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Every keyboard has a set of Function Keys F1-F12 on the top row, however, the old computer sets used to have these keys gathered on the left side of the keyboard. While every function key caters special function, these can also be combined with Alt Keys and Ctrl Command keys to make the useful keyboard shortcuts. If you are a casual computer user, you might not really be aware of these function keys and their use. In this post, we will talk about what do these keyboard F1 to F12 function Keys do.

Besides these F1-F12 12 function keys, there is a special Fn key located next to the Ctrl key on your keyboard. The Fn key is used to activate special Function Keys which are marked by special icons in the same color. For example, key F1 on my laptop’s keyboard has a small icon of Touchpad Off in a color code matching to the Fn Key; which means Fn+F1 will turn my Touchpad Off/On. Function keys work differently on different programs.

TIP: Read how to swap or change Function key behavior in Windows laptops.

What do Keyboard F1 to F12 Function Keys do F1 Key

F1 key is universally linked to Help in almost every program, may it be Chrome or Microsoft Word.

Win Key+F1 opens the Microsoft Windows help and support center.

Shift + F1 reveals formatting in MS Word.

Ctrl+F1 opens Task Pane in MS Office.

F2 Key

Ctrl+F2 opens the print preview in MS Word.

Fn+F2 mutes the volume of your PC.

Alt+Ctrl+F2 opens document library in MS Office.

F3 Key

F3 often activates search functions in different applications including the leading browsers like Google Chrome, Firefox and Microsoft Edge.

Fn+F3 to decrease the volume in some laptops.

Shift +F3 opens the search in Google Chrome.

F4 Key

F4 is often used to close the applications. Alt+F4 closes the currently open program.

Alt+F4 opens the shutdown option when no program is open.

Ctrl+F4 closes a part of the running program such as a tab or a document.

F4 takes you to the address bar in Windows Explorer and Microsoft Edge.

F4 opens a fullscreen window in some applications like Space Cadet and 3D Pinball.

F5 Key

F5 Key is often used to refresh a web page.

Fn+F5 decreases brightness on your monitor on some laptops.

Read: How to type Does not equal sign on keyboard.

F6 Key

This key takes you to the address bar in some browsers like Google Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge and many other popular browsers.

Fn+F6 increases the brightness of your monitor on some laptops.

F7 Key

F7 opens spelling and grammar checker in MS Word.

Shift+F7 opens thesaurus in MS Word.

Fn+F7 opens second screen options in some laptops and opens display schemes in some laptops.

F8 Key

Commonly used to start your Windows PC in Safe Mode.

Takes you to the Windows Recovery system at times.

F9 Key

If you are using MS Word, the F9 key will update your document.

F10 Key

F10 Key opens Menu Bar in the open application.

F11 Key

Enters and exits Full-Screen Mode in almost every popular browser including Chrome, Firefox and Microsoft Edge.

CTRL+F11 opens the hidden recovery options in some Windows laptops.

Alt+F11 opens the Visual Basic Editor.

F12 Key

Win+F12 saves your document in MS Word.

CTRL+F12 opens a document in MS Word.

Opens Inspect Element in popular web browsers.

Some of these features are available only on some selected laptops. Usually, these options features of Function Keys have default actions or icons printed on them.

PS: Ever wondered why there are bumps on the F and J on a computer keyboard? See this post if Function keys are not working.

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What Do Equity Traders Do?

Equity Trader

Buyers and sellers of company shares on the capital markets

Written by

Andrew Loo

Published August 29, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

What is an Equity Trader?

An equity trader is someone who participates in the buying and selling of company shares on the equity market. Similar to someone who invests in the debt capital markets, an equity trader invests in the equity capital markets and exchanges their money for company stocks instead of bonds.

Fundamental Analysis

Before jumping straight into buying company shares, you need to evaluate the financial position of the company and determine whether or not it is a worthwhile investment. Fundamental analysis consists of analyzing financial statements such as a balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, or even a statement of retained earnings. An equity trader looks at financial metrics such as profit margin, quick ratio, and receivables. Anything that can give an equity trader insight into whether or not a company is performing well is looked into and analyzed thoroughly prior to making an investment decision.

