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Getting beep code on your PC is seldom a sign you should ignore. It usually indicates that the system has run into a issue. But, having said that, the plus point is we can address and fix the issue with the help of beep codes.

If your PC suffers from a system crash or a malfunction that halts the startup process, you can use the beep code speaker on your motherboard to determine the cause of the error. Since the beeps are generated from the speakers on-board motherboard, the information is usually very reliable and should be given attention to.

You will need to analyze the sequential beep codes to determine potential error. These error could mean PC not being able to boot properly or, may indicate other severe issue with the PC. Depending on the motherboard manufacturer, each sequential beep code may have a different meaning. 

This article explains all the beep codes for ASUS motherboards and laptops and their meaning.

When you turn on your computer, it performs a series of POST(Power On Self-Test) tests that check whether the computer hardware required to run the PC is functional. Once complete, this test will make one short beep indicating that the computer has passed POST.

The system will only boot once it passes the POST. However, if the PC fails this initial test, the speaker connected to your motherboard will make a series of beep codes to inform users that there is some malfunction in the system.

Beep codes are first and most reliable guide in troubleshooting a hardware issue in a system. Referring to the data from POST, beep-sound are generated by the motherboard providing exact identity of the failed component. Since these beep-sounds are a cryptic code in real, they are referred as codes: Beep Codes.

Now that we have a clear understanding of beep codes, let us look at the meaning behind each type of beep code in your ASUS device and things you can do to fix the issue.

Once your PC get past POST, it will likely make one short beep. You do not need to worry if the PC makes one small beep during startup. This beep indicates that the system has passed Power On Self-Test and will turn on smoothly without any interruption.

In ASUS products, one long beep followed by two short beeps means the system has faced issues detecting the memory. Most of the time, the system makes this sequence of codes if it does not detect the memory installed on your system.

A system may have issues detecting memory if it is not secured into the motherboard or if the memory module itself is corrupted or damaged.

To check if this is true, you can try using one memory stick at a time.

Once you have determined the faulty memory, we recommend replacing it immediately.

One long and three short beeps means the system has run into issues regarding the graphics card. The problem could be the system not detecting the card due to connection issues, or maybe the PSU is not supplying enough power to the graphics card.

If you hear one long and three short beeps from your motherboard, reseat the graphics card and all its cables. And turn on the PC. This will eliminate all the errors that might have occurred due to loose wires or any connection issues with the graphics card.

If this does not work, completely remove the GPU from the board and run the system using the integrated GPU. However, if your CPU does not have an integrated GPU, you will need a separate graphics card to display anything on the monitor.

A hardware component failure, for example, the CPU fan, triggers this specific type of beep code. Besides this CPU reaching extreme temperatures or the CPU getting over voltage could also cause the motherboard to give such an error message.

To fix this, we recommend that you perform the following steps to stop the beep error codes.

Lower high CPU usage

Change thermal paste

Reseat CPU fans

Change PSU

If the system runs into an error where it cannot detect the CPU, the speaker on your motherboard will beep five short beeps. Bent pins on the motherboard/CPU, or a DOA CPU, could be why you are getting the error codes.

You can try fixing bent pins if you only have a few bent ones. However, it is bad news if there are several bent pins on your CPU, and you likely need to replace the CPU. If none of the pins are damaged, there is a high chance that the CPU itself is DOA.

You can also check the power cable that supplies power to the CPU. This is an 8-pin cable that connects the PSU to the motherboard and supplies power to the CPU. If this cable is damaged or not connected properly, the motherboard may have issues detecting the processor. Try reseating this power cable to fix the problem.

Two short beeps usually mean a parity error has occurred when recording data in memory. Parity errors in some critical system files could also cause the entire system to crash. One common reason a system suffers from parity error is due to corrupted or faulty memory modules. 

To fix this, we recommend you use one memory stick at a time to determine the faulty one.

If reseating specific component does not fix the beep code error, you can try a few generic steps.

You can disconnect and reconnect your entire PC components to check if it fixes the beep code error. Sometimes, loosely connected hardware components could be the reason your system is not detecting them. Therefore, try reconnecting your hardware component.

