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FTP, short for File Transfer Protocol, is a standard network protocol that allows users to transfer files from one host to another over a network, such as the internet. Despite the emergence of new cloud-based technologies and file sharing platforms, FTP remains a fundamental protocol in networking and is particularly useful in professional settings where large files need to be shared or when tasks need to be automated. In this article, we’ll explore in-depth how to use the FTP command lines on Windows 11 Command Prompt, offering a step-by-step guide on different commands and their uses.

Also see: How to Download an FTP File Using CMD in Windows 11/10

FTP is a time-tested protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network. The client initiates a request, and the server then responds with the requested file or action. FTP works on a client-server model where the client can perform actions like downloading, uploading, renaming, and deleting files on the server.

Before starting, make sure you have the following:

An operational FTP server: This is the remote computer where your files will be uploaded or downloaded. It should be running an FTP server software.

The IP address or domain name of the FTP server: You’ll need this information to establish the connection to the server.

FTP credentials: These are your username and password used to authenticate your access to the FTP server.

Expert guide: How to Download All Files From a Website Directory Using Wget

While various third-party FTP clients exist, Windows 11, like its predecessors, has a built-in FTP client that can be accessed directly via the command line. To open it:

With the command prompt open, you’re all set to start using FTP commands.

Related resource: Downloading HTML from a Website

Here are the FTP commands you’ll use most often when interacting with an FTP server:

To connect to an FTP server, use the ftp command followed by the domain name or IP address of the server.

For example, ftp chúng tôi or ftp 192.0.2.0.

After a successful connection, the FTP server will prompt you to enter your username and password.

For instance, if your username is “john”, you would type user john and then enter your password when prompted.

To navigate to a different directory on the FTP server, use the cd command.

For example, cd documents would move you to the “documents” directory.

To list all the files and directories in the current directory, use the dir command.

To download or retrieve a file from the FTP server, use the get command followed by the filename.

For instance, get chúng tôi would download the file named “report.pdf”.

To upload or send a file to the FTP server, use the put command followed by the filename.

For example, put chúng tôi would upload the file “report.pdf” to the server.

You can rename a file on the server using the rename command, followed by the old filename and the new filename.

For example, rename chúng tôi newfile.txt.

To delete a file from the server, use the delete command followed by the filename.

For example, delete chúng tôi will remove the file named “unwantedfile.txt”.

To create a new directory on the server, use the mkdir command.

For example, mkdir newfolder will create a directory named ‘newfolder’.

To remove a directory from the server, use the rmdir command.

For example, rmdir oldfolder will delete the “oldfolder” directory.

When you’re finished with your FTP session, you can close the connection using the close command.

To exit or quit the FTP client altogether, use the quit command.

For better understanding, let’s walk through a simulated FTP session using the commands we just discussed:

220 FTP Server ready. 331 Please specify the password. 230 Login successful. 250 Directory successfully changed. 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Here comes the directory listing. -rw-r--r-- 1 0 0 0 May 25 08:59 report.pdf 226 Directory send OK. 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for chúng tôi (0 bytes). 226 Transfer complete. ftp: 0 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 0.00Kbytes/sec. 221 Goodbye.

In certain circumstances, FTP servers allow anonymous logins. Such servers are set up to allow users to log in with the username “anonymous” and typically use the user’s email address as the password. Anonymous FTP is usually read-only and is used for distributing files to the public. While this can make it easier for the general public to access files, it can also create potential security issues.

While FTP is an incredibly handy tool, its primary shortcoming is the lack of security. FTP does not encrypt data transmitted over the network, making it vulnerable to eavesdropping and data tampering. SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol), on the other hand, provides the same functionality as FTP but with added security. SFTP encrypts the data transferred over the network, protecting it from unauthorized access and manipulation.

FTP’s biggest risk lies in its lack of encryption. Any data transferred via FTP, including login credentials, is sent in plain text. This lack of security means any data sent via FTP can be intercepted and read by anyone who can access the network data, leading to data theft or corruption.

