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NetFlowCoin is a fully functioning, secure, and decentralized network that acts as a buffer between its users and the centralized Internet. Made possible by combining Blockchain technology with a Software Defined Network.
With its native protocol NFC (also “NetFlowCoin”) token, the NetFlowCoin Project provides users with a dApp marketplace and a circulating digital asset ecosystem.
In tandem with blockchain technology, the NFC Project provides users with a decentralized network resource that turns key Internet infrastructure elements into an algorithmic market.
Because it is powered by a unique incentive mechanism, it is distributed, encrypted, and can survive independently from the tech monopolies.
The Makings of the NetFlowCoin Network
Simply put, the NetFlowCoin Project is a combination of Software Defined Network (“SDN”) technology and blockchain technology.
SDN technology has been used by millions of users worldwide and is a staple of enterprise-level applications. It is known for being a super gateway capable of large-scale data compression, encryption, high bandwidth, and low latency processing performance.
Layered on top of the Internet, NFC builds a global intelligent edge network using chain-network integration to expand its computing power via “cloud-edge-end” synergy. By harnessing the bandwidth, storage, edge computing, and data resources of the NFC, NetFlowCoin forms an intelligent, secure, and reliable network.
NetFlowCoin’s Public Blockchain Architecture
By adopting a ledger to record the traffic, storage, and other resource data on the NFC network, the NFC Project can remain decentralized while being open to all users. Furthermore, NFC can reward users for contributing their idle resources with no risk of political or business influence.
The NetFlowCoin blockchain runs on NFC tokens, which miners earn by providing network resources (storage/bandwidth/edge computing) to the network’s users. The NFC token can be used for business transactions, currency within dApps, and other uses defined within the NFC ecosystem.
While NetFlowCoin’s SDN technology ensures the rapid flow of data from user to designated user in a precise and secure manner, the blockchain layer promotes the healthy development of the network and fortifies security during expansion.
The NFC token incentivizes users to contribute to the stable operation and business expansion of the overall NFC Project. Implement smart contract technology to lay the foundation for complex, automated, and lucrative business processing mechanisms.
NetFlowCoin’s blockchain architecture solves many of the issues plaguing the crypto mining industry. This is enabled by NFC’s hybridized consensus mechanism, which consists of Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) and Proof of Valuable Flow (or PoVF). The purpose of these mechanisms is to welcome both established and new miners to the blockchain.
Note: For more details on the NetFlowCoin public chain architecture or NetFlowCoin Nodes, visit the NetFlowCoin White Paper.
What Can Users Expect from NetFlowCoin?
Access to Network Layer Capabilities:
Provides open-source interfaces for developers to build dApps (blockchain browser, wallet, DEX, decentralized IM, NRC20 token, NFT, etc.)
Innovative DataFlow Mining:
Everyone can participate in NFC mining thanks to NFC’s novel dual consensus mechanism. Block Mining and DataFlow Mining allow for a custom approach to creating value. The NFC token has multi-dimensional applications within the marketplace.
the personal server consumes extremely low amounts of energy.
Ultra Secure & Super Fast Performance:
NFC’s combined Blockchain technology and SDN layer makes for an efficient and secure data communication value network.
ultra-high processing capacity designed for enterprise use. Made to adapt to various scenarios, rapid growth, and hyper scalability.
to the NFC network-enabled dApp marketplace.
Participation is Mining on NFC
NetFlowCoin adopts a dual token model, where NFC (“NetFlowCoin”) tokens are issued based on the local blockchain, and NFCS (“NetFlowCoin Stable”, anchored to the USD) stable coins are issued under the ERC20 standard and serve as a bridge between the digital and “real” economies. NFCS tokens will serve as the basic communication service fee for traffic mining and payment credentials.
The NetFlowCoin blockchain consists of a hybridized consensus model. The two consensus mechanisms are Delegated Proof of Stake (or DPos) and Proof of Verified Flow (or PoVF).
The Delegated Proof of Stake or DPoS consensus mechanism rewards NFC tokens by staking tokens to hold a vote.
Block mining through the DPoS consensus, where miners pledge NFC and vote for specific “candidate nodes” (21 delegates per counting cycle) to obtain the right to produce blocks for 7 days. The NFC token is awarded to the delegate every time a block is produced.