BIOS or the Basic Input Output System, has access to the entire motherboard and all the hardware components connected to it. You can also change BIOS settings to enable or disable most hardware component. If you have changed wrong setting in the BIOS, it could cause the system to give error codes

Resetting BIOS reverts all BIOS setting to its factory state, fixing any beep code error message.

All the beep codes mentioned above are dedicated to ASUS motherboards and laptops. However, most motherboards in the market use AMI BIOS. American Megatrends Inc. (AMI) has a dedicated set of beep codes that have separate meanings.

Beep CodesMeaning1 BeepMemory refresh timer error2 BeepParity bit error3 BeepMemory read/write error4 BeepSystem timer failure5 BeepProcess Error6 BeepKeyboard controller error7 BeepGeneral Exception error8 BeepDisplay memory error9 BeepROM BIOS checksum error10 BeepCMOS shutdown read/write error11 BeepBad cache memory

All these errors are likely due to corrupted or faulty RAM, you can try using one memory module at a time to determine if that’s the case. If your system only has a single memory stick, we recommend that you get a separate RAM to determine if the previous one is faulty.

However, System timer failure, or 4 beep codes could also mean that “The System clock/timer Integrated Chip has failed or there is a memory error in the first bank of memory”. If the memory module is not causing the issue, there is a possibility that the motherboard is dying.

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Cryptocurrency Payment Gateways: What Are They, And How Do They Work?

The truth is, if you can wrap your head around a fiat payment gateway, you’ll be able to understand the basics of how crypto payments processors work too — they both operate on similar principles.

A payment gateway is effectively an application as a service that taps onto online retailers, e-businesses and traditional brick-and-mortar businesses to authorise the processing of transactions. Visa is currently the largest payments gateway in the world, and without it, in many instances, there would be no connecting force between the services charging accounts and the merchants requesting the charge.

Similar systems operate in the crypto world, enabling merchants to accept crypto payments in addition to fiat currencies. This is incredibly important, as it reduces barriers to payment. After all, the number of businesses that weren’t willing to hop on the contactless credit card revolution is negligible – giving customers comfort in payment is a no-brainer, regardless of personal opinions on the kinds of payment methods that they use.

Diving deeper into the similarities and differences between crypto and fiat payment gateways, the inner workings of Bitcoin payment providers, integration types and best practices is key to our overall understanding of these connecting forces. Indeed, that’s exactly what we’ll be doing today.

What Are Crypto Payment Gateways?

While not identical to fiat payment gateways, there are some similarities. Crypto payment gateways are services that allow merchants to accept cryptocurrency payments as part of a general ethos of accepting online payments This could be on an e-commerce platform, a website, a mobile app or even an offline brick-and-mortar store. The gateway’s role here is to process and transfer the crypto payments, depending on the needs of the merchant, be it a ‘hands-on approach’ to crypto or a ‘hands-off’. At the moment, the biggest cryptocurrency payment system by volume in the world is CryptoProcessing by CoinsPaid. With 9+ years of experience and a monthly transaction volume of over €1 billion, the platform takes first place as a market leader. However, many other platforms offer similar services, assisting their clients in accepting payments in crypto.

Benefits of Accepting Cryptocurrencies for Businesses

Understanding the role of crypto payment gateways requires a deeper dive into the benefits that merchants are able to tap into via offering crypto as a payment method. Indeed, there are many.

Firstly, crypto is a borderless, instant medium of payment. There are 180 currencies in circulation, each limited to the jurisdiction of mint. Great British Pounds may not be used in the United States without a conversion to US Dollars and vice versa. With cryptocurrencies, payment becomes universal, borderless and instant. International transfers can often take up to five working days and can be incredibly expensive on the customer’s side. This reduces their willingness to spend – hardly a good outcome for the merchant.

For instance, UK-based private jet service, Mirai Flights, was able to increase its revenue by 30% since partnering with CoinsPaid to accept cryptocurrencies. Due to instant nature of digital asset transactions, over 10% of the company’s fliers now pay in crypto.

How Do Cryptocurrency Payment Gateways Work?

Cryptocurrency payments integrations can look quite different to that of fiat payments on the merchant side. This is mainly because there is an ‘instant conversion’ mechanic at play which converts the crypto into a fiat balance such as EUR. There are usually familiar processes when it comes to both deposits and withdrawals – after all, with an online gaming business, there is often the option to ‘top up’ some kind of balance which can then be withdrawn at a later stage.