FTPS (FTP Secure) and SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) were developed to address these security issues. Both protocols add an encryption layer to the data transfer process, thereby significantly improving the security of file transfers.

FTP, despite being one of the oldest protocols for transferring files over a network, remains an integral part of today’s IT world. Windows 11 continues to provide built-in support for this protocol via the command line interface, making FTP a handy tool for anyone who needs to deal with file transfers regularly. This guide gives you a comprehensive understanding of the FTP commands, their functionalities, and how to use them on Windows Command Prompt.

Remember, while FTP can be a powerful tool, it’s essential to be aware of its security limitations and take appropriate precautions to protect sensitive data.

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How To Download An Ftp File Using Cmd In Windows 11/10

In this article, we will discuss how to download a file from an FTP server using Command Prompt (CMD) on Windows 11 or 10. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over the internet. CMD, a command-line interpreter application in Windows, allows users to perform various tasks, including file transfers, without relying on third-party software.

Also see: How to Use FTP via Command Line on Windows 11

Before we begin, make sure you have the following information:

Username and password for the FTP server (if required)

The exact path to the file you want to download (e.g., /folder/subfolder/filename.extension)

Expert guide: How to download all files from a website directory using Wget

Follow these steps to download an FTP file using CMD in Windows 11 or 10:

Open CMD: Press Win + X on your keyboard, and then select Windows Terminal (Windows 11) or Command Prompt (Windows 10) from the context menu.

Access the FTP server: Enter the following command in CMD, replacing chúng tôi with the actual FTP server address:

After successfully connecting to the server, you will see the FTP server’s welcome message.

For some cases, you may need to manually authenticate by entering the username and password using the following commands:

user your_username your_password

Replace your_username and your_password with the appropriate credentials. After successful authentication, you should see a confirmation message.

List the directory content: To view the content of the current directory on the FTP server, enter the following command: ls

This command will display the list of files and directories in the current directory, helping you identify the exact path to the file you want to download.

Switch to binary mode: To ensure that the file is transferred correctly, switch to binary mode by entering the following command: binary

Navigate to the local directory: Choose the local directory where you want to save the downloaded file. Use the following command, replacing C:destination_folder with the desired local path: lcd C:destination_folder

Download the file: Use the get command to download the file from the FTP server. Replace /folder/subfolder/filename.extension with the actual file path on the server: get /folder/subfolder/filename.extension

Once the file transfer is complete, you will see a confirmation message.

Close the FTP connection: To close the FTP connection, enter the following commands: bye exit

Congratulations! You have successfully downloaded an FTP file using Command Prompt in Windows 11 or 10. With this method, you can download files without the need for third-party FTP clients, making the process more efficient and secure.

Useful tip: How to Run Batch File Without the CMD Window

In addition to the step-by-step guide, you can also download an FTP file using only a single line of command in CMD. This method is more concise and straightforward, making it particularly useful for users who prefer a quick approach.

Here is the one-liner command to download an FTP file:

Replace the following placeholders with the appropriate information:

USERNAME: Your FTP server username

PASSWORD: Your FTP server password

PATHTOFILE: The exact path to the file on the server (e.g., /folder/subfolder/filename.extension)

This single command line performs the following actions:

Connects to the FTP server

Authenticates the user with the provided username and password

Switches to binary mode for accurate file transfer

Closes the FTP connection

Deletes the temporary ftp file created during the process

By using this one-liner command, you can accomplish the same task as the step-by-step guide but in a more efficient manner. However, it is essential to remember that this method provides less visibility into the process, making it more suitable for experienced users or those who prefer a quicker approach.

Before using this command, ensure that you are in the directory where you want to download the file. If you need to change the directory in the CMD session, use the following command:

cd C:destination_folder

Replace C:destination_folder with the desired local path. Once you are in the correct directory, enter the one-liner command mentioned above to download the FTP file.

Related resource: Copy Folder Structure Without Files in Windows 11/10

The ability to download files from an FTP server using CMD in Windows 11 or 10 is a valuable skill that enables users to manage their file transfers without the need for additional software such as FileZilla. Understanding both the step-by-step method and the single command line approach empowers users to choose the most appropriate solution for their specific needs, taking into account their experience level and preferences.