The Proof of Verified Flow or PoVF mechanism is a mining reward mechanism based
on the actual valuable uplink traffic generated by each node in the system.
DataFlow Mining via PoVF consensus, where the server consumes the miner’s NFCS (NetFlowCoin Stable, an ERC20 stable coin that can be purchased through the NFC platform) in the user account to generate uplink traffic(DataFlow). The PoVF mechanism converts the traffic (DataFlow) into NFC tokens and awards them to the user.
How to Mine on NetFlowCoin
and register your account (available on both
iOS App Store
Download and install the Blube Wallet, and register the wallet address
Complete the binding of the wallet NFC address with the WeLine account and the personal server SN.
What NetFlowCoin Means for Developers
Today, distributed applications, or “dApps,” are still in a nascent phase, with a handful starting to become household names. The capacity of dApps to interact with smart contracts on the blockchain brings an infinite amount of possibilities when it comes to creating value for NetFlowCoin users.
The NFC application layer provides developers with various open source interfaces. Developers are a cornerstone of NetFlowCoin’s decentralized marketplace. NFC provides diversified open-source interfaces for developers to create new dApps in the decentralized app store.
Network resource sharing (idle bandwidth sharing, or acceleration) dApp
EN data sharing dApp
Decentralized video streaming network/platform
Decentralized data trading platform
Join NetFlowCoin Today!
Getting connected to NetFlowCoin is easy! Download the WeLine application and register your account (available on both Google Play and iOS App Store) to join the NFC community today.
For further information on NFC, visit chúng tôi and check out our latest White Paper.
You're reading The Netflowcoin Project: Explore The Decentralized Open Web Like Never Before
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.I
The third generation of the internet has now firmly taken hold in ern retelling of Web history. Web 3.0 will usher in a new era of decentralized blockchain-based architectures as we transitioned from decentralized protocols (Web 1.0) to centralized, monopolistic platforms (Web 2.0).
With Web 3.0 as the prevailing narrative, the grasp of power will dissipate from a small number of powerful Web 2.0 firms and return power to the people.
In contrast to today, when tech giants dominate the platforms, in Web3, users will have ownership shares in platforms and applications.Significance of Web 3.0
The vast majority of designers and builders will use cutting-edge tools, integrate into autonomous organizations, and take part in this new economy.
Decentralized Autonomous Organization is the guiding principle of Web 3. (DAO). Users will be able to govern their own data on a decentralized, fair internet thanks to Web3.
This would get rid of the extortionate rents charged by the big platforms and get people away from the fundamentally faulty ad-based monetization of the user-generated data paradigm that has come to define the current digital economy.
Prerequisite for Developing Web 3.0 Architecture
The current architecture, which has a front-end, intermediate layer, and back-end, will need to be modified for Web 3.0 from a technological standpoint.
For processing blockchains, persisting and indexing data in blockchains, peer-to-peer interactions, and other tasks, will require backend solutions.
In a similar vein, managing a backend with a blockchain will be required of the middle layer, also known as the business rules layer.Evolution of the Web Web 1.0-World Wide Web Begins Web 2.0-The Social Web
There are a few factors to take into account when describing web 2.0. Internet programs that let users communicate, cooperate, and express themselves online are referred to by the phrase. It’s essentially a better version of the first global web, marked by the shift from static to dynamic or user-generated content, as well as the rise of social media.
Rich web applications, web-oriented architecture, and the social web are all part of the Web 2.0 paradigm. It refers to changes in the way web pages are designed and utilized by people, without any technical changes.
“Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as a platform, and any attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.”– Tim O’Reilly.
Web 2.0 can be described in three parts:
Rich Internet application (RIA): It specifies if the experience delivered from the desktop to the browser is “rich” in terms of graphics, usability/interactivity, or features.
Web-oriented architecture (WOA): It specifies how Web 2.0 applications disclose their functionality so that other apps can use and integrate it, resulting in a significantly richer range of applications.
Key Features of Web 2.0
Folksonomy: Users can collaboratively classify and find information (e.g. “tagging” of webpages, images, videos, or links) using a free classification system.
