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Introduction to Ruby Modules

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Syntax

Syntax of the module is very simple and clearly puts everything inside the module. The attributes can be constant, class and methods. We can explain the below syntax in the following steps.

We have defined a module Test; here, we can see that the name of the module starts with the capital letter. Which means the name of the Module will start with the capital letter only.

The module contains the constant and the method Cons and method1.

Anyone can directly access the constant Cons and method method1 by the name of the module, which is chúng tôi and Test.method1.

With the help of the modules, we can create separate data and methods for the different modules and can be directly accessed with the names of the modules.

module Test(start with capital letter) # Statement and all its attributes goes here. #Constant Variable Cons =100 #Method definition def Test.method1 #code to be executed end end Functions of Modules in Ruby

Modules are like namespace and mixin in Ruby; it allows the developer to define some scope that can contain the constant, method and class altogether, and the developer can easily access the attributes of the modules with the name of the modules directly. First, let us understand the working and some key concepts of the modules in Ruby.

The module looks like any other class, but it is far more different than any class; the biggest difference is we cannot create a subclass from the modules; we can directly use the module for our uses.

Another important thing which we already discussed is the module; we do not have to create an object of the module we can directly access with the name of the modules. Even modules do not allow us to create the Objects.

If you have heard about the namespace (which allows you to define the unique name for any set of codes), modules are used as the namespace.

One important fact about the module working is that all the classes are modules, but not all are classes.

We can use the module for the mixin purpose, which means adding one or more classes to it without using inheritance concepts.

Examples to Implement of Ruby Modules

Below are the examples of Ruby Modules:

Example #1

This is an example where we are creating a module, and inside this module, we are defining a few methods and a constant and then we are directly accessing these methods and constants with the name of the modules. So we can explain the below example in the following steps.

We have created a Module with the name Test.

Inside the module Test, we have defined CONS as a constant and three methods greetings, Goodby and take care.

Finally, in the last step, we are directly calling the methods and accessing the constant.

Code:

# Here we are creating a Module which contains constants and methods module Test #     defining the constant in this module CONS = 20; # Defining the method greetings in the Test modules def Test.greetings puts "Welcome to Test module friends" end # Defining the method goodbye in the Test modules def Test.Goodby puts "Goodby to all from Test Module" end # Defining the method takecare in the Test modules def Test.takecare puts "Take care of you friends" end end #Printing the value of the constant of the Test module. puts Test::CONS # Here we are accessing the constant and the method of the module with the name of module Test. Test.greetings Test.Goodby Test.takecare

Output:

Example #2

This is an example where we are creating a module and including this module inside another class (so that class can be able to access all the methods of the modules). Inside the class, we have defined a method sayHi, and some methods are defined inside the module Test, and finally class includes the module inside it. Now the class is easily able to access the methods of the module. We can explain the code flow in the below steps.

We have created a Module with the name Test.

Inside the module Test, we have defined CONS as a constant and three methods greetings, Goodby and take care.

We have again created a class, TestClass, which includes the module inside it. Which means all the methods of the module can be called with the object of the class.

Finally, in the last step, we are directly calling the methods of module Test and method of class TestClass itself with the object of ClassTest.

Code:

# Here we are creating a Module which contains constants and methods module Test #     defining the constant in this module CONS = 20; # Defining the method greetings in the Test modules def greetings puts "Welcome to Test module friends" end # Defining the method Goodby in the Test modules def Goodby puts "Goodby to all from Test Module" end # Defining the method take care in the Test modules def takecare puts "Take care of you friends" end end # Creating a class which will holds the module(include the module) class TestClass # Include module in class # by using 'include' keyword include Test # Method of the class def sayHi puts "Welcome you inside TestClass which includes Test Module" end end # Creating objects of class TestClass test_class_object =  TestClass.new #Here we are calling all the methods of the module with the class object. test_class_object.greetings test_class_object.Goodby test_class_object.takecare # Calling class method test_class_object.sayHi

Output:

Conclusion

From these tutorials, we learned about the basics of the modules in Ruby, we also learned about the working of the modules, we came to know that we can use modules directly or one module can be included in another class and from that class, we can use the module attributes.