Technical Analysis

The second type of analysis that an equity trader uses is technical analysis. This type of analysis involves statistics, averages, past data, volumes, and much more. Some common tools that investors use with technical analysis are correlation, regressions, and inter-market and intra-market prices. A variety of technical analysis tools are used to help an investor in predicting what a stock might do given historic data and activities.

Difference Between Equity and Debt Securities

A lot of people are familiar with equity securities but not as many are familiar with debt securities. People who do not know the difference between the two securities might sometimes classify debt securities as equity security unknowingly, and this is where confusion can occur.

Debt securities

Debt securities, traded on the debt capital markets, include bonds, treasuries, money market instruments, and more. They are usually issued with a fixed interest rate which is determined by the ability of the issuer to repay the debt. Issuers that are rated as possibly defaulting on their interest payments to investors are forced to offer higher rates of interest in order to attract buyers willing to accept a higher level of risk. Another important note on debt securities is that they offer a wide range of maturities, from short-term securities that mature in a matter of months, all the way to 30-year Treasury bonds.

Equity securities

The most well-known type of equity securities are common stocks of publicly-traded companies. These are issued by companies to shareholders and confer an ownership (equity) interest in the company. Many stocks pay quarterly dividends to shareholders, although neither specific dividend amounts nor any dividend at all is guaranteed.

Equity securities offer potentially higher returns on investment (ROI) than debt securities, but the potentially higher return is accompanied by inherently greater risk. The equity market is also much more volatile than the debt securities market.

The added risk associated with equity trading is why an equity trader does constant research and market analysis in order to make the best possible investment decisions.

Risks for an Equity Trader

There are multiple types of risks that are involved with equity trading. There is systematic risk — the risk that is inherent in the equity markets and therefore common to all stocks, and unsystematic risk — the risk that is specific to an individual stock or company. Three broad categories of risks that affect the equity markets are political, interest rate, and regulatory risk.

Regulatory risk

Regulatory risk stems from the in-depth relationship between government and businesses. Governments constantly pass laws and institute regulations that can significantly impact individual companies or the equity markets as a whole. In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, government regulation of investing and the financial services industry expanded substantially and has affected all of the financial markets. It’s estimated that merely the costs of compliance with the comprehensive Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 have decreased return on assets (ROA) for small, community banks by as much as 14 basis points.

Regulatory risk is, in short, the risk that one or more government regulations may negatively impact a company’s profitability.

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk refers to the risk posed to businesses by the possibility of rising interest rates. Because many companies carry millions of dollars in debt, even a small change in interest rates can have a significant impact on a company’s cash flow and ability to repay its outstanding debt. Due to the fact that nearly all businesses rely to some extent on debt financing, interest rate risk is a nearly universal concern for businesses.

In addition to the risk posed regarding a company’s ability to manage its own debt, rising interest rates can negatively affect businesses through the impact of higher interest rates on consumers. Consumers faced with coping with higher interest rates in relation to their personal debt may cut back on discretionary spending – i.e., stop buying as many consumer goods. This can have a depressive effect on the whole economy, presenting further dangers for companies in terms of remaining profitable or even just financially solvent.

Political risk

Political risk can be defined as any risk that corporations or investors face due to political decisions, events, or conditions. Any changes in government, legislative bodies, trade policy, or foreign policy by one or more countries can be factors of political risk. The current situation regarding import tariffs charged by various countries is an instance of political risk. High import tariffs put in place by the government of country “A” may make it difficult for a company in country “B”, one that relies heavily on export sales to individuals or businesses in country “A”, to continue operating profitably.

A well-known historical instance of political risk was when Saudi Arabia nationalized the oil industry within its borders during the 1970s. This led to the world’s major oil companies losing nearly 50% of their share of the global oil market, and a major increase in oil and gas prices.