Software as Service (SaaS): APIs were built by Web 2.0 sites to facilitate automated usage, such as by a Web “app” (software application).
Mass Participation: With nearly universal web access, concerns are being differentiated beyond the conventional Internet user base (which tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts) to a broader range of consumers.
Use Case Applications of Web 2.0
Hosted Services (Google Maps)
Web Applications (Google Docs)
Video-Sharing Sites (YouTube)
Wikis (Media wiki)
Blogs (Word press)
Interactive Social Networking/Media (Facebook)
Micro Blogging (Twitter)
Pros of using the Web 2.0
Information is available at any time and in any location.
A wide range of media. (Images, Videos, Web Pages, Text/Pdf) It– Very user-friendly.
Learners can actively participate in the creation of knowledge.
Has the ability to form dynamic learning communities.
Everyone is both the author and the editor, and every edit can be monitored.
Simple to use.
The wiki is updated in real-time, and it provides researchers with extra resources.
It allows for real-time communication.
Cons of using Web 2.0
People rely heavily on the internet to communicate.
It is keyword driven.
Failure to remove material that is no longer relevant.
Many con artists and hackers.
Intelligence is lacking.Web 3.0-The Decentralised Web
Web 3.0 is the third generation of internet-based services or an intelligent web. The expression was created in 2006 by John Markoff. Although it is typically understood to be a reference to the semantic Web, he continued, “There is no easy consensus about what Web 3.0 means”.
The semantic Web, while not a more accurate term, refers to technology that improves Internet use by comprehending the meaning of what users are doing rather than merely the way pages link to each other.”
With significant developing technology trends like semantic web, data mining, machine learning, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, and other such technologies centered on information that is machine-assisted, Web 3.0 is expected to be more connected and smarter.
The web as a whole should be better designed to cater to a user’s interests and needs. Self-descriptions or similar strategies can be used by developers and authors individually or in partnership to ensure that the information produced by the new context-aware application is meaningful to the user.Key Concepts in Web 3.0
Decentralization: “To post anything on the web, no approval from a central authority is required; there is no central controlling node, and hence no single point of failure…and no ‘kill switch!” This also entails freedom from censorship and surveillance on an ad hoc basis.”
Bottom-up design: “Rather than being written and controlled by a small group of experts, the code was created in full view of everyone, enabling maximum participation and experimentation.”Key Features of Web 3.0
Decentralization: This is a fundamental principle of Web 3.0. In Web 2.0, computers search for information using HTTP in the form of unique web addresses, which are stored in a fixed location, usually on a single server. Because Web 3.0 allows information to be retrieved based on its conten be kept in several locations at the same time, making it decentralized. This would deconstruct the vast databases currently maintained by internet behemoths like Meta and Google, giving people more power. Users will retain ownership control of data generated by disparate and increasingly powerful computing resources, such as mobile phones, desktop computers, appliances, vehicles, and sensors, with Web 3.0, allowing users to sell data generated by their devices.
Semantic Web: Let’s take a step back and define semantics first before creating the semantic web. The study of how words relate to one another is known as semantics. The semantic web is a technology that enables computers to interpret massive amounts of Web data, including text, grammar, transactions, and linkages between people.
3D Graphics: Compared to the straightforward, two-dimensional web, Web 3.0 will provide a more believable, three-dimensional cyberworld. Online gaming, as well as Web 3.0 websites and services like e-commerce, real estate, tourism, and other industries, will benefit from a new degree of immersion thanks to 3D visuals.
Trustless and permissionless: Web 3.0 will be trustless (i.e., the network will allow members to engage directly without going via a trusted intermediary) and permissionless, in addition to being decentralized and built on open-source software (meaning that anyone can participate without authorization from a governing body). As a result, Web 3.0 applications will run on blockchains, decentralized peer-to-peer networks, or a combination of both, and will be referred to as dApps (decentralized apps).
learning: Through technologies based on Semantic Web ideas and natural language processing, machines will be able to understand the information in the same way that people do in Web 3.0. Machine learning will also be used in Web 3.0, which is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) that combines data and algorithms to mimic how humans learn while continuously improving accuracy. These capabilities will allow computers to deliver faster and more relevant results in a variety of sectors, such as medical research and novel materials, as opposed to the current focus on targeted dvertising.