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Modules Of Surefire Testing Framework

Introduction to Maven Surefire

Apache Maven is a building tool that also supports other operations for project management such as dependency management, documentation and unit testing. The build lifecycle of the maven is divided into multiple phases namely validate, compile, test, package, verify, install, and deploy. Maven surefire is a plugin that is used in the test phase of the build lifecycle of maven. This plugin helps in making the execution of unit test cases of a maven project or application and generate the reports of the testing results in the test phase of the build lifecycle. This plugin creates the reports in two different formats namely plain test files with .txt extension and XML files with .xml extension.

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Modules of Surefire Testing Framework

Given below are the various modules framework:

SureFire Logger

SureFire API

Surefire Extensions

SureFireBooter

Maven Surefire Test-Grouping Support

SureFire Providers

ShadeFire JUnit3 Provider

Maven Surefire Common

Surefire Report Parser

Maven Surefire Plugin

Maven Failsafe Plugin

Maven Surefire Report Plugin

Maven Surefire Integration Tests

Surefire Shared Utils

Prerequisites

Maven 3.1.0 or above maven 3.x version.

JDK (Java Development Toolkit) with version 1.7 or higher.

Behavior

The surefire plugins help to export the reports of unit testing in plain text or XML format.

It can also be exported in HTML by taking some extra efforts.

The default path where the generated reports of surefire plugin are stored is /target/surefire-reports/AnyNameOfFile-*(.xml/.txt).

This surefire plugin has one goal defined for it that is surefire, test that specifies to run the unit tests of the maven project/application.

Compatibility with Different Test Providers

Maven surefire plugin works completely fine with any of the following combinations of the test source directories content.

Junit(5.x,3.8 or 4.x version)

POJO(Plain Old Java Object)

TestNG

There is no need for any extra configurations to specify which provider is used and available for the test cases in the maven project. This is incurred from the dependencies that you add in your chúng tôi file.

For example, if you are using Junit 5 for testing, then there will be a dependency tag with JUnit 5 ‘s group id artifact id and version in the dependencies element of your chúng tôi file of the project.

How to use?

One of the most commonly used and preferred methods of using this plugin is to specify the version of this plugin in the plugins element of your chúng tôi file or parent chúng tôi file of your maven project.

Code:

This plugin tag should be added in plugins elements inside the pluginManagement tag of your chúng tôi 3.0.0-M4 is the latest version of the surefire plugin.

An alternative way to use the maven surefire plugin is to call the test phase of the maven builds lifecycle which will invoke this plugin automatically. The test phase of maven lifecycle of building a project can be called by using the following command:

Code:

mvn test

The surefire maven plugin includes all the test classes that are public and contain the word test in it whether the test word be situated in beginning or ending of the class name. However, this behavior can be changed with the help of excludes and includes parameters in configuration in the following way.

Code:

This will lead to exclusion of SampleTest file for unit testing and will include NeedToVerify class file for unit testing even when it does not contains the test word in its name because it was mentioned in include element of configuration element in chúng tôi file.

Example of Maven Surefire

Given below is the example mentioned:

Begin by creating a new maven project.

Consider the following example where we have two methods, one for calculating product and other for division in the class named Arithmetic. Create a new java class file named Arithmetic.

public class Arithmetic { public intproduct(int number1, int number2) { return number1 * number2; } public intdivision(int number1, int number2) { return number1 / number2; } }

This class file should be structured and located in the following way.

Now, we will create a test class named ArithmeticTest according to coding conventions the name of the testing class should be the name of the class which is being tested followed by the Test keyword. This will contain test methods whose naming convention is the name of the method being test prepended with test word. Hence, here are two testing methods named testProduct and testDivision.

Then select the methods you want to add in the test class file and mention the name of the test class file and the file being tested in the following window to create a test class file.

