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For years Adobe Flash Player was the heart of multimedia content on the web. If it had video, animation, or interactivity, it was probably Flash. On December 31, 2023, Adobe stopped all support for Flash Player, removing it from Microsoft Windows and Apple macOS, rendering all Flash content on the web inoperable, and bringing about the death of Flash plugins.

Well, that’s not entirely true. As we explain in How To Play Flash Files After 2023, there are many ways to access Flash content that modern browsers won’t play. The Flash Game Archive is one such project, and they’re working hard to preserve Flash games specifically.

Table of Contents

What Is the Flash Game Archive?

The FGA is a preservation project to save as many Flash video games as possible. They’ve created a standalone application that plays these Flash games through emulation and using the original Flash player software. The application also works as a launcher for the game collection and offers information about each title.

If you look inside the FGA application folder, you’ll find copies of various Flash Player Executables and Ruffle. Ruffle is an excellent Flash emulator that third-party users, such as FGA’s developers, can use to run Flash games or Flash animations on modern hardware and operating systems. It works by translating Flash to modern HTML5 and is generally effective.

Why Archive Flash Games?

It’s easy to think of Flash games as disposable curiosities. However, Flash games from sites like Newgrounds represent a crucial era in the early days of the web. We saw something similar happen in the early days of cinema.

People didn’t think movies were valuable or important, so most early films are now lost to time. The internet will be with humanity for as long as we’re a high-tech society, so preserving internet artifacts representing a specific time and place in its history is inherently valuable.

The FGA Philosophy

For many of the reasons listed above, the FGA believes that preserving Flash games is worth doing. Their main argument is that a thriving emulator community helps keep console games alive long after the consoles themselves are gone, but there’s no console for Flash games.

FGA Is Small

One of the most popular solutions to accessing Flash games today is Bluemaxima’s Flashpoint Infinity. However, the installation size for Flashpoint varies from a few gigabytes to several hundred gigabytes!

In contrast, FGA’s download comes in at under 50MB, and you only need to use disk space and bandwidth for the specific games you’re interested in playing. As you select games from the available titles, they’ll download to your computer.

How to Use FGA

Using the FGA applications is easy to understand on your own, but why beat around the bush? Here’s how to get into a game as quickly as possible:

    Download the latest version of FGA. It’s Windows-only. Sorry Linux and macOS users!

    Unzip the folder you’ve downloaded.

    Run Flash Game Archive 2.

      On the app’s home screen, select Categories.

        Pick any category you’d like.

          Select a game from the list, such as 3 Foot Ninja.

            Select the Play button.

            You can favorite a game by selecting the heart icon on its page. Then when you go to Favorites on the home screen, you’ll see all the titles you’ve shortlisted. You can also find games by searching for them or checking the Featured section on the home screen to see which games Patrons and developers think everyone should know about.

            Configuring FGA

            Flash Game Archive doesn’t have many settings for you to tweak, but they’re worth highlighting.

            At the top right of the home screen, you’ll see several resolution presets for the app. Simply pick the one that matches your screen, or choose one below your screen’s native resolution if you want it in a smaller window.

            If you select Settings from the app’s home screen, you’ll have the option to allow all Flash games.

            This restores the removed functionality from Microsoft Windows, where otherwise, the OS might block the games. You can also undo that settings change and fix it with the Restore Old Settings button on the right-hand side.

            Contributing Games to the Archive

            You can upload Flash games to the archive using the Upload option on the website. All the files required to run the game must be compressed into a single ZIP file and uploaded using that page. As far as we can tell, direct requests to add games to the archive are reserved for FGA Patreon subscribers.

            There’s not much information on that page about how the approval process works. Unfortunately, you also don’t get to provide personal details with the upload, so being a Patron is likely the way to go.

            What About Copyright?

            Most Flash games in the FGA are made by individuals or small groups of enthusiastic amateurs. Professional teams backed by large companies made some. Either way, these games are the intellectual property of their creators.

            Anyone can submit a game to the FGA, creating a situation where games end up in the archive when the copyright owner doesn’t want them to. FGA has a dedicated page where copyright holders can request that a game be removed from the library. This is essentially an “ask for forgiveness later” approach, but it’s impossible to seek out the copyright holder for every flash game. Most of these games have anonymous authors who can’t be tracked down.

            Supporting the Flash Game Archive

            The Flash Game Archive is free for everyone to download and use, but it does cost money to develop and maintain software like this. So, FGA relies on the support of like-minded people and allows you to donate money through cryptocurrency or a Patreon subscription.

            There are three tiers: Grey, Blue, and Gold. These cost $5, $10, and $20 per month. All three tiers get their names put in the software, but if you are a Gold Patreon, you can request that games you care about are placed in the Featured section, so more people will likely play them.

            The FGA Discord

            FGA’s Discord is packed with features. There are channels to donate money, request features, and learn how to change the default password (it’s just “password”). There’s even an FAQ that covers the most common questions and misconceptions about FGA.

            Playing Your Own SWF Files

            If you have your own SWF Flash game files, you can load them directly using the FGA application. All you have to do is select Load Local SWF from the app’s main menu.

            You can choose which Flash versions to use for maximum compatibility, but the developers have not done anything to ensure the game runs properly.