When depositing crypto, a user will likely see a “crypto deposit” option on the merchant’s site, being invited to choose the kind of crypto that they choose to pay in;

According to the input information, an address with a QR code will be presented to the user;

Depending on the user’s preferences, they may choose to either scan the QR code using their phone, which will then open the installed crypto wallet on their smart device, or copy and paste the address manually into the built-in interface of their crypto wallet application;

The user will then initiate the transaction, during which the payment processor will make an automatic exchange of the received crypto into the desired fiat balance;

The merchant’s system then receives an API callback with the information about the deposit including the transaction’s status, currency pairs, amount, fees and so on;

Lastly, the amount is added to the user’s EUR balance on the merchant’s site.

Withdrawals are just as simple, and they start with a fiat balance on the merchant’s portal and a user request to withdraw in crypto.

The user will interact with a ‘crypto withdrawal’ option on the merchant’s site, being invited to choose the kind of crypto they wish to be paid in;

They will then be invited to insert their address for payout;

According to the input information, the site makes a request to the processing party;

The payment processor makes an automatic exchange from the selected fiat currency, such as EUR, to an indicated cryptocurrency, such as BTC;

The merchant’s system receives an API callback with transaction parameters, including the transaction’s status, currency pairs, amount, fees and so on;

Lastly, the user’s EUR balance is decreased as per the transaction amount.

With every cryptocurrency payment processing gateway, there is a certain degree of flexibility as to the way in which users will input their information and confirm transactions. A big element of that flexibility relates to payment methods. CoinsPaid, for instance, offers a variety of options to fit any business model:

Invoices without restriction of payment time. Here, the user chooses a currency of payment themselves without a time restriction. The rate will be fixed when the user confirms their payment currency.

Invoices with payment time restriction. Here, the user chooses a currency of payment themselves, but the time restriction will be 15 minutes starting from the creation of the invoice.

Payment Channel Networks. These are blockchain-based systems that allow for numerous, fast and cost-efficient transactions between two parties for a set amount of time.

Plugins. These are pieces of software that integrate into an existing program as a pop up or an embedded payment portal, for example.

Payment links. Simply, a link is generated and sent to the client over email or an instant messenger such as Whatsapp.

Integrating Cryptocurrency Payment Gateway

Crypto payment providers, such as CoinsPaid, tend to integrate via API. If you’ve ever integrated another service’s API onto your platform, such as that of an automated KYC vendor, this will be a familiar process to you.

If you’re unfamiliar with what an API is, it’s effectively an interface that allows the merchant’s website to ‘talk’ to a platform’s server.

Before you commit to a service, the team behind a crypto payment platform will aim to provide you with a demo account so you can get comfortable beforehand. Here, you’ll be able to familiarise yourself with the merchant dashboard and test all the tools, but some pre-test steps are usually required from you. As is the case with CryptoProcessing by CoinsPaid, you’ll be invited to download a testnet Bitcoin wallet, before acquiring testnet coins by visiting a designated website and entering your address, generated in the testnet Bitcoin wallet.

If you choose the hands-on approach and hold cryptocurrency on your books, you can choose which digital assets you want to store the funds in and set up automatic conversions of the incoming crypto revenue into this currency. You can set up withdrawals from the CoinsPaid account to an external crypto wallet. Often, merchants have a cold wallet, like a Ledger or Trezor, and store larger amounts there for extra security.

Alternatively, if you choose the hands-off approach, then in the dashboard you can set up automatic conversions into fiat, like USD or euro, when using the processing API. Also, you can make a withdrawal of fiat to a bank account, you’ll just need to link the account to your CoinsPaid dashboard. Also, in the dashboard you can set up the access roles for different people in your company – for example, who can just view the transactions, and so on.

As you can probably tell, the integration process on chúng tôi is pretty convenient and straightforward– this is why we’ve chosen to analyse their integration procedure in our article today.

What to Pay Attention to When Choosing a Cryptocurrency Payment System?