Connectivity and ubiquity: Information and content are increasingly accessible and omnipresent with Web 3.0, which can be accessed by many applications and a growing number of daily objects connected to the internet, such as the Internet of Things.Use Case Applications of Web 3.0
Social Networks: Social networks have a significant impact on how we live our lives and change the way we connect, communicate, and build communities. The new generation of social networks, however, is not without issues. They have internal agendas, are restrictive, and are censored. Governments of major companies may also utilize social networks to try and shape and control the opinions of their users. The functioning of the social network will be entirely altered by Web 3.0. Social media networks won’t be subject to any restrictions thanks to the implementation of blockchain. Regardless of geographic restrictions, anyone can join.
Exchange Services: As they offer a flawless user trade experience without worrying about any hacks or transparency, decentralized exchanges are progressively gaining favor. This also implies that there is no central authority and no owner-side conflict of interest. To streamline their services, they primarily use a variety of decentralized finance tools. As we already know, Web 3.0 is all on decentralized exchange and trust.
Messaging: Since the day we first started using the internet, messaging has been a part of our daily life. Well, for the majority of us, the choice is between Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp. One other type of messenger is Telegram, which is mostly used by businesses, startups, and other types of professional activity. On the other side, the government also frequently uses centralized systems to manage its network of intelligence to trace down signals.
Storage: The storing of data involves a lot of ingenuity. However, Web 3.0 technologies like blockchain and big data can transform the way data is now stored. As common users, we store data online on Google Drive and other cloud storage services. For the businesses, it’s a whole different scenario because they prefer a more reliable and centralized system to keep their important data.
Insurance and Banking: One of the most contaminated sectors of our society is the insurance and banking industry. For instance, is managed according to the profit-making mindset. The chains of negativity are also present in the banking industry. Overall, it is safe to state that the current system is flawed and that it must be made more open and secure if people are to prosper inside it. Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize both the banking and insurance industries. This technology has a wide range of applications, and its effects are more apparent than initially anticipated. Transparency, security, and retractability are just a few of the blockchain capabilities that will be utilized in the transformation. This means that fraud in the banking or insurance industries will not be conceivable.
Streaming (Video and Music): The streaming sector is significant. Additionally, it is predicted to expand more quickly in the next years. You are already familiar with the major players in our area as a user.
Remote Job: Given that we prefer working from home over being in an office, it is rather fascinating to observe where we are headed. Whatever the causes, the centralized remote job platforms fall short of expectations. These issues can easily be solved by decentralized remote job/freelance networks.
Browser: Using a web browser, we browse the Internet. We require a browser that adheres to the decentralized Web’s philosophical aspect in order to explore web 3.0. In terms of safeguarding users, the most recent browsers are also not entirely secure. Computers can become infected when users visit infected websites. If they are not sufficiently constructed in accordance with current security standards, browsers can also leak information. Your browser, for instance, keeps data on your location, hardware, software, connection, social media accounts, and more. The add-ons that these contemporary browsers provide make the users vulnerable as well. The answer is to utilize a decentralized browser that uses blockchain technology to create a better ecology.Pros of using the Web 3.0
Anti-monopoly and Pro-privacy: Web 3.0 will provide the internet with a pro-privacy and anti-monopoly framework. It won’t encourage the use of centralised platforms. In essence, a full paradigm shift will occur, with decentralisation and privacy as the main themes. The middleman won’t understand the value or need of such a platform.
Secure Network: Web 3.0 features will be safer than those of its forerunners. Decentralization and distributed nature are two reasons that enable this. It will be challenging for hackers or exploiters to access the network. Each of their operations can be monitored and retracted within the network if they are able to do so. Without centralization, it will also be more difficult for hackers to seize total authority over a company.
Interoperability: It is a crucial component of Web 3.0. It will be simpler for applications to function across various platforms and devices, such as TVs, cellphones, smart roadways, and so on, with a decentralised network. The creation of Web 3.0 apps will be simple for developers.
