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Definition of Derivative

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Purpose of Derivatives

The various purpose of entering into derivative contracts is as under:

Earning Profits: The main aim to enter into the derivative contract is to earn profits by doing speculation on the price of an underlying asset in the future. The market price where securities are traded is volatile where the shares may go up or down. When there is a fall in the share price you may suffer loss and in this situation entering into a derivative contract by placing the accurate bet may help in earning gains.

Arbitrage Advantage: Arbitrage trading involves a purchase of security in one market at a low price and then selling the same in the other market at a higher price. The difference between the selling price and the buying price will be the profit of the trader.

To Get Access to Unavailable Markets or Assets: The derivatives help the traders or organizations to get access to the markets or assets that are otherwise not available. For example, interest rate swaps can provide a more favorable rate of interest as compared to the direct borrowings.

Types of Derivatives 1. Futures

Futures are the financial derivatives in which legal agreements are being entered so as to buy or sale a particular derivative stock at the predefined price at the agreed time in the future. Future contracts in order to facilitate its trading over the exchange are standardized. It is the obligation of the buyer to buy the underlying assets upon the expiry of the contract. On the other hand, it is the seller obligation of providing and delivering the underlying asset to the buyer upon expiry of the contract. It allows the investor in speculating in the line of movement of the corresponding underlying stock. It can be used as a tool to hedge the losses which may happen in stock by entering into future agreement long or short depending on the position of stock held. Futures and future contracts refer to the same thing. The contracts are supposed to be compulsorily squared off on or before the expiry date. If anyone wants to continue the same position even after the expiry date, they can roll over the transaction with the new expiry date.

2. Options

The option is a kind of contract that provides a right but not an obligation to purchase/sell an underlying security at a predetermined price (strike price) and during the specified time period. The buyer of the option is required to pay the premium in order to purchase the right from the seller whereas the seller, also known as the option writer, who receives the premium amount, is under the obligation to sell the underlying security if the right is exercised by the buyer. Options are traded on both over counter market and exchange-traded markets. There are two types of options namely call option and put option. The call option is up side betting and no risk for down fall apart from premium paid loss. In the same line put option is down side betting and no risk for upward movement apart from the premium paid loss. The options may be bought or laid depending upon the risk appetite of the investor. If option is bought, it is subjected to maximum risk up to the premium paid amount and the profit bracket is unlimited. If the options are being laid or sold, the maximum profit will be the premium paid amount and is subjected to unlimited risk.

3. Forwards 4. Swaps

A swap is a derivative contract between the two counter parties to exchange the financial instrument or payments or cash flows for a certain time. The underlying instrument to this contract can be anything but in maximum cases, it is involved with cash based on a notional principal amount. Every stream of the cash flow is known as leg. This can be used in hedging the risk and minimizing the uncertainty of certain operations. It is traded over the counter and not in exchange. The default risk in the counter party in the swap contracts is very high and thus it is majorly opted by the financial organizations and the companies. The most popular type of swap includes interest rate swap, currency swap, commodity swap, credit default swap.

Conclusion – Derivative Types

Thus, derivatives are the financial contracts whose value is derived from any underlying asset including stocks, bonds, currencies, market indices etc. the value of underlying asset keeps on changing as per the conditions of the market and the main aim of the derivatives is to make profits by speculating on the value of the given asset in future.

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Types And Structure Of Delaware Corporation

Introduction to Delaware Corporation

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Delaware corporations are very famous in the US because of the business-friendly laws to which they are subjected, and almost half of the Standard & Poor’s 500 rated are present in Delaware. Finance companies, to be specific, are very popular here because of the higher charge of interest on loans that they charge from their customers, and Delaware corporations are allowed to do so. Delaware corporation rules give lenders greater freedom to charge higher interest on loans.

Types of Delaware Corporation

The different types of Delaware corporations are as follows:

1. Limited Liability Company

A Delaware LLC is registered with the specific Certificate of Formation with the Delaware Secretary of State. These corporations have meager start-up fees and a friendly tax rate. This setup offers the owners or members protection of their assets against liability or creditors, which means members are not responsible for liability more than the initial investment one has put into the LLC.