Firstly, a risk scoring system should be in place. In other words, one needs to be sure that a provider conducts ongoing transaction monitoring to stamp out any possibility of money laundering, terrorist financing or other criminal activity;

Secondly, the provider should support fiat conversions. Regardless of whether a company is looking for a ‘hands-on’ or ‘hands-off’ approach, instant fiat conversion is commonplace in the industry and one should have questions for Bitcoin payment gateways not interested in its provision. For example, CoinsPaid makes sure that their clients don’t need a background in crypto;

Next, make sure to check the setup fee. The fine print will often reveal hefty setup fees under the guise of ‘API integration fees’. The truth is, crypto payment processing is fairly easy to set up, which is why the largest player on the market, CryptoProcessing by CoinsPaid, doesn’t have any setup fees; 

SWIFT and SEPA are the two most widely used forms of cross-border transfers. If a cryptocurrency payment processor doesn’t support either one of these, you should have questions relating to their scalability and ability to handle cross-border payments; 

As an honourable mention – one should investigate the frills of a company’s offering. What can they offer your company to sweeten the pot? Often, channels, invoices, e-commerce plugins and a large number of payment options can be welcome bonuses.

It’ll come as no surprise that CoinsPaid offering checks each of these boxes. For that very reason, we’re convinced of its title as the best cryptocurrency payment gateway on the market.

Summing up

As with most things in life, getting your head around crypto processing is easy, but understanding it on a technical level is much harder. Alas, we arrive at the aim of today’s article – to provide a crypto-curious audience with a comprehensive guide on crypto payment providers.

What Are Jpeg Photos? (And Are They Different From Jpg)

If you have any type of photo on your computer or mobile device, odds are, you’re probably looking at a JPEG file, but what exactly is a JPEG photo?

JPEG files are one of the most common and widely readable image files available. By using lossy compression, JPEG files help reduce the overall size of your image files, without sacrificing image quality. For uploading photos to the web or sharing pictures with others, JPEG is the best file type to use.

What Are Jpeg Photos?

JPEG comes from “Joint Photographic Experts Group”, which is also the name of the committee that created it.

JPEG is the most commonly used format in digital cameras. Furthermore, most images we see online today are JPEGs.

JPEGs are split into two subcategories: Exif  (for digital cameras) and JFIF (for storing and transferring)

So what exactly is a jpeg? A Jpeg file format is a format for representing an image. Jpeg photos are smaller versions of the same image and they are typically used in web-based applications. However, JPEGs are not just a file format, but also a lossy compression method. 

Lossy Compression is the process of retaining as much visual information as possible, without sacrificing the size of the file. This type of compression discards some original data, so there is some quality loss. In comparison, formats like TIFF, GIF, or PNG use lossless compression meaning there is no data loss, but higher file sizes.

A jpeg image is a digital file with a standardized “picture image” format. The final image discards high-frequency information and color aka everything that our eyes are bad at noticing. Jpeg allows you to use any color space imaginable – RGB, YCbCr, CIELAB, and so on.

The Process Of Jpeg File Compression

There are three stages of JPEG compression:

1. Chrominance Subsampling – separation of the luminance from the chrominance

2. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) & Quantization

3. Run-Length, Delta & Huffman Encoding

This process goes as follows: You take an RGB image and convert it into YCbCr to achieve a separation of the luminance from the chrominance. Then the image goes through downsampling, compressing the frequencies that are less visible to the eye – reducing the amount of color in the image. A loss in hue and saturation will be less visible to the human eye, therefore the downsampling is done only for the color component.

The next step is Discrete Cosine Transformation. This is at the core of how JPEG compression works. It represents image data as the sum of all the cosine waves. In JPEG, each image is split into 8×8 pixel groups (square of pixels) that all have their own cosine transformation.

The 64 modified elements are divided by a Quantization Coefficient and then rounded. In the end, they become integers. This is called quantization and it’s the lossy part of the whole process. Lastly, the image is encoded by using a combination of run-length and Huffman (entropy) coding.

Opening a JPEG file entails decoding it. When we are decoding a JPEG file, all these steps are reversed. You can open a JPEG with almost any program that you can imagine, even across all forms of computers, tablets, and smartphones.