No Interruption in Service: Service interruptions are less likely to occur in distributed systems. It is challenging for attempts at distributed denial of service (DDoS) or other types of service breakdown to have an impact because there is no central entity for functioning. As a result, Web 3.0 is a fantastic platform for sharing data and essential services without having to worry about service disruption.
Permissionless Blockchains: Blockchains without a requirement for a central authority are to be powered by Web 3.0. By creating an address, everyone can join the blockchain and take part. Access to individuals who are historically excluded owing to their gender, income, location, and other factors is made possible via permissionless blockchains. Although there are other blockchains with chúng tôi implies that Web 3.0 won’t be subject to any limitations.
Semantic Web: The semantic web’s features will be hosted by Web 3.0 as well. The previous set of Web 2.0 technologies have been replaced by the semantic Web. It makes it possible to transfer data across many platforms, systems, and community borders. It will serve as a link between various systems and data formats. We will be able to share and use the internet more than ever by utilising the semantic Web.Cons of using the Web 3.0
Ownership concerns: With internet providers under government control, the internet will still not be decentralized.
Existing website owners will be compelled to upgrade: With the change in the cost model, some services may no longer be free.
Tough to regulate: Newcomers may struggle to understand Web3.0
Easier access to one’s personal and public data: Without privacy policies, it will be easy to gain access to someone’s private and confidential user information.Comparison between Web 2.0 and Web 3.0
Web 2.0 Web 3.0
Centralized. Application delivery, cloud services, and platform are governed and operated by centralized authorities. Decentralized. Edge computing, peer-to-peer, and distributed consensus increasingly become the norm in Web 3.0.
Fiat currency. Payments and transactions occur with government-issued currency, such as $USD. Cryptocurrency. Transactions can be funded with encrypted digital currencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.
CSS and Ajax. Web 2.0 is defined by layout technologies that provide more dynamic control than Web 1.0. AI. Smarter, autonomous technology, including machine learning and AI, will define Web 3.0.
Relational databases. Databases underpin the content and applications of Web 2.0. Blockchain. Web 3.0 makes use of blockchain immutable ledger technology.
Social networks. Web 2.0 ushered in the era of social networking, including Facebook. Metaverse worlds. With Web 3.0, metaverse worlds will emerge to meld physical, virtual, and augmented reality.Future for Web 3.0
Web 3.0 is still in the process of being defined. As a result, there are many unknowns regarding what Web 3.0 will eventually look like.
The IPv4 address class, which has a limited amount of web addresses, is used by both Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. In the Web 3.0 era, IPv6 offers a bigger address space, allowing more devices to have their public IP addresses.
Web 3.0’s focus on decentralization, automation, and intelligence will likely continue to be the foundation for what comes next as it evolves and is defined.Conclusion
As a last thought, I’d want to leave everyone with another example that started this learning journey. According to an analogy from the movie industry, if Web 1.0 represented black-and-white movies, Web 2.0 would be the age of color/basic 3D, while Web 3.0 represents immersive experiences in the metaverse. In the same way that Web 2.0 dominated the global business and cultural landscape in the 2010s, it seems that Web 3.0 will now take the lead in the 2023s. Facebook changing its name to Meta on Oct. 28, 2023, could prove to be an early sign that Web 3.0 is gaining traction.
The most significant aspect of Web 3.0 is that it improves security, trust, and privacy. Many people refer to Web 3.0 as the “decentralized web,” because it will rely heavily on decentralized protocols. Web 2.0, on the other hand, is still the foundation for many of the web apps we use today. Is it possible that Web 3.0 will transform the popular programs you use today? Learn about Web 3.0 and make your conclusions.
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“What will it take to encourage much more widespread reliance on working at home for at least part of each week?” asked Frank Schiff, the chief economist of the US Committee for Economic Development, in The Washington Post in 1979.
Four decades on, we have the answer.
But COVID-19 doesn’t spell the end of the centralized office predicted by futurists since at least the 1970s.
The organizational benefits of the “propinquity effect”—the tendency to develop deeper relationships with those we see most regularly—are well-established.
The open-plan office will have to evolve, though, finding its true purpose as a collaborative work space augmented by remote work.
If we’re smart about it, necessity might turn out to be the mother of reinvention, giving us the best of both centralized and decentralized, collaborative and private working worlds.Cultural resistance
Organizational culture, not technology, has long been the key force keeping us in central offices.