2. Limited Partnership

A Delaware Limited partnership firm includes more than one member or partner. General partners’ duties include general management function, and one or more members should be the ones who will not participate in the management function and are termed, limited partners. To conduct business, one has to obtain a Certificate of limited partnership from the Delaware Division of Corporations. General partners are responsible or liable for any financial obligations of the firm, whereas limited partners have no liability towards the firm’s debt or obligations.

3. S-Corporation

Delaware S-corporation is an entity that doesn’t pay federal taxes. An S-Corp needs to firm form a Delaware general or close corporation and then file for Form 2553 with the IRS. The IRS, upon approval, won’t tax such a corporation, but the tax liability will be passed to each shareholder by their proportionate ownership of the company.

4. Non-Profit Corporation 5. General Corporation

This is called C-Corp and is generally formed when the company plans to go public or IPO. This corporation is formed to lure in venture capital investments. The shareholders are the company owners but don’t contribute to managing the company.

6. Close Corporation

A Delaware close corporation is where shareholders, management, directors, and officers are the same people and are organized into a small, closed group. A closed corporation cannot have more than 30 shareholders. The closed corporation operates with all legal protection that a corporation enjoys.

7. Public Benefit Corporation

The public benefit company makes it mandatory to act ethically regarding society and the environment. The company is formed the same way a Delaware corporation is formed to ensure it works for the common public benefit.

Structure of Delaware Corporation

The Delaware Corporation primarily has three levels or tiers:

Shareholders: They are generally considered to be the firm’s owners and are responsible for all significant decisions. They are the ones who own the shares of the corporation. These shareholders have power over the company’s common stock and voting rights to elect the board of directors.

Directors: Directors are elected by owners or shareholders of the firm and are responsible for making significant decisions. They oversee the company and make critical managerial decisions.

Officers: Officers are elected by directors and look over the day-to-day management of the corporation. They are generally the “President” of the firm or “Treasurer.”

Difference between Delaware Corporation vs LLC

The Delaware Corporation or C-Corp requires a board of directors for its management, whereas an LLC doesn’t need it. LLC can be managed even by a single owner and doesn’t follow a hierarchical management structure. The prime difference arises in the governance structure. In the case of C-Corp, the management comprises three levels: shareholders, directors, and officers. In contrast, in the case of an LLC, there is a legal agreement called the operating agreement, which is a contract between all the members of the LLC.

Second is the ground of federal taxation. A Corporation has three choices of taxation, i.e., C-Corp, S-Corp, and Tax-exempt. In contrast, when it comes to LLC, there are only two choices, i.e., IRS considers a single member firm as a disregarded entity and a multi-member firm as a partnership agreement. The last and final grounds of difference can be based on privacy. A corporation requires providing the names and addresses of all directors in its annual statement, whereas an LLC has to provide very minimum information. It doesn’t have to give its members’ names and addresses.


Delaware Court of Chancery has high grounds of respect and is very well established. In any litigation, one gets a very experienced lawyer to resolve the problem.

The corporation’s structuring can be done quickly because Delaware laws are very business-friendly.

Delaware involves greater privacy as it doesn’t call upon declaring the names and addresses of directors.

Investors have the high ground of faith in Delaware Corporations, and thus these corporations are also investor-friendly.

Delaware has business-friendly taxation policies, which benefit the business operating under its umbrella.

One demerit can be if a business is doing business there but not headquartered in Delaware; it has to pay or follow the tax structure of both states of Delaware and the state where it is headquartered.

One has to bear additional fees to do business in Delaware.

Delaware Corporation requires additional annual reporting documents in addition to the state where a business may be headquartered.