Additional Resources

Earnings per Share

Fiscal Year


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What To Do: September 5

What to Do: September 5-7 The Sox, reggaeton, Hitchcock, and more

The South End Open Market offers food, art, and designer finds by local artists. Photo courtesy of the South End Open Market

It’s been a long week. That English class you thought would be easy? Five papers. Your cool new Allston apartment? It’s a little, um, roach-y. Your Facebook status: “… is STRESSED.” May we suggest taking a break and having some fun? Here’s how:

Friday, September 5

If you’re new to Boston, you may be wondering what’s so great about that baseball team people are always talking about. Find out for yourself at BU Central, in the basement of the George Sherman Union, where you can watch the Red Sox take on the Texas Rangers and enter to win tickets for a game. Doors open at 7:30 p.m. and game time is 8:05. Admission is free with a BU ID, and you can bring two guests.

Not a baseball fan? BU’s Programming Council comes to your rescue with the annual drive-in double feature on Nickerson Field. Sex and the City comes on at 8 p.m. and Iron Man plays at 10. Admission is free with a BU ID. For more information, visit the Student Activities Office Web site.

If music is more your thing, head down the street to the Paradise to catch Welsh rockers Stereophonics at 9 p.m. This is the first stop on the band’s long-awaited North American tour in support of two upcoming releases: the deluxe edition of last year’s Pull the Pin on September 9 and Decade in the Sun: The Best of Stereophonics on November 20. The show is 18-plus and tickets are $25. For more information, visit the Paradise Web site.

Why should graduate students have all the fun? The school of visual arts at the College of Fine Arts starts the academic year with a new undergraduate showcase, featuring painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, printmaking, and graphic design — all by your fellow students. The exhibition will be at the 808 Gallery, 808 Commonwealth Ave., until September 14. On Saturday, the gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Admission is free. For more information, visit the gallery Web site.

Saturday night, there’s another show to see: My Morning Jacket plays the Bank of America Pavilion, 290 Northern Ave., Boston. Tickets are $31 for the 7:30 p.m. show. For more information, visit the venue’s Web site.

Sunday, September 7

Film major? Don’t miss a series of cinema classics at the Brattle Theatre‘s “Hitchcock’s ’50s,” with a doubleheader of Vertigo and Rear Window at 2 and 4:30 p.m. and again at 7 and 9:30 p.m. For more information, visit the Web site.

Get what you need to decorate your dorm room and find cool designer and vintage fashions to fill your closet at the SoWa Open Market in Boston’s beautiful South End. Or just snack on baked goods and produce from local providers. The market is open every Sunday, beginning at 10 a.m., until the end of October. For more information, visit the Web site.

Jessica Ullian can be reached at [email protected].

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How To Remap Keyboard Keys In Windows 11

There are situations where you would want to change a keyboard key to a different key function for gaming purposes or for your works. This guide will show you how to reassign keyboard keys in Windows 11 using a tool called PowerToys by Microsoft.

For most gaming keyboards, you can easily remap keyboard keys using the software that comes with the keyboard, for example, Razer Synapse for Razer keyboards, or Logitech G Hub for Logitech keyboards. However, for normal keyboard that don’t have any software support, you can use tools that support universal keyboards such as PowerToys to change keyboard key mapping in Windows 11.

Also see: How to Swap Ctrl, Caps Lock, Alt and Shift in Windows 11

You can also use PowerToys to change key bindings for gaming keyboards or any other keyboard if you prefer not to use their own software.

Terminology tips: Changing key bindings, remapping a key or reassigning a keyboard key all have the same meaning, which is to change a keyboard key to a different key, function or shortcut.

How to change keyboard keys in Windows 11

To remap a keyboard key in Windows 11, we need to use a tool called PowerToys developed by Microsoft. Microsoft PowerToys is a set of freeware system utilities designed for power users to enhance their experience in Windows 11 and Windows 10.

It has a feature called Keyboard Manager which allows users to remap keyboard keys or shortcuts to other keys or shortcuts. To learn how to remap a keyboard key using PowerToys, follow the steps below.

Interesting Tip: How to Print Screen Without PrtScr Button

First, download Microsoft PowerToys from the following GitHub repository.