“That was the case in 1974 and is still the case today,” observed the “father of telecommuting” Jack Nilles in 2023, three decades after he and his University of Southern California colleagues published their landmark report Telecommunications-Transportation Tradeoff: Options for Tomorrow. “The adoption of telework is still well behind its potential.”
Until now. But it’s taken a pandemic to change the status quo—evidence enough of culture resistance.
In his 1979 article, Schiff outlined three key objections to working from home:
inability to tell how well workers are doing, or if they are working at all
employees’ need for contact with coworkers and others
too many distractions
To the first objection, Schiff responded that experts agreed performance is best judged by output and the organization’s objectives. To the third, he noted: “In many cases, the opposite is likely to be true.”
The COVID-19 experiment so far supports him. Most workers and managers are happy with remote working, believe they are performing just as well, and want to continue with it.Personal contact
But the second argument—the need for personal contact to foster close teamwork—is harder to dismiss. There’s evidence remote workers crave more feedback.
As researchers Ethan Bernstein and Ben Waber note in their Harvard Business Review article The Truth About Open Offices, published in November 2023, “one of the most robust findings in sociology—proposed long before we had the technology to prove it through data—is that propinquity, or proximity, predicts social interaction”.
Waber’s research at the MIT Media Lab demonstrated the probability that any two workers will interact—either in person or electronically—is directly proportional to the distance between their desks. In his 2013 book People Analytics he includes the following results from a bank and information technology company.Experiments in collaboration
Agency boss Jay Chiat envisioned his headquarters as a futuristic step into “flexible work”—but workers hated the lack of personal spaces.
Less dystopian was the Pixar Animation Studios headquarters opened in 2000. Steve Jobs, majority shareholder and chief executive, oversaw the project. He took a keen interest in things like the placement of bathrooms, accessed through the building’s central atrium. “We wanted to find a way to force people to come together,” he said, “to create a lot of arbitrary collisions of people”.
Yet Bernstein and Waber’s research shows propinquity is also strong in “campus” buildings designed to promote “serendipitous interaction.” For increased interactions, they say, workers should be “ideally on the same floor”.Being apart
So how to balance the organisational forces pulling us together with the health forces pushing social distancing?
We may have to get used to wearing masks along with plenty of hand sanitizing and disinfecting of high-traffic areas and shared facilities, from keyboards to kitchens. Every door knob and lift button is an issue.
But space is the final frontier.
An alternative vision comes from real-estate services company Cushman & Wakefield. Its “6-foot office” concept includes more space between desks and lots of visual cues to remind coworkers to maintain physical distances.
Of course, to do anything like this in most offices will require a proportion of staff working at home on any given day. It will also mean then end of the individual desk for most.
This part may the hardest to handle. We like our personal spaces.
Offices will also need to need more private spaces for greater use of video conferencing and the like. These sorts of collaborative tools don’t work well if you can’t insulate yourself from distractions.
But there’s a huge potential upside with the new open office. A well-managed rotation of office days and seating arrangements could help us get to know more of those colleagues who, because they used to sit a few too many desks away, we rarely talked to.
Cosmologists used to think the universe was totally timeless: no beginning, no end. That might sound mind-melting, but it’s easier on the scientific brain than figuring out what a set starting point would mean, let alone when it would be. So some physicists have cooked up alternative cosmological theories that make time’s role seem a little less important. The concepts are as trippy as those black-light posters you had in college. Wait a minute…
Flowers of the multiverse. Matei ApostolescuFlowers of the multiverse
The main reason some physicists obsess over the beginning of the universe is because so much evidence points to there being one. But what if our universe grooved within an ageless multiverse—like a patch of ground from which countless flowers bloom. In this model, each universe has a big bang and keeps its own time. In the most popular version, each universe might even have its own version of physics too. Infinite possibilities yield infinite results: Some say this theory explains life itself.
We’d have to be extremely lucky for a single big bang to create a universe with the perfect conditions for life as we know it, but if new universes are springing up all the time, it’s no wonder one of those cosmic neighborhoods turned out just like ours. The universes in this garden grow or wither according to their own rules, while the multiverse around them goes on without a beginning or an end. It’s an elegant blend of change and timelessness, a floral brew many cosmologists are still sipping.