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Different Types Of Foundation And Their Uses

The structural basis that underpins a building or other structure is known as a foundation. Depending on the soil conditions, climate, and kind of construction, there are numerous types of foundations, each with specific qualities and applications. Shallow foundations, deep foundations, pile foundations, and raft foundations are a few examples of frequent foundation types.

The choice of foundation type is influenced by a number of elements, including the soil’s ability to support weight, the construction materials used, the depth of the water table, and the existence of subterranean utilities or obstructions. For a construction to be stable and secure, picking the correct foundation is essential.

What Is Makeup Foundation?

One type of face makeup is foundation, as we already said. To lay down an even foundation for the rest of your makeup, use this product all over your face. This item should serve as the foundation for your complete makeup appearance. With the right formula, you can hide flaws, even out your skin tone, reduce the appearance of defects, and produce an overall smooth and even canvas.

What Kinds of Foundations Are There? Write Its Uses.

The application of foundation makeup is not universally applicable. You can choose a formula based on your preferred consistency, desired level of coverage, and chosen finish. Following is a list of foundations and its uses explained −

Liquid Foundation − This common type of foundation comes in a liquid form and is offered in a range of coverage intensities, from light to full. It has a natural-looking finish and is simple to apply with a brush, sponge, or fingertips. Most skin types, including dry, normal, and combo skin, can use liquid foundation. It can be used to balance out skin tone, cover flaws, and offer a flawless foundation for makeup. Additionally, it comes in a variety of formulations, including oil-free, matte, and dewy options, to accommodate various skin types and preferences.

Powder Foundation − A type of foundation that is available in powder form, powder foundation is perfect for those with oily skin or those who like a matte look. It offers a subtle, natural-looking finish and is simple to apply with a brush. Moreover, powder foundation comes in a range of coverage options, from light to full. It may be applied alone or over liquid foundation for more coverage, and it’s ideal for touch-ups throughout the day.

Cream Foundation − Cream foundation is a type of foundation that is best for dry skin types or those who like a dewier finish. It comes in a cream or mousse-like texture. It can be used with a brush, sponge, or fingertips to apply and offers a smooth, moisturizing coverage. Cream foundation can be used to conceal flaws, even out skin tone, and give the complexion a dewy, radiant finish. It comes in varying coverage levels, from light to full.

Stick Foundation − Stick foundation is a kind of foundation that is simple to use on the skin and comes in a solid stick form. It’s excellent for those who desire thoroughness and accuracy in their application. Stick foundation can be used as a smooth base for makeup, to hide flaws, and to even out skin tone. It’s also practical for touch-ups while on the go and is perfect for those with combination or oily complexion. While some stick foundations are designed to have a matte finish, others have a more dewy or organic look.

Mineral Powder − Mineral powder foundation is a type of foundation that offers a natural-looking finish and is manufactured with natural minerals like zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. As it is free of harsh chemicals and scents that might irritate the skin, it is excellent for persons with sensitive or acne-prone skin. Mineral powder foundation can be applied with a brush for a natural-looking finish and comes in a range of coverage intensities, from light to full. Due to its ability to absorb excess oil and give skin a matte appearance, it is also appropriate for those with oily or mixed skin.

Tinted Moisturizer − Tinted moisturizer is a form of foundation that hydrates the skin while offering a thin, light coverage. It helps hydrate and soothe the skin, making it ideal for persons with dry or aged skin. A natural, little makeup appearance is also acceptable and can be achieved with tinted moisturizer. It’s simple to apply with your fingertips or a sponge and gives skin a dewy, organic appearance. Some tinted moisturizers provide SPF, which makes them a great option for daily usage.

BB Cream − A form of tinted moisturizer that offers coverage, moisture, and sun protection is known as BB cream, often referred to as beauty balm. It’s a multipurpose product that combines numerous steps into one to streamline your cosmetic application. SPF is typically used in BB creams to protect skin from UV rays, along with antioxidants and other skincare compounds to hydrate and brighten the skin. It offers sheer to medium coverage and is excellent for those who prefer a finish that looks natural. All skin types can use BB cream, which can be applied with either fingers or a sponge.