Note: The screenshot above is as of Sept 2023. You may see a different version of PowerToys if there is a later version at the time you’re downloading it.

See also: How to Disable a Keyboard Key in Windows 11

Install PowerToys

Once you’ve downloaded the installer, open the setup and install PowerToys.

When you are asked if you would like to automatically start PowerToys at Windows logon. We recommend enabling this option as you will need PowerToys to run at the background for whatever key mappings you’ve set to work. In other words, key bindings you’ve set in PowerToys will not work if PowerToys is closed.

Remap a key in Windows 11 using PowerToys

To remap a key, for example, reassigning the key E to Z so that when you press E, it will instead output Z, do the following.

The “Type” also accepts keys combination input such as Ctrl + C. That is to say, you can map any key or keys combination to another key or keyboard shortcut. For example, if you map the key E to Ctrl + Shift + Esc, when you press E, it will output Ctrl + Shift + Esc instead (which is to open the Task Manager).

Remap shortcut keys for specific applications

Related issue: Windows 11 Keyboard Shortcuts Not Working (Fix)

For example, in the screenshot below, I’ve remap the shortcut Ctrl + C to Ctrl + V in Chrome. Thus, when I work in Chrome browser, whenever I enter Ctrl + C (copy function), it will instead input Ctrl + V (paste function).

Delete a key mapping

What Do Accredited Investors Invest In?

Introduction to Accredited Investor

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The capital raising exercise from the general public involves a lot of costs including the cost of registering the securities with regulatory authorities like the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission). To avoid this complex and costly process some companies offer their securities directly to accredited investors. There is a lot of risks involved in this investment and the investors can even lose their entire investments.

That is why regulatory authorities prescribe certain conditions to be fulfilled for being an accredited investor such as high net worth, size of the assets, income and governance status, etc. so that not every investor invests in them. Since the securities are not registered with any regulatory authority, therefore, the role of regulatory authorities is limited to providing guidelines for setting required benchmarks for becoming an accredited investor. These requirements vary or differ from one jurisdiction to another.

How to Become an Accredited Investor?

As mentioned earlier, the requirements of becoming accredited investors as per the guidelines laid down by the regulatory authority vary as per the jurisdiction. The requirements of becoming accredited investors as per the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 501 of regulation D are as follows:

Investors should have an annual income of $200,000 as an individual or $300,000 as a joint income. Investors should have earned the mentioned income in the last two years and should be expecting the same or higher income in the current year as well.

For becoming an accredited investor an individual must have a net worth of above $1 million either individually or jointly with the spouse. The general partner, executive director for the issuer of the unregistered securities is also treated as accredited investors by the SEC.

An entity can become an accredited investor if it is a private business development company with an asset size exceeding $5 million. An entity having accredited equity investors is also considered an accredited investor.

If an individual or a corporation fulfills one or more of the above requirements, then they can reach out to the issuer of the unregistered securities and the issuer will ask the investors to fill out a questionnaire to clarify whether they actually qualify to become an accredited investor or not. Apart from this, there is no formal process to become an accredited investor.

Example of Accredited Investor

In this case investor’s annual income is below $200,000 as required in the case of a single accredited investor. Further, net worth which is calculated as assets reduced by liabilities comes out to be $9,90,000 [$600,000+$90,000+$400,000-$100,000]i.e. less than $1 million. The individual cannot qualify for becoming an accredited investor.

In the same case, if the net worth of the individual would have been $1 million or above, he would have been eligible to become an accredited investor irrespective of the level of his income.

What do Accredited Investors Invest In?

Accredited investors can invest in securities or investment options that are not available to the general public:

Real Estate Investment: The accredited investors can go for a partial stake in real estate investments, this type of investment is also known as crowdfunded real estate investment.

Venture Capital and Private Equity Fund: The accredited investors also invest in venture capital i.e. when a start-up company raises capital through unregistered securities and private equity funds which means when an already established company decides to increase its capital or share valuation and offers securities directly to accredited investors for this matter.