Since JPEGs entail a lossy image compression, some information will ultimately end up being lost. The decoded image will be slightly different than the original RAW file from the camera. The sacrifice of losing a little bit of quality in order to get a smaller file size and increased speed is worth it, especially when the difference between the original and final image is often unnoticeable.

What Are The Advantages Of Jpeg Files?

1. JPEG’s Are An Effective Form Of Image Compression

Compressing a file in Jpeg can save on file space and increase download speed due to the smaller size. But not to worry, JPEGs compress an image while still maintaining the most essential visual characteristics of that photo. So even though you are getting a smaller file, everything will look exactly like it did in-camera after export.

2. Better File Readability

JPEG can be opened by most devices and software out there. Most editors, image viewers, browsers, and webpages can support JPEG files, which means that you don’t have to switch to a different format in order to open an image.

JPEGs are compatible with platforms like  Microsoft Windows Photos, Apple Preview, Adobe Photoshop, Google Drive, Google Photos, and many more.

3. JPEG’s Retain Color Information Well

Unlike vector images, JPEGs can deliver a wide range of unique shades and tones.  They use 8 bits of each color (RGB) and store 24 bits per pixel that can display up to 16 million unique colors.

When it comes to graphics, you would be better off using vector graphics. However, Jpeg image files are a much better way of representing photographs.

4. You Can Control The Compression Amount

A JPEGs quality setting levels are split into low, medium, and high. If the compression rate gets higher (lower quality rating), the images become more pixelated and colors begin to fall apart.

Therefore, a highly compressed JPEG file will noticeably have a much lower quality. There are situations where you might need a lower quality setting though such as for thumbnail images on a website. In most cases, leaving the compression amount to 100 (best quality) will get the job done. 

Regardless of which compression you choose, JPEG files make it easy to manually control your compression amount. This type of control isn’t as simple with other image file types.

5. JPEG’s Can Be Shared Straight From Camera

When you’re taking photos on your digital camera or smartphone, JPEG files can be uploaded and shared right after they are taken. With other forms of image files in photography like the RAW file, you need to re-export the file through an editing software before you can share the photo. By capturing JPEG files, your photos are ready to go the moment they are taken!

Jpeg Vs. Jpg – What’s The Difference?

Both JPEG and JPG are the same type of file, each standing for “Joint Photographic Experts Group.” The file extension of JPG came from older windows computers that required a max 3 letter extension name. On modern computers, the JPEG file extension is more commonly seen but some people still refer to these files as JPG.

That’s one of the reasons why we still hear about JPGs and why people get confused when they stumble upon both of these names.

How Do I Convert An Image To Jpeg?

There are a lot of free options out there when it comes to converting an image to JPEG – online, as well as offline. Let’s go through a few of your options.

You can convert an image to a JPEG format by using most image-editing software available out there, like Photoshop or Gimp.

In Photoshop, you can convert an image to JPEG after editing a RAW photograph. A raw image is an uncompressed format that takes longer to read than JPEGs but holds more file information for editing. When doing drastic brightening or color adjustments, the JPEG format is not the most suitable one to use for that. Since there is less file information, the image begins to fall apart as it gets adjusted.

That’s why performing edits on RAW files and then exporting them as JPEGs is the best option when it comes to photo editing!

Using Computer Apps: – How To Convert An Image To JPEG In Photoshop (Paid)

Open and edit your RAW image in Photoshop as you wish.

– Converting An Image To JPEG in Windows Paint or Paint 3d (Free)

Open your image in Paint.

– Exporting As JPEG Using Preview on Mac (Free)

In the Format box select JPEG

Using Free Web-Based Apps:

Choose a File from your computer

Upload the file that you want to convert.

Set convert options (in the Convert to section, choose JPEG)

How Does a JPEG File Look Like?

The first thing that can tell you if an image is a JPEG or not is the filename extension. In most cases, it ends with .jpg or .jpeg.

But now let’s go beyond this detail and talk more about the image and the actual data.

JPEGs are raster images. That means that they’re made out of pixels – as opposed to vector images that are based on mathematical formulas. If you look very closely at a JPEG image, you will see that it’s actually made up of thousands of smaller colored squares, aka pixels.

JPEGs contain all of the graphic information inside the image – brightness levels, color, tone of the image, bitrates, resolution, and so on.