CC Cream − Often referred to as colour correcting cream, CC cream is a kind of foundation made to even out the colour of the skin by reducing redness, dullness, and other flaws. It offers a more focused method of coverage than BB cream and is perfect for persons with particular skin issues. Each shade of CC cream is intended to address a particular issue, such as redness, sallowness, or black spots. Moreover, it is lightweight and offers a natural-looking finish, making it appropriate for daily wear. Hyaluronic acid and vitamin C are two skincare components that are frequently found in CC creams to enhance the overall health and look of the skin.

The multi-purpose BB cream offers hydration, sun protection, and coverage. A color-correcting foundation that focuses on particular skin issues is called CC cream. Your skin type, skin issues, and personal preferences will ultimately determine the sort of foundation you select. For a natural-looking result, it’s critical to choose a shade that complements your skin tone and blend it effectively. You may get a beautiful, bright complexion by using the appropriate foundation.


Any building or structure needs foundations to stand on. To guarantee the security, sturdiness, and durability of a project, it is essential to choose the right sort of foundation. While choosing the type of foundation, architects, engineers, and builders must take into account a variety of criteria, such as the soil characteristics, load-bearing capability, building materials, water table depth, and underground obstructions.

The foundation can offer a sturdy base for a construction that lasts for many years with careful planning and design. By distributing the load of the structure to the earth below, the foundation is essential to a building’s structural stability. The inappropriate foundation type or improper foundation design can cause structural issues like settling, cracking, or even collapse.

Types Of Database Management System And Their Evolution

Various researches have revealed that whenever we hear an object, we retrieve it using an image from our brain. For instance, if I ask you “Do you like apples?” . You won’t think of the alphabets “a”, “p”, “p”,”l”,”e”, rather you will recall all relevant information regarding apple using the image of an apple. This is how possibly our data processing in our brain work. Of course it is complicated and highly efficient. Now if ask you “What is a database?”, you will mostly think of a collection of tables related to each other. If the same question was posed to a person in 1990s, possibly he would have only thought of a single big table from which they retrieve all the chúng tôi today we have really moved on from this simplistic definition of databases.

This article will help you understand what type of database exist in this industry currently. I also did an interesting exercise of plotting these database types in a tree structure with a time axis. This will help you visualize how database definition and application changed with time.

Evolution of Database Management System

We are too used to timelines on Facebook. I thought it will be a good idea to start this article on a similar line. Following is a tree which will help you map all types of popular database management system in a timeline:

The timeline varies from 1980s to current date and is not exhaustive of all forms of data management systems. However, we will be able to cover most of the popular data management system.

Flat File Database 

This is probably the easiest to understand but at present rarely used. You can think of this as a single huge table. Such type of datasets were used long back in 1990s, when data was only used to retrieve information in case of concerns. Very primitive analytics were possible on these database.

Relational Database

Hierarchical Database is very similar to your folder structure on the laptop. Every folder can contain sub-folder and each sub-folder can still hold more sub-folders. Finally in some folders we will store files. However, every child node (sub-folder) will have a single parent (folder or sub-folder). Finally, we can create a hierarchy of the dataset :

Hierarchical databases, however can solve many purposes, its applications are restricted to one-to-one mapping data structures. For example, it will work well if you are using this data structure to show job profile hierarchy in a corporate. But the structure will fail if the reporting becomes slightly more complicated and a single employee reports to many managers. Hence, people thought of database structures which can have different kinds of relations. This type of structure should allow one-to-many mapping. Such table came to be known as Relational database management system  (RDBMS).

Following is an example RDBMS data structure :

As you see from the above diagram, there are multiple keys which can help us merge different data sets in this data base. This kind of data storage optimizes disc space occupied without compromising on data details. This is the data base which is generally used by the analytics industry. However, when the data looses a structure, such data base will be of no help.