            You can find SWF files all over the internet, but we recommend you look first in the Internet Archive’s Flash Game Library.

            More Than Flash Games

            Although the FGA is mainly about preserving and letting us play flash games, there’s also a collection of Flash animations. These might be interactive, but they aren’t games. Still, they have the same overall historical value as Flash games, and much of internet culture history is locked up in these animations. If you want to see the FGA collection of Animations, scroll right on the home screen to reveal them.

            Adult Content on FGA

            If you haven’t noticed, FGA has many adult Flash games and animation. You mustn’t let underage or sensitive users access FGA. While these categories are password-protected, looking up the default password or how to change it is easy. It’s as simple as opening the Password text file in the FGA folder and editing the contents with Notepad.

            There is no version of the FGA we could find that does not include this explicit content, so a responsible adult should always supervise it.

            You're reading The Flash Game Archive: Everything You Need To Know

            Amazon S3: Everything You Need To Know

            This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


            AWS has seven types of storage services which include Elastic Block Storage (EBS), Amazon FSx for Lustre, Elastic File System (EFS), Amazon S3 Glacier, Simple Storage Service (S3), Amazon FSx for Windows File Server, and AWS Storage Gateway

            Amazon Simple Storage Service, commonly called Amazon S3, is the most popular and one of the first services introduced by AWS. It stores data of any type or size and supports all file formats. Amazon S3 helps in content distribution, performing analytics on data, backup, and recovery for cloud-based applications.

            What is Amazon S3?

            Amazon S3 is an efficient cloud storage service with high security, reliability, and scalability focusing on object-based storage.

            S3 is a flexible, cost-effective data storage with REST and SOAP interfaces. It can be integrated with other AWS services like Amazon RDS, EC2, Cloud Front, etc. Amazon S3 has a web-based user interface that helps store and retrieve data from anywhere on the internet.

            How Does Amazon S3 Work?

            S3 has the following components :




            It is the top-level element of S3 and can be thought of as an object container, where the object denotes basic storage unit. In other words, the bucket is a logical container storing data in Amazon S3 buckets. They can be addressed in the following ways:

            Buckets can be managed in the following ways:

             AWS SDK (Software Development Kit)

             Amazon S3 REST API

            Features of Bucket:

            It does not support nesting, meaning a bucket can’t contain another.

            Users can choose the location of their choice for the creation of a bucket.

            Users can create policies and permissions which restrict access to buckets.

            Bucket deletion is possible through a DELETE request.

            The bucket can be deleted only when it contains no objects, meaning it should be empty.


            It represents the basic data storage element in S3 buckets. The object has the following components:

            Key: It is the unique identifier that identifies each object in a bucket. Key denotes the name of the object. It is the string that indicates a hierarchy of directories. Using the key, it is possible to retrieve objects in the bucket

            Value: It is the actual content that needs to be stored. It is made up of a sequence of bytes.

            Metadata: It is the data about data that are being stored. It denotes a set of name-value pairs that stores data about an object.

            Version ID: It is the system-generated string that uniquely identifies a specific version of an object

            Access control list: It controls access to objects or files stored in S3 by granting permissions.

            Amazon S3 Storage Classes

            The different S3 storage classes are:

            S3 Standard

            S3 Standard-IA

            S3 Intelligent-Tiering

            S3 One Zone-IA

            S3 Glacier

            S3 Glacier Deep Archive

            S3 Standard:

            It is the default and the most expensive storage, class. It supports cloud migration processes to other classes, website hosting, and big data analytics. This is the best option when frequent data access is necessary.

            S3 Standard-IA (Infrequent access):

            It is good for backups, long-term storage, and disaster recovery-based use cases. It has a lower price for data and it is used when data is rarely accessed.

            S3 Intelligent-Tiering:

            It delivers automatic cost savings by moving data to the most cost-effective access tier, without having an impact on performance. In other words, it moves data between the Infrequent Access Tier and Frequent Access Tier.

            S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA):

            It is good for data that is used infrequently but requires rapid access. It is helpful in secondary backup storage.

            S3 Glacier:

            This service stores data as archives where data access is infrequent. It provides low-cost and long-life archive storage. Also, it uses server-side encryptions to encrypt all data.

            S3 Glacier Deep Archive:

            It is the lowest-cost storage class and provides long-term data retention where data access is infrequent. Also, it has a minimum storage period of 90 days. It has 99.9% availability over a given year.

            Why Amazon S3?

            Amazon S3 automatically creates multiple data replicas, so it is never lost.

            High security involves encryption features and access management tools that prevent unauthorized access.

            Able to store large files of a size limit of 5 TB.

            Less cost because of the pay-as-you-go model. Users have to pay depending on the amount of storage and time they use on S3.

            Easy to manage because the resources can be managed through GUI (Graphical User Interface), CLI (Command Line Interface), and API (Application Program Interface).

            S3 keeps multiple copies of a file to track changes over time, thus supporting versioning.

            Objects can be created on the location of the user’s choice.