To understand how JPEG data looks like, we have to take a more in-depth look at the process of image compression.  Values between 0 and 255 are used to represent a digital photograph. It makes more sense to use fewer bits to represent values that occur more often and more bits to represent values that occur less frequently. This is the process of reducing coding redundancy in JPEG compression! That means that the important information stays there because this color reduction is less obvious to the human eye since people have low acuity for color differences.

At the end of this chroma subsampling process, the color space transformation ends up being almost the same as the original. What does that mean specifically? The final image (output) is going to be a different image. When you access the image on the internet, you will notice it’s a whole lot smaller in size. But it will look very similar to the initial image. So much so, that you won’t be able to tell the difference.

However, you can also get to choose the quality of your final image. The quantization step may result in an image that looks almost identical to the original, but it can also result in a fuzzy one that seems to be comprised of several blocks. It all depends on the level of compression you choose to use. Higher compression means more artifacts.

At the end of the day, the only thing that really matters for you is that you see the .JPEG or .JPG file extension. Without having to do any technical sleuthing, you can identify which of your files are JPEGs simply by their extension!

– Brendan 🙂

What Do Router Ac Ratings Like Ac1200 And Ac3200 Mean?

There are numbers attached to the end that tell you the theoretical maximum speeds — AC1200, AC1900, AC5300, etc. These numbers claim to refer to how many megabits per second (Mbps) you can get from the router, but in practice, you’ll want to take the “theoretical” part of “theoretical maximum” pretty seriously.

What the number appears to mean

If you look at your router’s model number, you will always see a term like “AC 1200,” “AC 1900,” etc., regardless of the brand of the router. So what does this mean? The number behind the “AC” actually refers to bandwidth.

Take an AC1200 router, which maxes out its bandwidth at 1200 megabits per second, or 1.2 gigabits per second (Gbps). Since eight bits equals one byte, a 1200 Mbps connection would be enough to download about 150 megabytes per second – enough to get a whole movie in half a minute.

So, since the current maximum speed for most people is 1 Gbps (if you’re lucky enough to have a good Internet connection), why would anyone bother getting an AC5300 router? AC1200 already seems like overkill. The short answer: because neither router actually gets you past 1 Gbps, and it’ll probably get you much less.

What the number really means

The number after the AC actually refers to the sum of all the bandwidth that can theoretically be delivered by each band/frequency that the router uses. If a router has two bands (2.4GHz and 5GHz, which are the standard bands used for Wi-Fi), one of the bands may claim a maximum of 450 Mbps and the other 1300 Mbps – 1750 in total. You can get higher AC numbers by having bands with higher throughput ratings (1733 Mbps is pretty popular) or by adding more bands.

Here’s the catch, though: your devices can probably only connect to the signal from one band at a time. If your computer is connected to the 1300 Mbps band, the other band won’t be giving you 450 more Mbps. It’ll just go unused. Getting a router with more bands (and thus a higher sum of theoretical maximums) won’t really do much for speed.

How theoretical is the theoretical maximum?

More realistically, a mid-range AC1200 router will deliver around 300 or 400 Mbps on a good day, and upgrading to something fancier will probably deliver marginal speed gains at best.

Higher numbers equal more computers, not more speed

But just because higher AC numbers don’t make your connection faster doesn’t mean that they’re useless. A model with a big number will generally have more antennas and bands (but not necessarily faster ones) and maybe better features, with newer technology like MU-MIMO (Multiuser, Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output) allowing more users to connect to a router without suffering speed losses.

A four-antenna AC5300 router could handle four bandwidth-heavy users without the slowdown that conventional routers might get. In addition, the higher the number on the band you’re connected to, the more data it can handle from multiple devices. If you’ve only got a few devices using a bit of bandwidth though, a lower-powered AC router will handle your traffic just fine.

Conclusion: It’s a pretty confusing number

In the end, the number that you see after the AC is pretty close to meaningless. It’s the sum of the very theoretical maximum speeds of multiple bands that you can’t connect to simultaneously, and it really only gives you a hint about how it might be able to handle more computers at once.