NoSQL Database

NoSQL is often known as “Not Only SQL”. When people realized that unstructured text carry tonnes of information which they are unable to mine using RDBMS, they started exploring ways to store such datasets. Anything which is not RDBMS today is loosely known as NoSQL. After social networks gained importance in the market, such database became common in the industry. Following is an example where it will become very difficult to store the data on RDBMS :

Facebook stores terabytes of additional data every day. Let’s try to imagine the structure in which this data can be structured :

End Notes

Databases form the foundation of analytics industry. Even if we don’t know each one of them in detail, we should have an overview of the entire spectrum of databases. In this article we discussed the popular types of datasets and how the need of databases evolved with time. In the next article we will continue the same discussion and take it a step further by understanding types of NoSQL databases.

Did you find the article useful? Share with us your experiences with different types of databases. Do let us know your thoughts about this article in the box below.

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Example And Types Of Leveraged Loans With Its Uses

Introduction to Leveraged Loans

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These are simple loans; their distribution and arrangement are the only difference. They are arranged for the companies already having debts and are set by the syndicate banks. These are managed by private equity firms, hedge funds, and other players.

Example of Leveraged Loans Types of Leverage Loans

There are three types :

Underwritten Deals: In this type, the arranger guarantees the entire loan amount by entering into the underwriting deal. The arranger must bear any left-out loan if the investors do not subscribe to the loan amount. He can try to sell the remaining loan in the market later on. Even if the market conditions are down in the future, the arranger is the only one who bears losses by selling the loan even at a discounted rate.

Best- Efforts: Contrary to the above, instead of committing the entire amount of underwriting of the loan, the arranger group commits to underwrite less than the whole amount. Any undersubscribed amount can be adjusted per the market variations, or it can be left as a credit. If, after the changes also, the loan continues to be unsubscribed, the lower amount of the loan has to be accepted by the borrower to close the deal.

Club Deal: This type of deal is usually for private equity players. The private equity players can acquire targets previously held by more prominent strategic players anytime in the past while distributing the exposure risk. These are larger-sized loans than own funding by the lenders and are used for M&A activity.

Leveraged Loans Index Uses of Leveraged Loans

There are many M&A deals where leveraged buyout (LBO) is used. Leveraged loans form an essential and significant portion of LBO. Hence, these are used in many M& A deals.

The Loans are used to better prepare the company’s balance sheet in case of its stock repurchase.

Debts of the companies can be refinanced with the help of these.

The company can use it for its day-to-day operations and acquiring various long-term assets.

Leveraged Loans vs High Yield

Leveraged Loans are secured loans guaranteed by the company’s assets, whereas high-yield bonds are not secured.

As the Leveraged Loans are secured, they prioritize getting paid in case of the company’s insolvency, whereas the High Yield bonds are paid after the Leveraged Loans.


The loan amount obtained through these loans can push the company’s capital, and if that amount is used correctly, it can make the company achieve its dream heights.

When the business has objectives of acquisition, management buyout, shares buy-back, or a one-time dividend, leveraged loans suit the best because there are additional costs and risks of bulking up on debt.

The company takes these Loans in addition to other debts, i.e., short-term and long-term debts. It brings the company to a higher than average debt level, and in the long run, it possesses an increased leverage risk.

The interest rates paid in these loans are higher; hence, this type of funding proves costly for the company.

The process of taking, dealing with, and managing leveraged loans is much more complex; thus, the management must invest much time.

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Types Of Business Insurance Risk

Running a business is inherently risky, and while you can’t protect your business against every threat it faces, it’s important to protect yourself and your company in any way possible. Purchasing business insurance is a way to mitigate risk and protect your company against unforeseen events. Here’s a look at the concept of risk in business insurance, how insurance companies assess risk and what you can do to reduce risk as much as possible.   

What is an insurance risk?

As a business owner, you’re likely familiar with how to file an insurance claim. But many owners aren’t aware of how insurance companies view risk and how this factors into your coverage and costs. 

Editor’s note: Looking for the right liability insurance for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

How do insurance companies assess risk?