Code:

import org.junit.*; public class ArithmeticTest { @BeforeClass public static void setUpClass() { } @Before public void setUp() { } @Test public void testProduct() { Arithmetic arithmetic = new Arithmetic(); int number1 = 100; int number2 = 5; intactualvalue = arithmetic.product(number1, number2); intexpectedvalue = 500; assertEquals(expectedvalue, actualvalue); } @Test public void testDivision() { } @After public void tearDown() { } @AfterClass public static void tearDownClass() { } }

Note that all the methods above that are annotated with BeforeClass, Before, After and AfterClass are optional. Only test methods are required in test classes. Each method has its specific purpose and the time when it is executed.

Maven’s chúng tôi will contain.

Code:

This file should be structured and present in the following way.

Conclusion

We can test the maven projects with the help of surefire plugin and we can perform unit testing for multiple test cases and with any of the underlying source directories content like Junit, POJO(Plain Old Java Object), TestNG.

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Top Examples With Excel Template

Definition of Quick Ratio

The term “Quick Ratio” refers to the liquidity ratio that assesses the ability of a company to cover its short-term liabilities by utilizing all those assets that can be easily converted into cash. The name “quick ratio” comes from the underlying idea that the ratio considers only those assets that can be quickly liquidated. The ratio is also known as the name acid test ratio.

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If a company’s quick ratio is greater than 1, it means that it has more than enough liquid assets that can be used to repay the current liabilities immediately. On the other hand, if it is less than 1, it indicates that the company’s liquidity is inadequate to pay off its current liabilities in case it is required to pay immediately.

Formula:

The formula for Quick Ratio can be derived by dividing the sum of cash, marketable securities, accounts receivables, and other current assets (other than inventories and prepaid expenses) by the total current liabilities. Mathematically, it is represented as,

Quick Ratio = (Cash + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable + Other Current Assets) / Total Current Liabilities

One can also derive the formula for Quick Ratio by subtracting inventories and prepaid expenses from the total current assets and then dividing the resulting figure by the total current liabilities. Mathematically, this is represented as:

Quick Ratio = (Total Current Assets – Inventories – Prepaid Expenses) / Total Current Liabilities.

Examples of Quick Ratio (With Excel Template)

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of the Quick Ratio formula in a better manner.

You can download this Quick Ratio Excel Template here – Quick Ratio Excel Template

Example – #1

Let us take the example of a company that has applied for a bank loan in order to remodel its storefront. The company has provided the following balance sheet information to the bank:

Based on the given information, Calculate the quick ratio of the company.

Solution:

Of the above-mentioned current assets, only cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable can be considered quick assets.

Calculate Quick Ratio using the formula given below:

QR = ($15,000 + $20,000 + $10,000) / $35,000

QR = 1.29

Therefore, the quick ratio for the company stood at 1.29, which indicates a fairly comfortable liquidity position.

Example – #2

Let us take the latest annual report of Apple Inc. to explain the quick ratio calculation. As per the annual report for the year ended on Sep 29, 2023, the following information is available:

Based on the given information, Calculate the quick ratio for Apple Inc. for the year ending Sep 29, 2023.

Solution:

Out of the above-mentioned current assets, only cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, net accounts receivable, vendor non-trade receivables, and other current assets can be considered quick assets.

Quick Ratio = (Cash and Cash Equivalents + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable + Net Accounts Receivable + Vendor Non-Trade Receivables + Other Current Assets) / Total Current Liabilities

QR = ($25,913 Mn + $40,388 Mn + $23,186 Mn + $25,809 Mn + $12,087 Mn) / $116,866 Mn

QR = 1.09

Therefore, the QR for Apple Inc. for the year ending Sep 29, 2023, stood at 1.09, indicating a moderate liquidity position.

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Advantages

It assesses the ability to repay current liabilities based on the assets a company can quickly convert to cash. As such, it is a relatively more conservative liquidity ratio.

Its calculation omits inventories because converting inventories into cash could take too long. Elimination of inventories from its calculation helps management and other stakeholders to have a precise idea about the liquidity position of the concerned company.

