people all over the world. Many people have begun to use this currency. Many new online poker sites are using cryptocurrency provisions to attract the curious crowd.

Future of Cryptocurrency and Online Poker

Online poker sites are likely to continue using cryptocurrency. You should be aware of several key aspects that will impact cryptocurrency’s future.

Also read:

Top 10 Programming Languages for Kids to learn

Regulations of the Government

Government regulations can be used to identify scams and regulate the cryptocurrency industry. This can help make crypto and poker more productive. This can encourage poker websites to accept cryptocurrency for financing.

Transaction Speed and Cost

Bottom Line

The future of cryptocurrency is uncertain. The decentralized currency will continue to exist as long as there are unregulated markets. It is not as popular in those areas where online gambling has been legalized. These countries will allow people to gamble without restrictions using other financial instruments.

Difference Between Asthma And Croup

Asthma and croup are two respiratory conditions that affect children and adults. Although both conditions involve the airways and can cause difficulty breathing, there are some key differences between asthma and croup.

What is Asthma?

In those with asthma, persistent inflammation causes a narrowing of the airways (bronchi). Both children and adults are vulnerable to this issue.

Symptoms − Common signs and symptoms include wheezing, coughing, and chest discomfort. In extreme circumstances, there may also be significant difficulty breathing, which may worsen over time.

Diagnosis − The condition can be diagnosed with the use of a physical examination and pulmonary function tests that demonstrate airflow restriction. Eosinophils are a kind of white blood cell that can be detected in blood tests when they are present in excess of their usual range.

Causes − Asthma may be brought on by a variety of conditions, and it does appear that genetics have a role. Environmental and dietary allergens have both been implicated as possible triggers for asthma attacks.

Risk factors and complications − Asthma appears to run in families, so having a parent or sibling with the condition raises your odds of developing it yourself. Smoking and being exposed to environmental allergens or chemical irritants can raise the risk. Individuals who are obese are also at higher risk of having the illness. Asthma may be deadly, so it’s important to get treatment and keep it under control.

Prevention and treatment − There should be no exposure to environmental substances that might potentially precipitate an assault. Asthma attacks can be averted by taking precautions such as obtaining a flu shot and avoiding contact with ill individuals. Inhalers containing bronchodilators are commonly used to treat people with asthma. Adding corticosteroid drugs can be helpful since they reduce airway inflammation.

What is Croup?

Termites are a type of social insect that may be found all over the globe. Their nesting spots include the insides of tree trunks and underground tunnels with easy access to water. Termites are notoriously damaging pests because of their habit of constructing underground nests within wooden structures. They are great for the environment since they return cellulose to the natural cycle.


Warm, wet environments are preferred by termites. Vancouver, on the west coast, is the northernmost of these cities in North America. To the north, they disappear in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Ontario, but they’re still present in Main and the eastern provinces of Canada on the Atlantic coast. Their range in Europe is limited to the southern half of the continent, mostly between the Mediterranean and the north coast of France. In the north, they can be found in the islands of Japan and South Korea in eastern Asia.

Invasive termite species have spread all across the world as a result of international commerce. Termites from both the Pacific Islands and East Asia have been discovered in the American mainland, whereas North American termites have been discovered in Vienna, Switzerland.

The local ecosystem is more suited to their native counterparts than the invasive species. Thus, they frequently seek safety in man-made structures. This is why invading termite species pose the greatest threat. Although while only around 10% of termites are considered pests, they nonetheless do a lot of damage to homes, furniture, and other wood structures, as well as to some very essential plants. Major efforts have been made to slow their progress.


Termites live in intricate social structures with several castes because they are eusocial. There will be a couple of reproductive termites in each colony, as well as workers, soldiers, and young termites (called nymphs). When termites have not yet reached maturity, we call them nymphs. Termite nymphs can be influenced to become workers, soldiers, or reproductives by pheromones if there is a shortage of a certain caste. The reproductives may create new colonies or replace the present reproductive couple if necessary, but the workers and soldiers can’t reproduce and must be replaced.

Launching colonies

Members of the termite colony’s reproductive caste are those tasked with creating new termites. They have wings for their first flight, which they afterwards discard, since they must explore the outside world to select a suitable spot for a new colony. They have thick hides and enormous compound eyes. In order to start a new colony, the fertile individuals will be carried to a remote area of the nest and released into the open. While they have a little ability to fly, they rely on the wind for the majority of their travel.

Upon arrival, the male and female pair up and begin searching for a suitable nesting location. When they do, they’ll start constructing a nest and laying eggs. The female will gradually gain weight until she is a massive egg laying machine, producing thousands of eggs every day. In order to ensure the survival of the colony, the king and queen will keep having children.

The colony’s young are looked after and the nest is tended to by the monarch and queen at first. They will be taken over by nymphs and labourers while the king and queen focus on having children.

Other castes

Both big mandibles for fighting predators and a long, narrow nose for firing chemicals at enemies will be standard equipment for these warriors. To protect the nest, soldiers are relied upon heavily. Staff members will have pliable frames and massive jaws for eating. A worker’s duties include foraging for food, constructing and repairing the nest, and preparing meals for the colony.

Termite nests

There are two main types of termite nests: those made of wood and those made of underground tunnels. In the tropics, it’s not uncommon to come across termite mounds. Microclimates within the termite mounds will be warmer and more humid than the surrounding area.

Termite mounds provide a safe haven for other insects like flies and beetles. Some of these visitors really help the termites out by secreting compounds they require. Fungal mycelia are another source of nutrition for termites. Termites engage in a rudimentary type of domestication in this way.

Differences: Asthma and Croup

The following table highlights the major differences between Asthma and Croup −





Asthma is when the bronchi of the airways are inflamed.

Croup is when any part of the respiratory tract is inflamed by a virus.

Duration of the condition

Asthma is always a chronic problem that does not go away.

Croup is a short-term, acute problem that does go away.


The diagnosis of asthma is based on a physical exam, blood tests, and lung challenge tests.

The diagnosis of croup is based on the physical symptoms that are present.


Symptoms of asthma include a tight chest, wheezing, and problems with breathing.

Symptoms of croup include a barking cough that gets worse at night.


Asthma is caused by genetic factors and environmental allergens.

Croup is caused by a viral infection.


Treatment for people with asthma includes using inhalers that have corticosteroids and bronchodilators in them.

Treatment for people with croup includes the use of humidified cool air, oxygen, corticosteroids, and epinephrine.


Asthma and croup are two respiratory conditions that can cause difficulty breathing. Although both conditions affect the airways, there are some key differences between asthma and croup, including the cause of the symptoms, age group affected, symptoms, and treatment.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing difficulty breathing to determine the underlying cause and receive the appropriate treatment.

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