Insurance companies assess risk through underwriting and claims data. 

The insurance company gathers relevant data.

During an insurance applicant’s review process, underwriters use objective and subjective information to assess the risk associated with the applicant. For example, does the business have a security system (objective information)? Does the building look secure (subjective information)? 

The underwriter also gains objective information from computer-generated loss runs, meaning it looks at your business’s claims history and experience rating mods and worksheets. For instance, the Workers’ Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California (WCIRB) says it provides a merit rating percentage to qualified policyholders. “The rating percentage is calculated based upon the policyholder’s audited payroll and losses for three consecutive policy periods, as reported to the WCIRB by the policyholder’s insurance company,” the bureau notes. 

The data-gathering process might be specific to the insurance coverage being sought. For example, the property underwriter may obtain an Insurance Services Office (ISO) property report. Your underwriter will also evaluate business-specific data. According to Elliot Whittier Insurance, your insurance underwriter may review: 

Payroll data

Sales data

Vehicle counts and/or mileage data

A description of your operations

Information about the officers and owners of the company

Information about job duties, names of subcontractors, certificates of insurance for subcontractors, and tax documents

What data does the business need to track? 

Elliot Whittier Insurance recommends that business owners track time and payroll for different work and job categories, which allows for the lowest workers’ compensation premiums that still protect both workers and the company. In addition, it offers the following suggestions:  

Get certificates of insurance for your subcontractors, including general liability insurance and workers’ compensation.

Ensure a responsible and informed individual is present and available for onsite audits.

If you own a restaurant, keep tip records.

Inform your agent right away of any significant changes to your payroll, whether they’re increases or decreases.

The insurance company issues a rating.

After the insurance company gathers all the relevant data, the next factor is rating. The rating system assigns a price based on what the insurer believes it will cost to assume the financial responsibility for the applicant’s potential claim.

Underwriting will sort applicants into groups (risk pools) that present similar risk levels and then accept, deny or limit coverage for each applicant group. Underwriting sets a rate for each pool based on claims data for the group’s applicants. If a pool has claims data with higher average losses, it will have higher assigned premiums. 


Underwriting is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Each insurance company has its own determining factors when evaluating a pool.

What are the types of insurance risks in business? 

Now that we’ve examined how underwriters deny or limit coverage for a group of applicants, here are some examples of common insurance risk types in business. 

What are the costliest claims?

Below is a list of the costliest claims reported for small businesses, according to claims data from insurer The Hartford. [Learn more about this provider in our in-depth review of The Hartford.]

We also include suggestions for the business insurance coverage type that could help mitigate this risk. (Be sure to check for policy restrictions or coverage waivers.)               

Reputational harm: Average claim cost is $50,000. Consider reputational harm (risk) insurance or commercial general liability insurance.

Vehicle accidents: Average claim cost is $45,000. Consider commercial auto insurance.

Fire: Average claim cost is $35,000. Consider a business owners policy (BOP), commercial property insurance (business hazard insurance), commercial fire insurance or business interruption insurance.

Product liability: Average claim cost is $35,000. Consider product liability insurance. 

Customer injury or damage: Average claim cost is $30,000. Consider a BOP or commercial general liability insurance.

Wind and hail damage: Average claim cost is $26,000. Consider commercial property insurance (business hazard insurance).

Customers slipping and falling: Average claim cost is $20,000. Consider a BOP or commercial general liability insurance.

Water and freezing damage: Average claim cost is $17,000. Consider business property (business hazard) insurance.

Struck by object: Average claim cost is $10,000. Coverage depends on where the incident occurred and if the injured party is an employee or a third party. Consider workers’ compensation insurance, general liability insurance or a BOP. 

Theft and burglary: Average claim cost is $8,000. Consider a BOP or commercial general liability insurance.

These recommended policies are examples, but it’s critical to check with your insurer for policy details and speak with an insurance agent to address your specific business needs. 

Did You Know?

A business owners policy often combines general liability, business income insurance and commercial property insurance into one policy.

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