This ratio is one of the easiest ratios to understand, and as such, it can be very helpful for people who do not have a deep understanding of accounting and finance.

It doesn’t provide any information about the timing of cash flows which can be a defining factor in the assessment of the liquidity position of a company.

Some of the assumptions of the QR are not realistic. For instance, it assumes that accounts receivable is readily available for collection, which is not always true.

It does not consider the situation that may arise in times of crisis. During the crisis, even the most easily saleable securities may find it difficult to trade in the market.

Conclusion

So, it can be seen that the quick ratio is a moderate conservative liquidity measure which is more conservative than the current ratio but less conservative than the cash ratio. This ratio helps the creditors in the assessment of the liquidity position of a company more accurately.

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Ruby On Rails 2.1

Ruby on Rails 2.1 – Controllers

The Rails controller is the logical center of your application. It coordinates the interaction between the user, the views, and the model. The controller is also a home to a number of important ancillary services.

It is responsible for routing external requests to internal actions. It handles people-friendly URLs extremely well.

It manages caching, which can give applications orders-of-magnitude performance boosts.

It manages helper modules, which extend the capabilities of the view templates without bulking up their code.

It manages sessions, giving users the impression of an ongoing interaction with our applications.

The process for creating a controller is very easy, and it’s similar to the process we’ve already used for creating a model. We will create just one controller here −

Notice that you are capitalizing Book and using the singular form. This is a Rails paradigm that you should follow each time you create a controller.

This command accomplishes several tasks, of which the following are relevant here −

It creates a file called app/controllers/book_controller.rb.

If you will have a look at book_controller.rb, you will find it as follows −

class BookController < ApplicationController end

Controller classes inherit from ApplicationController, which is the other file in the controllers folder: chúng tôi .

The ApplicationController contains code that can be run in all your controllers and it inherits from Rails ActionController::Base class.

You don’t need to worry with the ApplicationController as of yet, so let us just define a few method stubs in book_controller.rb. Based on your requirement, you could define any number of functions in this file.

Modify the file to look like the following and save your changes. Note that it is up to you what name you want to give to these methods, but better to give relevant names.

class BookController < ApplicationController def list end def show end def new end def create end def edit end def update end def delete end end

Now let’s implement all the methods one by one.

Implementing the list Method

The list method gives you a printout of all the books in the database. This functionality will be achieved by the following lines of code.

def list @books = Book.find(:all) end

The @books = Book.find(:all) line in the list method tells Rails to search the books table and store each row it finds in the @books instance object.

Implementing the show Method

The show method displays only further details on a single book. This functionality will be achieved by the following lines of code.

def show @book = Book.find(params[:id]) end

The show method’s @books = Book.find(params[:id]) line tells Rails to find only the book that has the id defined in params[:id].

Implementing the new Method

The new method lets Rails know that you will create a new object. Just add the following code in this method.

def new @book = Book.new @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end

The above method will be called when you will display a page to the user to take user input. Here the second line grabs all the subjects from the database and puts them in an array called @subjects.

Implementing the create Method

Once you take the user input using HTML form, it is time to create a record into the database. To achieve this, edit the create method in the book_controller.rb to match the following −

def create @book = Book.new(params[:book]) if @book.save else @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end end

The first line creates a new instance variable called @book that holds a Book object built from the data the user submitted. The data was passed from the new method to create using the params object.

The next line is a conditional statement that redirects the user to the list method if the object saves correctly to the database. If it doesn’t save, the user is sent back to the new method. The redirect_to method is similar to performing a meta refresh on a web page and it automatically forwards you to your destination without any user interaction.

Then @subjects = Subject.find(:all) is required in case it does not save data successfully and it becomes similar case as with new option.

Implementing the edit Method

The edit method looks nearly identical to the show method. Both methods are used to retrieve a single object based on its id and display it on a page. The only difference is that the show method is not editable.

def edit @book = Book.find(params[:id]) @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end

This method will be called to display data on the screen to be modified by the user. The second line grabs all the subjects from the database and puts them in an array called @subjects.