To get an idea of a router’s actual speed, buyers are better off checking reviews and looking for real-world testing data. Given that gigabit-speed Internet is still quite rare, though, not being able to get past 500 Mbps isn’t really an issue for most people – and if it is, there’s always the old Ethernet cable standby, and we’re getting closer to gig Wi-Fi all the time.

Andrew Braun

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What Do Equity Traders Do?

Equity Trader

Buyers and sellers of company shares on the capital markets

Written by

Andrew Loo

Published August 29, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

What is an Equity Trader?

An equity trader is someone who participates in the buying and selling of company shares on the equity market. Similar to someone who invests in the debt capital markets, an equity trader invests in the equity capital markets and exchanges their money for company stocks instead of bonds.

Fundamental Analysis

Before jumping straight into buying company shares, you need to evaluate the financial position of the company and determine whether or not it is a worthwhile investment. Fundamental analysis consists of analyzing financial statements such as a balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, or even a statement of retained earnings. An equity trader looks at financial metrics such as profit margin, quick ratio, and receivables. Anything that can give an equity trader insight into whether or not a company is performing well is looked into and analyzed thoroughly prior to making an investment decision.

Technical Analysis

The second type of analysis that an equity trader uses is technical analysis. This type of analysis involves statistics, averages, past data, volumes, and much more. Some common tools that investors use with technical analysis are correlation, regressions, and inter-market and intra-market prices. A variety of technical analysis tools are used to help an investor in predicting what a stock might do given historic data and activities.

Difference Between Equity and Debt Securities

A lot of people are familiar with equity securities but not as many are familiar with debt securities. People who do not know the difference between the two securities might sometimes classify debt securities as equity security unknowingly, and this is where confusion can occur.

Debt securities

Debt securities, traded on the debt capital markets, include bonds, treasuries, money market instruments, and more. They are usually issued with a fixed interest rate which is determined by the ability of the issuer to repay the debt. Issuers that are rated as possibly defaulting on their interest payments to investors are forced to offer higher rates of interest in order to attract buyers willing to accept a higher level of risk. Another important note on debt securities is that they offer a wide range of maturities, from short-term securities that mature in a matter of months, all the way to 30-year Treasury bonds.

Equity securities

The most well-known type of equity securities are common stocks of publicly-traded companies. These are issued by companies to shareholders and confer an ownership (equity) interest in the company. Many stocks pay quarterly dividends to shareholders, although neither specific dividend amounts nor any dividend at all is guaranteed.

Equity securities offer potentially higher returns on investment (ROI) than debt securities, but the potentially higher return is accompanied by inherently greater risk. The equity market is also much more volatile than the debt securities market.

The added risk associated with equity trading is why an equity trader does constant research and market analysis in order to make the best possible investment decisions.

Risks for an Equity Trader

There are multiple types of risks that are involved with equity trading. There is systematic risk — the risk that is inherent in the equity markets and therefore common to all stocks, and unsystematic risk — the risk that is specific to an individual stock or company. Three broad categories of risks that affect the equity markets are political, interest rate, and regulatory risk.

Regulatory risk

Regulatory risk stems from the in-depth relationship between government and businesses. Governments constantly pass laws and institute regulations that can significantly impact individual companies or the equity markets as a whole. In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, government regulation of investing and the financial services industry expanded substantially and has affected all of the financial markets. It’s estimated that merely the costs of compliance with the comprehensive Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 have decreased return on assets (ROA) for small, community banks by as much as 14 basis points.

Regulatory risk is, in short, the risk that one or more government regulations may negatively impact a company’s profitability.

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk refers to the risk posed to businesses by the possibility of rising interest rates. Because many companies carry millions of dollars in debt, even a small change in interest rates can have a significant impact on a company’s cash flow and ability to repay its outstanding debt. Due to the fact that nearly all businesses rely to some extent on debt financing, interest rate risk is a nearly universal concern for businesses.

In addition to the risk posed regarding a company’s ability to manage its own debt, rising interest rates can negatively affect businesses through the impact of higher interest rates on consumers. Consumers faced with coping with higher interest rates in relation to their personal debt may cut back on discretionary spending – i.e., stop buying as many consumer goods. This can have a depressive effect on the whole economy, presenting further dangers for companies in terms of remaining profitable or even just financially solvent.