            Highly durable hence data loss is much lesser. S3 provides object durability of “99.99999999999%”

            Amazon S3 Use Cases

            Some of the use cases of amazon S3 include:

            Static Website Hosting:

            Amazon S3 helps in hosting static websites. Hence users can use their domain. Serverless Web Applications can be developed using S3 and by using generated URLs, users can access the application.

            Backup & Recovery:

            Amazon S3 helps create backups and archive critical data by supporting Cross Region Replication. Due to versioning, which stores multiple versions of each file, it is easy to recover the files.

            Low-cost data archiving:

            It is possible to move data archives to certain levels of AWS S3 services like Glacier storage classes, which is one of the cheap and durable archiving solutions for compliance purposes; thus, data can be retained for a longer time

            Security and Compliance:

            Amazon S3 provides multiple levels of security, including Data Access Security, Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies, Access Control Lists (ACLs), etc. It supports compliance features for HIPAA/HITECH, Data Protection Directive, FedRAMP, and others.


            Amazon S3 is an efficient object-based storage service used with REST and SOAP interfaces. Organizations can use this service for storing data relating to any business, such as web or mobile applications, analytics, backup, etc. Some companies using S3 are Siemens, Invista, Bristol Meyers Squibb, etc.

            Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is an online file storage service by AWS.

            S3 is fully scalable, efficient, fast, and reliable.

            Basic storage units of Amazon S3 are called objects organized into buckets.

            Different S3 storage classes comprise S3 Standard, S3 Standard-IA, S3 Intelligent-Tiering, S3 One Zone-IA, S3 Glacier, and S3 Glacier Deep Archive.

            The areas where S3 proved useful include static website hosting, backup & recovery, low-cost data archiving, security and compliance.

             The media shown in this article is not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion.


            Everything You Need To Know About 360

            Video comes in all sorts of aspect ratios, such as 16:9 widescreen and 21:9 ultra widescreen. These are pretty immersive, but what about a video that spans a whole 360-degree around you? 

            Yes, it’s possible to make spherical video that really puts the viewer right in the middle of the action, but obviously the equipment that we use to make more traditional video isn’t the right solution. So if you’re interested in either making or consuming 360-degree video, here’s everything that you need to know.

            Table of Contents

            360-Degree Video Is Not (Exactly) VR

            However, since 360-degree videos are not interactive or computer-generated, there is some debate as to what extent we can really lump them in with VR. So while the convention might be to refer to this media format as VR video, it’s good to know that a clear distinction exists.

            Why Choose 360-Degree Video?

            Every aspect ratio or format of video has its own unique attributes that make it suitable for one purpose or another. As has been said many times before, the medium is the message.

            This type of video is perfect when you want to convey what it feels like to stand in a particular place. Unlike traditional video, the viewer in a 360-degree video gets to choose what deserves attention. You can’t direct their viewpoint through framing as with traditional video formats.

            That means it’s best to use this video format for content that doesn’t rely on precise framing and benefit most from immersion. Training videos are one good example, as are concerts and theatre performances. Action sports videos have also become a popular medium and tours of places like museums or other travel locations are also perfect for 360-degree video.

            That doesn’t mean you can’t use this immersive video to tell a story, but it needs a new visual vocabulary to properly guide the story, something they didn’t teach in film school in the past for obvious reasons.

            Camera Types

            As you can imagine, a normal camera isn’t going to produce this sort of surround video. You need a special setup in order to capture spherical video. There is no standard for this though. Some rigs are literally several regular cameras stuck together. Then special software is used to stitch the various overlapping camera feeds into one 360-degree video.

            There are now also specialized 360- and 180- degree cameras that use fish-eye lenses to bend the incoming image onto a standard sensor. Software then undoes the known distortion of the lens to provide a clear image, but one that give you a surround view of what was filmed.

            In general, the fewer cameras needed to create the final image, the more seamless it will look. Using makeshift multi-camera rigs makes it much more likely that there will be stitching errors. Which show up as visible cuts in the final image, where things don’t quite line up.

            For the regular person on the street, something like the Insta360 line of smartphone-attached cameras is a good place to start.

            Computer-Generated 360-Degree Video

            Using cameras isn’t the only way to generate 360-degree video. You’ll find plenty of examples that are made using 3D animation software or from video games using a custom field of view that encompasses 180- or 360- degrees. 

            Obviously it’s pretty simple to create stereoscopic video this way as well, since you have full control over the rendered world. It’s also a good way to bring non-interactive CG experiences to hardware platforms that have no hope of running them natively on local hardware.

            Monoscopic & Stereoscopic Video

            Another major subdivision within 360-degree video formats is between monoscopic and stereoscopic video. Basically, monoscopic footage isn’t in 3D. Although you have a giant video that surrounds you as a viewer, it’s still flat. Stereoscopic 360-degree video gives each eye it’s own unique feed, which your brain interprets as a 3D image.

            Obviously 3D video is more compelling, but it’s much more complex when it comes to equipment. Basically, you need two independent 360-degree cameras, mounted at precisely the right distance from each other. Cameras that can shoot stereoscopic video like this are quite a bit more expensive, so most of the video you’ll find is the non-3D kind right now.

            Editing 360-Degree Video

            Fundamentally, 360-degree video is no different than any other digital video file. So, in principle, you can edit it with any software that can read the video codec used to encode it. However, the video is going to look like a distorted mess, shown as a normal frame.