The smooth operator. Matei ApostolescuThe smooth operator
Some variations on the big bang go down a little smoother than the original. In the simplest version, the beginning of time is a sharp point, where everything we currently observe was mashed into a ball of energy smaller than an atom—then burst outward, duh. But what came before? Physicists such as Stephen Hawking tried to restore a kind of timelessness by getting rid of that starting point, imagining a universe with no clear “bang.” You can wind back the clock to the edges of those first moments of existence, but asking what came before would be like asking why you can keep walking north when you get to the North Pole. Time, as we define it, loses its meaning as the universe shrinks down.
It never quite narrows to a single point. But no one has proved physics works like that—yet.Steady state
The big bang posits that the universe exploded into existence and is still booming outward. So to throw out the bang, you must explain why we can see galaxies shooting off into the distance. In 1948, astronomers Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle got around the problem by imagining the universe as a constant display of dazzling fireworks, with new matter bursting into existence everywhere, at every moment. In the steady-state model, it looks like the cosmos is growing, but change is just an illusion, man.
The universe is literally spacing out, yeah, but it’s not because of some single original event. It’s because the universe is constantly creating new matter, and that new matter pushes the older stuff out into the beyond. But the discovery of microwave radiation left over from the big bang during the 1960s cooked this idea—the theory couldn’t explain away that afterglow.
The collision. Matei ApostolescuThe collision
Why does a big bang have to be a beginning? Paul Steinhardt and collaborators propose that there are bangs bangin’ all the time, as our universe rattles around in a fifth dimension (whoa) our puny minds cannot even perceive. All of space and time as we know it sits on a four-dimensional surface called a brane. Sometimes it collides with another universe’s brane, and the smash creates bursts of energy we know as the big bang—energy still detectable as cosmic background radiation. As the universes move farther and farther apart in the fifth dimension, our cosmos expands. The cycles of collision and separation go on forever in a psychedelic dance. Many cosmologists don’t think we’ll ever find proof of this fifth dimension, but the idea that the big bang isn’t the real beginning has no end in sight.
This article was originally published in the September/October 2023 Mysteries of Time and Space issue of Popular Science.
A new Web browser, Rockmelt debuts in limited beta Monday and aims to help you keep tabs on your Facebook friends and your favorite sites, and make your Web searches faster. Backed by Netscape founder Marc Andreessen, Rockmelt was first reported on by The New York Times
A year later, and Rockmelt appears to be nothing more than another social networking-focused browser similar to Flock. Just like Flock, Rockmelt incorporates your social networking activity into browser sidebars so you can stay up to date on your friends’ activities while you browse other parts of the Web. Unlike Flock, however, Rockmelt features a single sign-on profile tied to your Facebook ID that you can carry with you using any computer running Rockmelt. Both browsers are based on Chromium, Google’s open source project that is basically a test ground for Google Chrome.
If you’d like to try out Rockmelt, you can sign up for the limited beta at chúng tôi by signing in with your Facebook ID.
I haven’t had a chance to get my hands on Rockmelt yet, but here’s a look at some of the key features of the world’s latest social-focused browser.All About Facebook
All of this personalized information is saved on Rockmelt’s servers so that you can access it by logging into the Rockmelt browser from any computer. Rockmelt does not, however, save your Web searches or browsing history, according to an interview with Rockmelt co-founders Eric Vishria and Tim Howes by blogger Robert Scoble. The company also says that all of your personal data is stored as an encrypted bundle on its servers to keep it private. It’s not clear if Rockmelt has the ability to decrypt your data, but the company does say they are not interested in your information for the purposes of ad targeting.
It should be noted that in addition to being an investor in Rockmelt, Andreessen also sits on Facebook’s board of directors.Facebook Friends on the Left
On the left side of your browser window is a thin sidebar that lists the Facebook profile pictures of your “favorite” Facebook friends. It’s not clear how Rockmelt determines which people are your favorite Facebook friends or how you can change that setting.