Political risk

Political risk can be defined as any risk that corporations or investors face due to political decisions, events, or conditions. Any changes in government, legislative bodies, trade policy, or foreign policy by one or more countries can be factors of political risk. The current situation regarding import tariffs charged by various countries is an instance of political risk. High import tariffs put in place by the government of country “A” may make it difficult for a company in country “B”, one that relies heavily on export sales to individuals or businesses in country “A”, to continue operating profitably.

A well-known historical instance of political risk was when Saudi Arabia nationalized the oil industry within its borders during the 1970s. This led to the world’s major oil companies losing nearly 50% of their share of the global oil market, and a major increase in oil and gas prices.

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What Are The Best One

What are the best one-handed Skyrim weapons?

Here are some great one handed Skyrim weapons that you can grab in game.

Hello there, Nords, today we take you through Nord training school, getting you up to speed with martial practices over here in Skyrim. Are you planning on plating a Warrior, perhaps a Rogue, or a Battle Mage, or something entirely different? Well, if the answer is yes, we will guide you through the best one0handed Skyrim weapon.

Note, this article is taking into account anyone who is playing the Skyrim Special Edition, along with the Skyrim 10th Anniversary edition, which launches on November 11. If you’re new to the game or getting rekindled with one of the most popular RPGs of all time, this will get you up to speed in no time.

Best one-handed Skyrim weapons

Blade of Woe

Blade of Woe is one of the most iconic weapons in Elder Scrolls. The blade is part of the Dark Brotherhood (as are quite a few weapons on this list). You can grab the weapon by stealing it from the Dark Brotherhood’s Astrid or by finishing the “With Friends Like These” quest. The great thing about this weapon is it grants the player 10 life on hit, making it a cheeky weapon on harder difficulties.

Chillrend

Chillrend is an ice-themed sword, that has a chance to paralyze opponents. Not to mention it is one of the coolest weapons in the game. Whenever you unsheath the blade from its cabers, ice reigns down from the weapon, hissing as ice cracks and thaws. The weapon is fairly easy to come across, as you can earn it from Mercer Frey, the leader of the Thieves Guild. If you complete the quest, The Pursuit, inside Riftweald Manor, you will get to keep it. Alternatively, you can steal it from a  locked box inside the manor. Moreso, the weapon scales as you level up, so you can grab it at level one, and make it your main one-handed weapon.

Dawnbreaker

Paladins, Clerics, rejoice, as there is a weapon for your chivalric, holy warriors. The Dawnbreaker is appreciably golden themed, reflecting the seven in its design. But, while it is visually appealing, it does have its benefits. The sword is a go-to for anyone crusading against all that is unholy and evil in Skyrim. Skeletons and Vampires will take extra damage against you, and will have a chance to ignite in a fiery blaze, turning to ash before your very eyes. Note the power of the sword is from a  Daedric Prince, one that is not entirely evil mind you. If you’re interested in this weapon, you can acquire it by completing the Break of Dawn quest.

Dragonbane

Dragonbane is a sword that, as you can imagine, is all about killing Dragons. The weapon grants an extra 40 Damages as you strike at Dragons. The weapon isn’t entirely useless against non Draconic foes either, as it will deal 10 shock damage to those foes instead. Don’t forget to fill those soul gems and replenish its power.

Miraak’s Sword

If you want the strongest damage dealing weapon among the one-handed class, then you might like Miraak’s Sword. Moreso, it has three weights, making it only slightly slower than the Dragonborn Dagger and the Blade of Woe. If you want a Rogue playthrough, you should grab this spooky tentacle weapon, along with the Dragonborn Dagger or Balde of Woe.

Windshear

Windshear is quite a powerful Scimitar, perfect for a character looking to roleplay as a Redguard. You can grab yourself the Winshear by finishing the Hail Sithis quest from the Dark Brotherhood.  When you get to the quest, you unlock the Katariah ship, which you can go to during the quest, or after if you are only just learning about this now. The Scimitar boasts 11 Damage, and 10 Weight, and is upgradeable via Steel Smithing. If you’re interested in upgrading this weapon and making it better as your progress, this is one of the best one-handed Skyrim weapons to keep you company.

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