            Software designed to edit or play this type of video warps the footage into the correct spherical form, so that everything looks the way it should. Which means it’s best if you use an editing suite that knows how to do this. 

            More often than not, your camera will come bundled with some sort of editor. What specific features are present will depend on the app in question.

            Professional editing packages such as Adobe Premiere and Final Cut Pro natively support editing 180-degree and 360-degree video, as do other mainline video editing solutions. If you already have one of these programs, you may find you can also already work with this format.

            Supported Platforms

            So, once you have recorded and edited your 360-degree masterpiece, where can you actually upload it for other people to watch? Believe it or not, YouTube already supports several formats of 360-degree video.

            There are also several apps for mobile devices that also support 360-degree video, but of course the user has to download the video to their device and can’t stream it.

            Watching 360-Degree Video

            The other way is to simply watch the video on a normal screen. On desktops, you can look around by using the mouse and on mobile phones you can swipe with a finger or use the phone’s built-in motion sensors.

            Our Favorite Examples Of 360-Degree Video

            Now that you know the most important information about this exciting video format, the only thing left to do is highlight some excellent examples of video you can try out for yourself right now.

            Starting off with an example of live music performances, check out Childish Gambino’s “Me and Your Mama”. The camera I set low to simulate being at the show, but other videos even put the camera on stage so you can stand with the musicians and see the massive crowds.

            This promotional video for the new Doctor Who series is both an example of a CG video and a narrative video. You don’t even have to be a fan of the show to appreciate how cool this concept is.

            Galaxy S23: Everything You Need To Know About The Smartphones

            The Galaxy S22 series will be replaced by the Galaxy S23 and its Plus and Ultra variants. We are still eagerly awaiting these newcomers to the most well-liked premium range of the Android ecosystem. Will we be entitled to a modest evolution or to significant changes and innovation? In this detailed Galaxy S23 article, you can find the answer to this question.

            Galaxy S23 release date

            When it comes to the release of smartphones for its main series, Samsung adheres to a very strict schedule. The South Korean manufacturer habitually releases its Galaxy S in February. Because it no longer exhibits at the MWC in Barcelona, where it previously unveiled its new models at the end of February for marketing in March. Recall that on February 9 at the Unpacked conference, the Galaxy S22, S22+, and S22 Ultra were unveiled before going on sale on February 25.

            Samsung, however, has a good chance of releasing the Galaxy S23 earlier than expected. The three new models could very well be released early in 2023, in January. This would be consistent with Qualcomm’s announcements that its upcoming Snapdragon Summit conference will take place in mid-November rather than early December. Samsung will probably have access to chips earlier than in previous years, just like other manufacturers.

            A poster from the Korean carrier KT states that the smartphones will be unveiled starting on December 23 (or even the day before). With general availability in stores beginning on January 6, 2023. It will be interesting to see if this leak is verified.

            Galaxy S23’s prices

            Galaxy S22:

            8GB + 128GB: $799/£769/€879

            8GB + 256GB: $849/£819/€929

            8GB + 128GB: $999/£949/€1,079

            8GB + 256GB: $1,049/£999/€1,129

            Galaxy S22 Ultra:

            8GB + 128GB: $1,199/£1,149/€1,279

            12GB + 256GB: $1,299/£1,249/€1,379

            12GB + 512GB: $1,399/£1,329/€1,489

            12-GB + 1TB: $1,599/£1,499/€1,689

            Galaxy S23 design

            Samsung is being fairly conservative with the design of its Galaxy S range of smartphones, similar to how Apple is with its iPhones. The Galaxy S22 Ultra, which replaced the Galaxy Note by including a slot for the S Pen stylus and adopting a less curved and more square design, was the most recent significant change. The Galaxy S23 Ultra will likely have an even more angular chassis than the S22 Ultra, according to the insider Ice Universe. The screen’s curved effect will also be less obvious.

            The Galaxy S23 series’ design will be very similar to what we already know for the most part. The punch will be back because there won’t be an under-screen selfie camera like on the Galaxy Z Fold 4. This generation confirms that the cameras are frequently the components that change the most between the two. The three cameras on the Galaxy S23 and S23+ protrude from the back cover of the smartphone, forming three distinct islands as a result.

            There will also be a small difference in the dimensions. According to OnLeaks, the Galaxy S23 will be 146.3 x 70.8 x 7.6 mm in size as opposed to the Galaxy S22’s 146.0 x 70.6 x 7.6 mm dimensions. Samsung will enlarge its smartphone slightly while keeping the thickness the same. As a result, and against all expectations, the screen’s borders will widen. The Galaxy S23 + should have dimensions of 157.7 x 76.1 x 7.6 mm compared to the Galaxy S22 +’s 157.4 x 75.8 x 7.64 mm. The smartphone is consequently 0.3 mm longer than its smaller variant, but it is also 0.3 mm wider. Therefore, the borders could become 0.15 mm thicker on each side.

            Unsurprisingly, the three smartphones will have IP68 certification, making them dust and water-resistant.