Uninstall Office Update Using Command Line In Windows 11/10

Windows users can uninstall an Office update via the Programs and Features applet in Control Panel. But for one reason or another, you may not be able to use this applet for the task. In this post, we outline the specifics of why this is the case, and then show you how to uninstall Office Updates using the command line in Windows 11/10 in such cases.

Uninstall Office update using the command line in Windows 11/10

If a particular update breaks functionality in Microsoft Office installed on your Windows 11/10 computer, you can open the Control Panel and uninstall the Office update via the Programs and Features applet. However, there are requirements to remove Office updates, and you need to determine whether an Office update can be removed using the Control Panel. That said, the following are some examples of Office Updates that can’t be removed:

Service packs

Office Server product updates

Some updates to Office shared components.

Although not recommended or supported by Microsoft, you can uninstall Office updates that are marked as ‘Uninstallable’ by creating the Uninstallable registry key with the dword:00000001 value at the following location:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInstallerUserDataS-1-5-18ProductsOffice GUIDPatchesCompressed GUID

Read: How to uninstall Windows Updates marked as Permanent without Uninstall option

To use the Control Panel to remove Office updates, the computer running Microsoft Office must meet the following prerequisites:

Microsoft Windows Installer version 3.1 or later must be installed before you install the removable Office update.

The computer must be running newer versions of the Windows OS.

To determine whether you can remove an Office update via the Programs and Features applet, follow these steps:

Press the Windows key + R key to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box, type chúng tôi and hit Enter.

Locate and select the update in the list.

Read: How to uninstall Programs not listed in Control Panel

If you can’t uninstall an Office update using the wizard, then you can do so via the Windows Installer command line. For example, to remove an update, run the command below:

msiexec /package {product_code} /uninstall "full_path_to_.msp_file" /qb

Where:

The product_code placeholder represents the product code GUID that is associated with the Office product that you installed an update on.

The full_path_to_.msp_file placeholder represents the full path of the update package (.msp file).

If you use the /qb switch, you’re prompted if an update isn’t removable with the message below.

Uninstallation of the patch package is not supported.

If you use the /passive switch, you aren’t prompted if an update isn’t removable.

Alternatively, the command below can be used to uninstall Office updates.

%windir%System32msiexec.exe /package {Office GUID} /uninstall {Update GUID} /QN

For the command syntax, you must determine the GUID of the installed Office version and the GUID of the update as detailed in this Microsoft documentation.

How to revert to a previous build number of Microsoft 365

In this case, you cannot uninstall or remove the Office update for these versions of Office installation. However, you can revert to a previous build number (from before the update) of Microsoft 365. To do this, follow these steps:

First, disable Office Updates as the Microsoft 365 installations are automatically updated in the background.

Next, open Command Prompt in admin mode.

Next, depending on your Office version, run the command below that applies:

Office 2024, Office 2023, Office 2023, and Microsoft 365

Office 2013 on Windows 32-bit

cd %programfiles%Microsoft Office 15ClientX86

Office 2013 on Windows 64-bit

cd %programfiles%Microsoft Office 15ClientX64

officec2rclient.exe /update user updatetoversion=BuildNumber

Once the command executes, the Checking for updates dialog will open shortly followed by the Downloading Office updates dialog. Once this dialog closes, the rollback has been completed and the Updates were installed dialog will now be displayed.

Now that you’ve disabled automatic Office updates, to not miss out on newly released security updates and other feature fixes or even new features, make sure to re-enable the updates at the earliest opportunity.

I hope you find this post informative.

Read: An error has occurred, Not all of the updates were successfully uninstalled

What is WUSA in CMD?

WUSA.exe is a native utility that is used to install standalone updates on Windows computers. Standalone updates are the kind of updates that are not available in Windows Update by default. It also can be used to install some problematic updates. To run this utility on your Windows 11/10 PC, simply open the command prompt, then type chúng tôi followed by the syntax for the action you want to perform, and hit Enter.