Implementing the update Method

This method will be called after the edit method when user modifies a data and wants to update the changes into the database. The update method is similar to the create method and will be used to update existing books in the database.

def update @book = Book.find(params[:id]) if @book.update_attributes(params[:book]) else @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end end

The update_attributes method is similar to the save method used by create, but instead of creating a new row in the database, it overwrites the attributes of the existing row.

Then @subjects = Subject.find(:all) line is required in case it does not save data successfully, then it becomes similar to the edit option.

Implementing the delete Method

If you want to delete a record in to the database then you will use this method. Implement this method as follows.

def delete Book.find(params[:id]).destroy end

The first line finds the classified based on the parameter passed via the params object and then deletes it using the destroy method. The second line redirects the user to the list method using a redirect_to call.

Additional Methods to Display Subjects

Assume you want to give a facility to your users to browse all the books based on a given subject. You can create a method inside book_controller.rb to display all the subjects. Assume method name is show_subjects:

def show_subjects @subject = Subject.find(params[:id]) end

Finally, your book_controller.rb file will look like as follows −

class BookController < ApplicationController def list @books = Book.find(:all) end def show @book = Book.find(params[:id]) end def new @book = Book.new @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end def create @book = Book.new(params[:book]) if @book.save else @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end end def edit @book = Book.find(params[:id]) @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end def update @book = Book.find(params[:id]) if @book.update_attributes(params[:book]) else @subjects = Subject.find(:all) end end def delete Book.find(params[:id]).destroy end def show_subjects @subject = Subject.find(params[:id]) end end

Now, save your controller file and come out for the next assignment.

What is Next?

You have created almost all the methods, which will work on backend. Next, we will create a code to generate screens to display data and to take input from the user.

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How Much Time We Need To Complete Whole Modules Of Digital Marketing

There are different modules of digital marketing. Businesses have to complete each module according to the time allocated to get better results. Read on to know more about the same!

Digital marketing comprises multiple modules, and every module has its own importance. The more modules you master, the more demanding you are and the more money you will charge. Here are some popular modules that you must learn to become a demanding digital marketer −

Content Creation

Digital marketing, or any type of marketing, is nothing without content. So the first and most important module in digital marketing is content creation. Content creation means creating copies or materials that you require for marketing. You require highly engaging content everywhere, from articles to blogs and ad copies to social media posts. Engaging content is necessary to reach your customers and increase your reach on digital platforms.

SEO

Now both content creation and SEO are deeply connected to each other. SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization, which means optimizing your content as per Search Engine. Content creation is worthless if your content or webpages rank poorly on Google. So, to make your content well-optimized, you need to master SEO. It is one of the most demanding modules because without SEO, web pages didn’t rank high on Search Engine Results, and thus they didn’t receive desired traffic, especially organic traffic.

Email Marketing Paid Advertising Social Media Marketing

Social Media is a very popular and effective platform for achieving your marketing goals. It is a very popular and demanding module, and every business now focuses on Social Media marketing. Social media marketing also includes Social Media Optimization, which is similar to SEO. Social media managers or marketers are paid high, and they are in demand every time. Social Media marketing has now become an integral part of digital marketing because the digital world is incomplete without social media.

These are only popular modules because digital marketing has a lot of modules. You can learn those modules sidelines, but you have to give time and effort to learn the modules mentioned above. They are wide in themselves and require much knowledge, hard work, and practice. But if you master any of the above modules, you are ready to earn huge money, and if you master more than one, you will never sit free.

How much time do we need to complete the whole modules of digital marketing?

Firstly, remember that there is a huge difference between learning and mastery. Secondly, you can’t master all modules of digital marketing. Now coming to the answer to the question: how much time do we need to complete the whole modules of digital marketing? On average, you need six to 12 months to learn the whole digital marketing module. And to master some modules, more time is required because you can’t achieve success only by learning. All Digital Marketing modules require practical knowledge and real-time projects. Theoretical or conceptual knowledge doesn’t work well in Digital marketing. So, it requires at least 3 months to learn digital marketing, but it can take even years to become an expert digital marketer.