            Galaxy S23 screens

            For the S23 series, Samsung uses its top-level Super AMOLED display technologies. Thus, as has been the case since the Galaxy S21, Dynamic AMOLED 2X screens are HDR10 + compatible and provide a refresh rate of up to 120 Hz on all models. The Galaxy S23 Ultra’s screen has a resolution of 3088 x 1440 pixels (Quad HD +). While the Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus’s screens have 2340 x 1080 pixels (Full HD +). It is also classic in terms of sizes:

            Galaxy S23: 6.1 inches

            Galaxy S23+: 6.6 inches

            Galaxy-S23 Ultra: 6.8 inches

            The Galaxy S23 Ultra should once again be the only model with an LTPO 2.0 display, which will enable it to dynamically vary its refresh rate from 1 to 120 Hz in order to adapt to the content displayed and thereby save some battery.

            Samsung should install Qualcomm’s 3D Sonic Max, which is already found on the Vivo X80 Pro, under the screen of the S23 Ultra. This sensor can even register a fingerprint with a single tap and is faster and wider than other sensors. Additionally, it supports a security mode that uses two fingerprints at once.

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            Galaxy S23 performance

            It has been discussed for years that Samsung might stop using its Exynos chips in its high-end smartphones in Europe, and now it may actually happen. Exynos SoCs will not be offered by Samsung in 2023 or 2024. The manufacturer wants to take its time developing a new, high-performance chip for the market in 2025, as the Exynos has always struggled to compete with Qualcomm’s Snapdragon. The ultimate objective would be to compete with Apple, the industry leader and great champion.

            The South Korean company and Qualcomm have agreed to a multi-year strategic partnership for the delivery of chips. In order to prevent heating and preserve the battery, the S23 series will therefore ship with a Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC, which has been declared to be more effective than the Snapdragon 8 Gen 1 SoC, especially at the GPU level. The CFO at Qualcomm, Akash Palkhiwala, has also confirmed this.

            This year, Qualcomm would choose a 1+2+2+3 core configuration, with a Cortex-X3 Prime core running at 3.36 GHz, two Cortex-A715 cores, two Cortex-A710 cores, and three Cortex-A510 cores, all running at 2.0 GHz. This information has also been verified by the Galaxy S23’s initial Geekbench benchmark. The Galaxy S23 scored 1524 points on a single core and 4597 points when using multiple cores.

            In terms of connectivity, all Galaxy S23s are obviously 5G and Wi-Fi 6E compatible, but we might also be entitled to the new Wi-Fi 7 standard. The Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus have 8 GB of RAM, while the Galaxy S23 Ultra has 8 or 12 GB. The Galaxy S22 and S22+ also have a choice of 128 or 256 GB of internal storage. As opposed to 256, 512 GB, or 1 TB for the S23 Ultra.

            Galaxy S23 battery life

            We regretted the Galaxy S22’s somewhat limited autonomy. With the Galaxy S23, Samsung should make it right. The smartphones in the series are all a little bit bigger than the previous models, as was already mentioned. The brand should be able to increase the size of the battery built into two of its products by about 5% as a result of the space savings. The Galaxy S23’s battery would be about 3900 mAh in comparison to the Galaxy S22’s 3700 mAh. In addition, the Galaxy S23+’s battery would have a 4700 mAh capacity in comparison to the Galaxy S22 +’s 4500 mAh.

            Galaxy S23 camera

            Every year, the Galaxy S Ultra model is among the best smartphones available. And the Galaxy S23 Ultra should be no different. The 108 MP sensor that has been on the Ultra since the Galaxy S20 will be replaced with a new 200 MP photo module by Samsung this year, which is an innovation. But it shouldn’t be the well-known Samsung ISOCELL HP1, which we’ve seen in action on Xiaomi and Motorola smartphones. Instead, Samsung would create the ISOCELL HP2, an HP1 variant. With a smaller (1/1.3 inch) but still quite an effective sensor.

            Due to a more sophisticated pixel fusion technique, these 200 megapixels will not only enable you to take ultra-high-definition pictures but also produce images with more light. In fact, because this sensor has such a large number of pixels. It is now possible to combine many of them to create larger, brighter pixels while still maintaining a high resolution.

            Due to its highly developed night mode, some are already quick to proclaim that the Galaxy S32 Ultra will be the best smartphone for photography in 2023. The Galaxy S23 Ultra should retain the S22 Ultra’s optics, which include a 10 MP ultra-wide-angle lens, a 10 MP telephoto lens with optical image stabilization and optical zoom up to 3x, and a 10 MP periscopic lens with 10x optical zoom.

            Although it is unknown at this time whether a hardware upgrade is intended. The Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus would maintain a shared technical sheet with regard to the camera. A 50 MP ISOCELL GN5 main sensor, a 12 MP ultra wide-angle. And a 10 MP telephoto lens with a 3X optical zoom will be present if nothing changes.

            Since the Ultra model first debuted in the lineup, the front camera for selfies has always benefited from a 40 MP module. And that should continue to be the case. In recent years, the 10 MP lens on the Galaxy S22 and S22 Plus could be replaced with a 12 MP lens.

            Galaxy S23 software

            The Galaxy S23 series of smartphones will all debut with One UI 5, Samsung’s custom interface built on Android 13. The most recent version of the mobile operating system. In this version, the interface’s design is changed. The notification panel has been redesigned, and there are also new alert icons, slightly adjusted opacity for quick settings. And a change in the location of the box dialogue managing the user’s authorizations.