Hedge Funds: Accredited investors can also go for investing in hedge funds which is actually professionally managed fund very much like mutual funds with less regulatory requirements regarding how they can invest their funds. Less regulation makes it easier for hedge funds to choose highly complex alternative investment options.

Specialty Investment Fund: Apart from venture capital, private equity, and hedge funds, accredited investors can also invest in specialty investment fund i.e. alternative investment option which falls outside the purview of the above-mentioned funds, one of the examples of this kind of investment is the crypto fund, which is basically an investment in crypto-currency and crypto-assets.

Advantages of becoming an Accredited Investor

Accredited investors invest in securities through a private placement, which generally offers higher yield opportunities in comparison to the registered securities in the capital market.

An accredited investor can also go for the investment in small businesses that the investor believes will grow in the future.

Accredited investors by investing in alternative investment options can easily achieve diversification of the portfolio, which is a difficult task while investing in regular securities.

Accredited investors invest in higher yield opportunities providing investment options which are typically associated with higher risk as well.

These private investment options are generally to be held for a longer period of time; therefore, an investor cannot expect ease of liquidity while investing in alternative investment options.

Since accredited investors invest in non-regulated securities, thus, they need to exercise the utmost due diligence while investing.

Accredited investors pay high fees and the minimum limit of the investment is also higher.


As of right now, there is no formal process for becoming an accredited investor. So, any desiring high net worth individual can become one. But they need to exercise the utmost care, they should ensure that they have knowledge of the market, as these investment options are highly risky, and investors can even lose their entire money. But apart from this, it is an excellent source of raising capital for companies who do not want to go through the process of registration of their securities.

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What Not To Do In A Huge Storm

I wish I could blame the following stupidity on booze, but I don’t even have that crutch. I’ll blame it instead on being cooped up in the house for hours on end watching horrible things unfold on the internet and outside my window. See, right when that hurricane made landfall last night, my friends and I were wandering the streets of Brooklyn.

We left the apartment at about 7 p.m., walked north a few blocks and then headed west into an industrial area of Brooklyn. My goal was to check out the storm surge on Newtown Creek. Mind you, Newtown Creek is not the world’s most pleasant place. It is reputed to be one of the most polluted industrial sites in America–a cesspool of toxins, spilled oil, and raw sewage. But it’s only a mile from the apartment, and we really wanted to see the storm in action.

Within minutes, we were passing damaged buildings–in some cases, all of the siding of the structure had been ripped off, and building debris was strewn around the asphalt and gutters. That was a bit unnerving but nothing like what we found when we got to East Williamsburg. Sheet metal littered the sidewalk and smaller pieces of metal cartwheeled through the streets. A giant metal and wood For Sale sign had sprung loose from a building and was swinging and spinning wildly in the wind, held to the structure by a single wire. Metal roll-up doors failed and buckled, or pulled free entirely from buildings.

The wind was howling and the rain was coming down in sheets, which made it pretty difficult to see (and therefore dodge flying debris). Close to our destination, floodwaters stymied us. It was too deep to forde without hip waders. So we decided to go up a block further to see if we could get closer from there. That street was like a filmmaker’s post-apocalyptic fever dream: totally desolate, save the metal flying through the air. The wind was so bad I could hardly stay standing.

We managed to get about two blocks down this street when the storm somehow intensified. I didn’t think it was possible, but the wind gusted even more violently, and the rain hitting my face felt like I was being sprayed with small pebbles. Retrospectively, it was right around then that the storm made landfall in Southern New Jersey. My friends and I looked at each other with a “do we really want to go on?”

We turned once more into the storm. We didn’t know it at the time (it was pretty hard to see anything at that point), but we were 500 feet from our destination. Right then, the wind gusts peaked, and suddenly, my face felt moist and sticky. That’s when I realized: I’d gotten hit with Newtown Creek poo-mist.

Being smacked full in the face with sewage-laced creek spray was the final insult. We turned around and pretty much ran the entire way back. I kept my mouth closed and did not open it again until we got back to the apartment. Then I immediately hopped in the shower.

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