How do I uninstall Office updates on Windows 11?

How To Setup An Ftp Server In Windows Using Iis

Earlier, I had written a post on how to turn your computer into a Windows file sharing server using a couple of different programs. If you’re looking for a quick way to share the files on your local computer with friends or family, this is an easy way to do so.

However, if you’re looking to setup your own FTP server in Windows using IIS, you can do so, but it requires more technical knowledge. Of course, it also gives your more granular control over sharing and security, so it’s better for anyone who has a little computer know-how. Plus, IIS is all about running websites, so if you want to run a couple of websites along with an FTP server, then IIS is the best choice.

Table of Contents

It’s also worth noting that different versions of IIS come with each flavor of Windows and they all have slightly different feature sets. IIS 5.0 came with Windows 2000 and 5.1 came with Windows XP Professional. IIS 6 was for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional 64-bit. IIS 7 was a complete rewrite of IIS and was included with Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.

IIS 7.5 was released along with Windows 7, IIS 8 released with Windows 8 and IIS 8.5 released with Windows 8.1. It’s best to use IIS 7.5 or higher if possible as they support the most features and have better performance.

Setup and Configure an FTP Server in IIS

The first thing you’ll need to setup your own FTP server in Windows is to make sure you have Internet Information Services (IIS) installed. Remember, IIS only comes with Pro, Professional, Ultimate or Enterprise versions of Windows.

Setup and configure IIS for FTP

For Windows 7 and higher, you’ll see a different look to IIS. Firstly, there is no play button or anything like that. Also, you’ll see a bunch of configuration options right on the home screen for authentication, SSL settings, directory browsing, etc.

This opens the FTP wizard where you start by giving your FTP site a name and choosing the physical location for the files.

Next, you have to configure the bindings and SSL. Bindings are basically what IP addresses you want the FTP site to use. You can leave it at All Unassigned if you don’t plan on running any other website. Keep the Start FTP site automatically box checked and choose No SSL unless you understand certificates.

Lastly, you have to setup authentication and authorization. You have to choose whether you want Anonymous or Basic authentication or both. For authorization, you choose from All Users, Anonymous users or specific users.

You can actually access the FTP server locally by opening Explorer and typing in ftp://localhost. If all worked well, you should see the folder load with no errors.

If you have an FTP program, you can do the same thing. Open the FTP client software and type in localhost as the host name and choose Anonymous for the login. Connect and you should now see the folder.

Ok, so now we got the site up and running! Now where do you drop the data you want to share? In IIS, the default FTP site is actually located in C:Inetpubftproot. You can dump data in there, but what if you already have data located somewhere else and don’t want to move it to inetpub?

In Windows 7 and higher, you can pick any location you want via the wizard, but it’s still only one folder. If you want to add more folders to the FTP site, you have to add virtual directories. For now, just open the ftproot directory and dump some files into it.

Now refresh your FTP client and you should now see your files listed! So you now have an up and running FTP server on your local computer. So how would you connect from another computer on the local network?

In your FTP client on the other computer, type in the IP Address you just wrote down and connect anonymously. You should now be able to see all of your files just like you did on the FTP client that was on the local computer. Again, you can also go to Explorer and just type in FTP:\ipaddress to connect.

Now that the FTP site is working, you can add as many folders as you like for FTP purposes. In this way, when a user connects, they specify a path that will connect to one specific folder.

When you create a virtual directory in IIS, you’re basically going to create an alias that points to a folder on the local hard drive. So in the wizard, the first thing you’ll be asked is for a alias name. Make is something simple and useful like “WordDocs” or “FreeMovies”, etc.

You can connect to you using your FTP client by putting in the Path field “/Test” or “/NameOfFolder”. In Explorer, you would just type in ftp://ipaddress/aliasname.

Now you’ll only see the files that are in the folder that we created the alias for.