            The company has also improved the system’s animations and added new multitasking gestures. Optical character recognition, which recognizes text from images for simple copying and pasting, is one of the new features. The assessment of the WiFi connection’s quality for OneUI 5.0’s Internet connection is another innovation. It enables you to access a wealth of data on the performance of your home network, identify dead spots throughout your property, and guide the proper installation of Wi-Fi repeaters.

            5G In India: Everything You Need To Know

            While the US, South Korea, China, Japan, and many European countries have already launched commercial 5G services, in India, the reality looks bleak. India is one of the largest smartphone markets in the world and still, spectrum bidding for 5G has not yet begun. That said, after the peak of the pandemic, the government is looking to allocate new 5G spectrums to India’s major telecom operators — Jio, Airtel, and Vodafone Idea — in March 2023. So if you want to learn about the present status of 5G in India and what telecom operators are doing to bring 5G to the masses then go through our extensive explainer below.

            5G in India: The Development So Far (2023)

            Here, we are going to discuss all three major telecom operators in India — Jio, Airtel, and Vodafone Idea — and what their 5G gameplan is. But before that, I would strongly recommend you to go through our article on 5G bands: sub-6GHz and mmWave to fully understand what kind of 5G services are coming to India.

            Table Of Contents



            Vodafone Idea


            I am going to start with Jio as it’s currently the largest telecom operator in India and it’s being touted to bring the “true” 5G to the masses. First, let’s talk about what information is already available in the public domain. So far, Reliance has shown interest in offering 5G services in both mid-band and high-frequency mmWave bands. Reliance is looking to buy the 3.5GHz frequency band for mid-band 5G services and 24GHz and 26GHz for premium, gigabit 5G services.

            Looking at the choice, it’s clear Reliance wants to use the sub-6GHz channel to bring 5G services and not just relying on 4G spectrums to offer “improved” 5G services to users. As for mmWave, 24GHz and 26GHz frequency bands mean you will get unparalleled speed on Jio’s network.

            On top of that, Jio is claiming that it has built “indigenous 5G tech” which is hard to believe on the face. So let’s start with each claim and dissect what approach Reliance is taking to bring SA 5G in India. There are several ways to deploy 5G within SA and NSA modes, starting with Option 1 to Option 7. Jio is said to be using “Option 6” where the radio network and antennas are on 5G architecture, but still uses the 4G core, also called the EPC (Evolved Packet Core).

            As we have discussed in our 5G Bands article, this looks like an NSA 5G and not a full-fledged SA 5G. So what is Reliance pulling here? According to Satish Jamadagni, Vice President of Network Planning Engineering at Reliance Jio, the company will be virtualizing the 4G EPC through software to move it to the 5G core. And for precisely that, Reliance in 2023, acquired a US-based company called Radisys. The company has expertise in virtualization and OpenRAN technology (more on this below) and is likely to be the force behind Jio’s unique approach to 5G.

            The Indigenous 5G Solution of Jio

            Now coming to the “made in India 5G solution” claim, there is no clear picture as to how Jio is pulling this. In terms of 5G patents, Jio only has a total of 29 patents (not just 5G) whereas Huawei has over 3000 5G patents, followed by Samsung and ZTE standing around the 2800 mark. So it begs the question, how is Reliance asserting that it has built a 5G solution from scratch as it requires years of research and development?


            Recently, Airtel hogged the limelight by becoming the first telecom operator in India to have tested 5G on a commercial network in Hyderabad. It surely is a great sign of 5G “readiness” of Airtel, but we have to look beyond that. Airtel did the 5G test on its legacy 4G spectrum — 1.8GHz — which falls under the low-band 5G frequency band and it’s only slightly better than 4G. Airtel has stated that it’s going to use 1800MHz, 2300MHz, and 2100 MHz for low-band 5G services across India.

            As for mid-band frequency, Airtel is looking to bid spectrums between 3.3GHz – 3.6GHz for offering NSA sub-6GHz 5G services to its consumers. So far, there has been no news about Airtel procuring mmWave frequency bands so gigabit, ultra-low latency 5G will be a distant dream on Airtel’s network for a few coming years.

            Keep in mind, Airtel has been asked by the Supreme Court of India to pay the AGR Dues which runs into thousands of crores so the prospect of a wide 5G rollout across the country seems unlikely. Apart from that, on the procurement of radio equipment, Airtel is said to be preferring European vendors like Nokia and Ericsson over the Chinese vendors.

            Vodafone Idea

            Vodafone Idea has shown keen interest in the upcoming bidding process of 5G spectrums, but experts believe that its financials might not allow the company to buy spectrums between 3.3GHz – 3.6GHz. Along with Airtel, Vodafone Idea is also hit by AGR Dues and the company’s loss is widening day by day. Not to mention, Vodafone Idea’s 1800MHz spectrum license is about to get expired so in the next auction, Vodafone Idea will perhaps look to renew its license rather than buy new radio spectrums.