Wrapping up

No doubt, digital marketing has become a very popular career option among modern youths, but it requires time and, most importantly, practical knowledge. The more you work on a different project, the more you learn. Every time you will learn new things because it is a very wide field where things, techniques, concepts, and tools change very frequently. In a broader context, there is no time limit to learning Digital marketing because, in this field, you can never learn anything and everything completely.

Guide To Examples Of C++ Max Function

Introduction to C++ Max Function

In C++, max is a function that is used to get the largest among the elements. In order to achieve that, there are different ways, such as comparing two elements passed as arguments and returning the largest among them, comparing two elements with the help of a binary function and passing it as an argument in std::max(), and at last, finding the largest element in the list. In this article, we will look into more about these ways using different examples and explanations using syntaxes.

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Syntax:

Syntax of max when comparison of elements is done using “<“:

template constexpr const T& max ( const T& num1 , const T& num2 ) ;

Num1 and num2 are the two numbers that must be compared to find the largest value.

Return value: Largest among num1 and num2.

Syntax of max when comparison of elements is done using predefined functions

template constexpr const T& max ( const T& num1 , const T& num2. Compare cmp ) ;

Cmp is the binary function that takes two values as arguments and returns a Boolean convertible value. The return value of this binary function indicates whether the value passed as an argument, one is less than argument two. Moreover, the function does not alter any arguments; this function can also be a function object or function pointer.

Return value: Largest among num1 and num2.

Syntax of max for finding a maximum element in the list

template constexpr T max (initializer_list li, Compare cmp);

In this syntax, cmp is optional. That is, it can be skipped.

li is the object of the initializer_list.

Return value: Largest among all the values.

Examples of C++ Max

The following are some sample programs on the max function in C++.

Example #1

Print the Largest Element using std::max() function with Two Integer Parameters

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { cout << “Largest of the elements 345 and 6748: ” << std::max(345, 6748); return 0; }

Output:

Example #2

Print the Largest Element using std::max() function with Two Char Parameters

using namespace std; int main() { cout << “Largest of the elements x and y: ” <<  max(‘x’, ‘y’); return 0;  }

Output:

Example #3

Print the Largest Element in a List of Strings using std::max() Function

Code:

using namespace std; int main() { cout << "Largest of the elements in the given list: " <<  max( { "happy" , "happymoment" , "happymomentsarewaiting" } , []( const string& str1 , const string& str2 ) {  return str1.size() < str2.size() ; } ) ; return 0; }

Output:

Example #4

Print the Largest Element using a Binary Function

Code:

using namespace std; bool cmp(int num, int num2) { return (num < num2); } int main() { int a = 45 ; int b = 345 ; cout << “largest element among the number 45 and 345 is :” << std::max( a , b , cmp ) << “n” ; return 0 ; }

Output:

Example #5

Print the Largest Element in a List

Code:

using namespace std; bool cmp(int num, int num2) { return (num < num2); } int main() { cout << “largest element in the list { 971 , 268 , 573 , 423 , 544 , 310 , -13 , 74 } is: “<<  max({ 971 , 268 , 573 , 423 , 544 , 310 , -13 , 74 }, cmp) << “n” ; return 0 ; }

Output:

Example #6

Print the Largest Element if the Same Number is Compared

Code:

using namespace std; bool cmp(int num, int num2) { return (num < num2); } int main() { int a = 45 ; int b = 45 ; cout << “largest element among the number 45 and 45 is :” << std::max( a , b , cmp ) << “n” ; return 0 ; }

Output:

Conclusion

The max function in C++ is a powerful tool that allows programmers to find the largest element among a given set of elements. This function plays a crucial role in various programming scenarios.

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This is a guide to C++ Max. Here we discuss the Definition of C++ Max Function and examples with code implementation, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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