Finally, you’ll need to forward the FTP port on your router to your local computer that is hosting the FTP server. Port Forward is a great site to show you how to forward ports on your router to computers on your home network. You should also read my other posts on port forwarding and dynamic DNS:

What is Port Forwarding?

Setup Dynamic DNS for Remote Access

Run A Function In A Script From The Command Line On Linux

Introduction

BASH (Bourne Again SHell) is a Unix shell and command language that is used frequently in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. One of the useful features of BASH is the ability to create and use functions within script files. Functions are blocks of code that complete a specific task and can be executed from within the script or from the command line.

Prerequisites

Before we begin, you will need −

A Linux system with a command line interface (or SSH access).

A script containing a function you want to run (your custom script).

The required permissions to execute the script (read/write/execute).

This tutorial will show you how to run a function in a BASH script from the command line on a Linux system. We will first create a simple BASH script that includes a function, and then demonstrate how to call the function from the command line.

Create a BASH Script with a Function

To start, we will create a BASH script that contains a simple function that displays a message on the terminal. Open a text editor and create a new file called “hello.sh” with the following code −

#!/bin/bash # Define a function called "hello" hello() { echo "Hello, Earth!" } # Call the function hello

Save the file and make it executable using the chmod command  −

$ chmod +x hello.sh

Now, we can run the script using the ./ prefix and the script name −

$ ./hello.sh Hello, Earth!

As you can see, the script runs and prints the message “Hello, Earth!” to the terminal.

Execute a Function from bash script in the Command Line

To run a function from the command line, we need to use the bash -c command followed by the name of the script file and the name of the function.

For instance, to run the hello function from the chúng tôi script, we can use the following command –

$ bash -c "source chúng tôi hello" Hello, World!

Alternatively, we can use the. (dot) command to source the script and call the function

$ . chúng tôi hello Hello, World! Advanced actions while executing functions from bash script

Passing arguments to a function − You can customize the behavior of a function by passing arguments to it. For example, you might want to create a function that takes a username as an input and prints a personalized greeting. You can pass arguments to a function in BASH using variables such as $1, $2, etc., which represent the first, second, etc. arguments passed to the function.

Returning values from a function − BASH functions can return values using the return command. For example, you might create a function that calculates the square of a number and returns the result. The return command is followed by the value you want to return, which is stored in the $? variable and can be accessed from the calling script or the command line.

Running a Python Script with Command Line Arguments $ python chúng tôi myFunction

If the function takes any arguments, you can pass them after the function name, separated by spaces. For example, if the function takes two arguments arg1 and arg2, you can run it like this

$ python chúng tôi myFunction arg1 arg2

Here is an example script with a function that takes two arguments and prints their sum

# myscript.py def myfunction(arg1, arg2): print(arg1 + arg2) myfunction(1, 2)

To run this function from the command line, use the following command

$ python chúng tôi myFunction 1 2

This gives 3 as output.

Conclusion

How To Use Nano Command Line Text Editor In Linux

Nano is a simple yet powerful command line-based text editor, very popular among beginner Linux users for its simple-to-use interface. As a command-line editor, it offers a lightweight alternative to more complex graphical text editors. In this article, we will explain how you can use the nano text editor in Linux, right from installing it to editing documents with it.

How to Install Nano in Linux

Generally, the nano editor comes preinstalled on most Linux distros. If you are not sure, you can check using the following command:

nano --version

After executing the command, if you see the nano version number in the Linux Terminal, this means it is installed, and you can proceed to the next section wherein we’ve described how to use the nano editor in Linux. If you get an error like “nano: command not found,” then use the commands below to install nano depending on your distro:

For Debian-based distros:

Install on Cent OS/RHEL-based distro:

sudo yum install -y nano

For Arch-based distros:

sudo pacman -S nano

For Fedora-based distros:

sudo dnf install nano

Nano Command: Syntax and Options

Using the nano command line editor in Linux is pretty straightforward. The basic syntax to use nano text editor is:

OptionsDescription-BTo save a file and back up the previous version of it by appending a tilde (~) to the current filename.-ETo convert the typed tabs into spaces.-LTo stop adding a new line after the original text.-NDisables automatic conversion of files from Mac/DOS format to Unix format-QTo match a part of the text using regular expressions-lDisplays the line number to the left of the text area-uTo save the file in Unix format by default.