            Having said all of that, Vodafone Idea has stated that it has made changes in its infrastructure and is ready to roll out 5G whenever the spectrum becomes available. There has been a report saying that Vodafone India is doing trials on “Option 3 (LTE+5G core)” NSA 5G with Nokia. All in all, for now, we can conclude that Vodafone Idea might be able to get some tranche of sub-6GHz frequency band and perhaps offer its initial 5G services in a select few metropolises, but that is all.

            5G in India Explained: Jio, Airtel, and Vodafone Idea

            So that was our in-depth explainer on 5G in India and what major telecom operators are up to with their 5G preparedness. As we went through the article, it’s clear that Jio is looking to offer premium 5G services across the country and is moving in a unique direction. As for Airtel, you are likely to get sub-6GHz 5G in cities and low-band 5G in rural areas in the near future.

            Oneplus 8T Buyer’S Guide: Everything You Need To Know

            Ryan-Thomas Shaw / Android Authority

            The OnePlus 8T was one of the company’s high-end smartphones of 2023. The device is a subtle upgrade over the OnePlus 8 that launched earlier in the year. Below, you’ll find everything you’ll ever want to know about the handset!

            Editor’s note: We’ll regularly update this OnePlus 8T guide with more tips, resources, and details. Stay tuned!

            OnePlus 8T at a glance

            A 120Hz display refresh rate instead of 90Hz

            65W wired charging instead of 30W

            A quad-camera system instead of triple-cam

            Android 11 skinned with Oxygen OS 11 out-of-the-box

            Two new colorways

            Wireless charging

            An IP rating against water and dust

            The fastest processor available

            Tons of internal storage and the ability to expand it

            The best camera you can get

            What other reviewers think

            We also summarize what reviewers from other publications have to say about the OnePlus 8T to give you a complete overview of the phone.

            Cnet’s Lynn La has a lot of good things to say about the OnePlus 8T. She says the phone’s 120Hz display is vibrant, sharp, and an absolute winner. She was also impressed with its cameras and liked the more streamlined and clean interface of the latest version of Oxygen OS. However, she says that the phone’s price isn’t right, with the cheaper and quite similar, OnePlus 8 proving to be an enticing alternative.

            Tech Radar’s James Peckham says OnePlus’ “T” iterations have always been iterative, and the 8T follows along the same lines. It doesn’t do enough to truly stand out compared to the 8 series, but it is an excellent phone overall and a compelling option when pitted against similar flagships.

            Tom’s Guide’s Roland Moore-Coyler was let down by the OnePlus 8T’s comparatively high price tag and disappointing camera performance. He says that the performance, the 120Hz display, super-fast charging, and the software are all excellent but might not be enough to stand out from the crowd. However, he mentions that the 8T will be a great buy if the camera performance improves with software updates and the price drops below the $700 mark.

            Even though the OnePlus 8T is a powerful phone, it’s certainly not the most powerful handset of 2023. Below, you’ll find the official specs of the 8T as compared to the OnePlus 8.

            The OnePlus 8T should charge faster than any other smartphone the company has launched.

            Technically-minded folks might be concerned about how those speeds will affect the longevity of the internal battery. To be clear, ultra-fast charging speeds like this degrade battery longevity quicker than slower charging speeds. To compensate for this, the included 65W charger (when used with the included USB-C-to-USB-C cable) uses 12 different thermal monitors to slow battery degradation. What isn’t clear, though, is how effective this is.

            OnePlus 8

            Display: The OnePlus 8 has a 90Hz refresh rate, which is not as good as the 120Hz rate of the 8T. This will enable the 8T to have smoother scrolling and better gaming framerates for specific titles that support it. The 8T’s display is also flat, unlike the OnePlus 8’s curved display. Other specs are the same.

            Camera: The primary sensor on the 8T is almost the same as the OnePlus 8. The 8T’s ultrawide lens has a slightly larger field of view, and the macro lens is of better quality at 5MP when compared to the 3MP sensor on the OnePlus 8. The OnePlus 8T also adds a new fourth lens that the vanilla OnePlus 8 doesn’t have. It’s a monochrome sensor that should help with capturing better black-and-white photos.

            Battery: The OnePlus 8 has a slightly smaller battery capacity when compared to the 8T. The OnePlus 8T will charge much faster than the OnePlus 8 due to the new Warp Charge 65 charger.

            Size: The OnePlus 8 is slightly smaller and lighter when compared to the 8T.

            OnePlus 8 Pro

            Display: The OnePlus 8 Pro has the same 120Hz refresh rate as the 8T, but the Pro variant has a larger display at a higher resolution (1440p). The OnePlus 8 Pro also has a curved display, while the 8T’s is flat.

            Camera: The OnePlus 8 Pro’s quad-camera system captures better shots than the 8T’s quad-camera system. The 8 Pro has a telephoto lens which the 8T does not. Additionally, the 8 Pro has a higher-quality ultrawide sensor. That all being said, the 8T has a wide-angle lens with a larger field of view, and its monochrome sensor will probably be more helpful to people than the 8 Pro’s color filter lens.

            Battery: For all intents and purposes, the two phones have the same battery capacity. However, the 8T will charge faster since it has the new Warp Charge 65 standard. The 8 Pro, on the other hand, has the option for charging wirelessly, which the 8T does not support at all.