Favorite Sites on the Right
On the other side of your browser window is a second sidebar where you can get feeds from your favorite sites including news sources such as The New York Times or CNN. You can also add other social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook. Rockmelt didn’t explain what the differences are between the Facebook updates on the left side and right side of the browser. If I had to guess, however, I would say that including Facebook in your right sidebar shows you updates from your newsfeed, while the left sidebar features select updates from your “favorite” Facebook friends.
Rockmelt features two search boxes: a regular Chrome-style Omnibox and a special Rockmelt search field. Rockmelt’s search feature is designed to help you get to your Web results faster, and the company said it wanted to make search as “simple as leafing through a magazine.”
Let’s say you were searching for information about flu shots, and the top search results were links to the Center for Disease Control, Wikipedia, and a CNN news item followed by four other site links. Rockmelt would display the results just as you would see them in Google in a drop down menu. You would then see a preview of each site in the main browser window as you scrolled through your results in the drop down menu. So you could preview the content from the CDC, Wikipedia, CNN, and so on until you find what you’re looking for.
If you just want typical Google results then you can use the Omnibox instead of Rockmelt’s dedicated search box.
Rockmelt appears to be an interesting take on integrating social features into your Web browsing and the new search feature could be useful. But Rockmelt has a tough road ahead to gain a foothold in an already crowded browser market that includes Apple’s Safari, Google Chrome, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Flock, and many others.
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Leadership and learning were the main themes unearthed by ESI in its Top 10 Global Project Management Trends for 2011 , a paper crafted by Ward with input from a global panel of consultants and senior executives.Cloud Storage and Backup Benefits
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Ward et al. identified the following trends:
Leadership skills will be PMs critical success factor – “As projects get more complex, virtual and global, finishing a project on time and on budget requires PMs to demonstrate leadership skills such as critical thinking and organizational change management,” he said. “The challenge for organizations in 2011 will be to clearly define what ‘leadership’ means in the project and program management context.”
No industry will be spared from the war for PM talent – Savvy talent management and retention strategies will be essential to ward off poaching in 2011, Ward noted.
Opportunities for experienced PMs should be plentiful in India and China, countries plagued by a dearth of competent and experienced people who can manage large and complex infrastructure and IT projects. The Middle East will probably be another popular destination for PMs, he predicted. Mega-projects at the King Abdullah Economic City north of Jidda and King Abdullah Financial District on the outskirts of Riyadh are kicking into high gear.
Agile will be seen for what it is … and isn’t – “We expect to see more Agile implementations in 2011 and a greater emphasis on demonstrating ROI through Agile adoption,” he said. Ward added that organizations will need to convince project stakeholders and executives that Agile is not the next silver bullet despite what the media and vendors might claim.
Still, organizations that do Agile right, including selecting the right projects, will reap significant rewards, he said.
Experiential learning will be more the norm than the exception – ESI expects to see more reality-based learning and on-the-job training of PMs. “Learning providers will be required to send PMs back to the job from such sessions with the ability to immediately apply what they learned to their current projects,” he said. Ward noted the lecture mode is becoming dead and any training provider or university who ignores it does so at its peril.
Informal learning for PMs will gain momentum – ESI foresees more use of such learning approaches as communities of practice, various forms of social media, as well as coaching and mentoring. With millennials joining the workforce in greater numbers, organizations will witness more effective use of wikis, blogs, videos, podcasts and other methods of communication, Ward said.
Project sponsorship will become an area of focus in south Asia – Ward said the project sponsor model will be deployed more intensively in south Asia, especially in India and Bangladesh, as organizations try to accelerate their structured approach to project management.
Outsourcing will remain a risky business – Outsourcing will continue to grow in 2011 but organizations will pay more heed to its risks, he said. ESI expects that organizations will strengthen their risk management cultures and focus on adopting best practices in contract management.
PMs will team with “change partners” and use structured methods to facilitate adoption – “In 2011, we will see more organizations developing and assigning change partners (aka, change management experts) to projects to assist in the adoption of products and services created by projects,” Ward predicted. In some cases, project teams will increase their use of packaged change management methods.
– The PMP will continue to be the most popular project management credential in the world but change is slowly coming. “The value of proven experience and demonstrated competency will take on even more relevance beyond having the certification itself,” said Ward.
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