How to Open/ Create a New File with Nano

To open a file with the nano command in Linux, use this syntax:

For example, to open the file “test.txt”, use the following command:

nano test.txt

For example, to create a new file with the name “test.py”, use this command:

nano test1.txt

When the nano command is executed, it first looks for the given file name in the mentioned directory. If the file is found, it opens the file, else creates a new file with the given file name.

How to Edit a File with the Nano Editor Cut Selected Text

To select the text, head over to the beginning of the word which you want to select and press “ALT + A.” Use the arrow keys to select the text as you need.

Once you have selected the desired text, press “CTRL + K” on the keyboard to cut the selected portion of the text.

Copy Selected Text

First, select the text using “ALT + A” and the arrow keys.

Once selected, use “ALT + 6” to copy the selected text to the clipboard.

Paste Selected Text

First, navigate to the place where you want to paste the selected text using the arrow keys.

Now, press “CTRL + U” on the keyboard to paste the text from the clipboard.

Search and Replace Text in Nano

Sometimes you need to search for some specific text inside a huge document and scrolling through it is not a viable option. Fortunately, the nano command comes with a search-and-replace utility, which can work on documents formatted with Linux, Windows, macOS, etc.

To search for a specific text, press “CTRL + W,” type the text you want to search in the new search bar at the bottom of the screen and hit the Enter key. If found, the cursor will get placed at the beginning of the searched word. To move on to the next occurrence of the searched term, use “ALT + W.”

To search and replace a specific text, press “CTRL + ” on the keyboard. Enter the search term and press enter. Then, enter the term you want to replace it with on the next prompt. The cursor will move to the first position it found the search term.

You can press either ‘y’ to replace this text or ‘n’ to skip the current match and move on to the next one.

The default nano command keybindings are different from the common keybindings, which the users may be accustomed to while working on other Linux GUI apps. To make things easier for beginners, the Nano text editor has a small cheat sheet right at the bottom of the screen (more on it later).

How to Save Files and Exit Nano Editor

How to exit Vim is a question that has been wreaking havoc in the lives of Linux users since its inception, as you don’t get any prompt even for basic tasks such as saving or exiting the editor. However, the nano command provides a small prompt to help users get around.

To save and exit the nano command screen and return back to the Linux shell prompt, simply press “CTRL + X” on your keyboard. If you have made any changes to the file, press ‘y’ to save the changes or press ‘n’ to discard them. You will then be asked if you want to keep the same file name or use a new name. Enter the new file name or press Enter to use the same file name.

To simply save and continue editing the document in Nano editor, press “CTRL + O” on the keyboard. Press the Enter key to use the same file name or enter the new name and then hit enter.

Nano Command in Linux: Keyboard Shortcuts

Here are some of the common shortcuts to use with the nano command that works on all operating systems, including Linux, Windows, macOS, etc:

Keyboard ShortcutDescriptionCTRL + AMoves the cursor at the beginning of the lineCTRL + EMoves the cursor at the end of the lineCTRL + YScrolls the screen up by a pageCTRL + VScrolls the screen down by a pageCTRL + GOpens nano command help windowCTRL + OSaves the current fileCTRL + WSearches for a specific text in the entire documentCTRL + KCuts the entire selected portion of text to the clipboardCTRL + UPastes the text portion from the clipboard into the documentALT + 6Copies the selected text to the clipboardCTRL + XExits the editorCTRL + _Lets you go to the specified line and column chúng tôi + AUsed to select textCTRL + GOpen help menu for nano

Frequently Asked Questions

Why do we use nano in Linux?

The nano editor is a simple easy-to-use command-line text editor, which can be handy for editing text documents on Linux distros.

Is nano easy to use?

Compared to Vim, the nano command line editor in Linux has a much easier learning curve and is easy for beginners to use in their daily workflow.

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