            Durability: All variants of the OnePlus 8 Pro have an IP68 certification, ensuring that it is resistant to water and dust. The unlocked models of the OnePlus 8T have no certifications related to the elements. However, the T-Mobile version of the 8T does have an IP68 rating.

            Size: The OnePlus 8 Pro is larger and heavier than the 8T.

            OnePlus has also added two new camera filters, and Cyberpunk 2077 music is used for ringtones and alerts. You also get exciting extras in the box, including a case that lights up and a phone user manual that doubles as a poster.

            Things remain the same in terms of specifications, though. The special edition phone also has the Snapdragon 865 processor, backed by 12GB of RAM and 256GB of storage.

            The OnePlus 8T Cyberpunk Limited Edition was only available in China, priced at 3,999 Chinese yuan (~$600). It did not see a wider release following the launch of the OnePlus 9 series.

            OnePlus 8T Concept

            OnePlus 8T software

            Ryan-Thomas Shaw / Android Authority

            When you take the OnePlus 8T out of the box, it is not preloaded with the latest iteration of Oxygen OS. It runs Android 10, but the phone has already received both the Android 11 and Android 12 updates.

            There’s no word on what’s next, but we expect the software support to stop here, at least when it comes to OS updates. That means the OnePlus 8T likely won’t get the Android 13 update. If that’s a problem for you, buying a newer phone is the way to go.

            OnePlus 9 ($590): The OnePlus 9 is a newer phone than the OnePlus 8T. As such, it has some upgraded features, most notably the latest Snapdragon 888 chipset. It also has a better camera system (even though it doesn’t have a macro lens) and supports wireless charging. It also has a list price lower than the 8T. This makes the OnePlus 9 the universally better buy in 2023 if you are looking for a OnePlus phone and don’t have the cash for a Pro-level model.

            Samsung Galaxy S21 FE ($599): The Galaxy S21 FE is probably the best direct alternative to the OnePlus 8T on the market. It’s a successor to the S20 FE and packs updates across the board. It offers wireless charging, an IP rating, and Samsung’s robust update policy. Really, the only things that definitively make the 8T the better buy are the ultra-fast wired charging and the option for more RAM. If these things don’t matter to you, though, you should absolutely check out the Galaxy S21 FE.

            Samsung Galaxy S21 ($625): This phone is newer than the OnePlus 8T and features a 2023 chipset. That will make it much more powerful than the 8T. However, it is also more expensive. For that extra $50, though, you get wireless charging, an IP rating, a better camera system, and more. Essentially, the Galaxy S21 is like a Galaxy S20 FE but with more power.

            Google Pixel 6 ($599): If you waged a specs war between the Pixel 6 and the 8T, the Pixel 6 would come out on top. It packs Google’s biggest redesign in years, with a worthy upgrade to the camera setup. You get a 50MP main lens and Google’s new Tensor chip under the hood. Best of all, it’s tough to beat the midrange price for a flagship device.

            Xiaomi Mi 10T (€390): Our readers in the US don’t have access to this phone, but our international friends should pay it some attention. It has a lot of the same specs and even ups the ante for the display refresh rate by bumping it up to 144Hz. It’s also capable of 65W wired charging speeds (although the in-box charger will be slower). If you can deal with the trade-offs, this is a good option that will save you a bit of scratch. Keep in mind that the Xiaomi 11T series has recently been launched, meaning that its predecessors are now cheaper.

            Should you buy the OnePlus 8T now or wait?

            Ryan-Thomas Shaw / Android Authority

            Now that we are into 2023, the OnePlus 8T is beyond “last year’s model.” As a result, it’s not so easy to find anymore and you should grab it given the chance.

            When it comes to the all-important ratio of specs to value, the OnePlus 8T just can’t keep up anymore. The OnePlus 9 has a lower list price and better specs and features. The OnePlus 9R — though exclusive to India — is basically a OnePlus 8T for hundreds less. Additionally, the Galaxy S21 and Xiaomi Mi 11 trump the 8T in multiple regards at around the same price point.

            However, since the OnePlus 8T is older, it is easier to find it at discounted prices. If you want to save as much as possible while still getting a powerful device, the OnePlus 8T might be worth a look. If you are ready to spend around $750 on a new phone, though, skip the 8T and get a OnePlus 9 instead.

            OnePlus 8T

            The OnePlus 8T delivers fast performance, super speedy wired charging, and a fluid 120Hz display.

            See price at OnePlus

            The phone is also available via Amazon.

            The phone launched at $1,099 CAD in Canada but is now available for $539 CAD. That’s for the same 12GB/256GB color configurations as in the US. In the UK, the 12GB/256GB model in Aquamarine Green comes in at £549. The memory configurations are locked to specific colorways.

            In India, the 8GB/128GB model comes in both Lunar Silver and Aquamarine Green for 38,999 rupees. The 12GB/256GB version only comes in Aquamarine Green for 41,999 rupees (~$545).

            The OnePlus 8T is available in the United States, Canada, Europe, the United Kingdom, India, China, and Hong Kong.

            A: No. The only 2023 OnePlus phone with wireless charging is the OnePlus 8 Pro.

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