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It’s a year and a half since the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was enforced in the European Union. The main goal of the regulation was to give individuals greater privacy, clarity and control over how their data is used by online businesses, organizations and third parties. Under GDPR, companies must now give much more information on how they use and retain individuals’ data – whether it’s on websites, employment contracts, or online forms.

In this article we discuss exactly what GDPR is, what it means to the regular person, and the ways in which it’s been implemented since its enforcement last year.

What Is GDPR?

The idea of GDPR is to make EU laws relating to online privacy and data protection better-suited to the complexities of the online era. Many of the biggest online businesses rely on the steady stream of personal data we give away every day we’re on the Internet – from our cookies to Google searches to details that we enter into online surveys or other forms.

The big business of the internet is pretty much fueled by our data, and the idea of GDPR is to give us some more clarity and control over how it’s used, as well as force companies to be more responsible over what data they procure from us and how they use it.

This sounds good, but what exactly does it mean? Here are the key points concerning GDPR:

An individual’s, or “data subject’s,” personal data can only be processed if one of several “lawful purposes” are met. These include the individual giving their consent to process data, performing tasks in the public interest, protecting the vital interests of other individuals, or several other such “purposes.”

Subjects need to give their consent for data processing (hence, all those GDPR notices that started appearing on websites everywhere).

GDPR monitors companies, demanding that “appropriate technical and organizational measures” are taken to minimize risk of data abuse or breach.

Data security incidents that pose a threat to the “rights and freedoms” of data subjects must be reported to higher authorities within 72 hours.

Data collected from subjects gets anonymized for privacy protection.

The “right to be forgotten” allows users the ability to request that their data be erased from a database entirely. The user also has the right to ask the website to no longer process their data if they do not want it erased entirely. If a company has shared a user’s data with other parties, they all need to be notified about any erasures, corrections, or restrictions. The user must have the right for all their data processing to be halted from all parties

Data-handlers, made up of “controllers” (people and bodies who “determine the purposes and means of processing personal data”) and “processors” (people or bodies that process data on the controller’s behalf), are accountable for data being mishandled and can be fined if they’re found not to comply with the GDPR data-handling regulations.

All of these rights come with complementary obligations enforced on companies, and they could face severe consequences if they do not comply. The amount of detail put into this piece of legislation makes it perhaps one of the largest digital data privacy protection laws in the world.

What Effects Is GDPR Having?

The EU has not been messing around in enforcing GDPR and cracking down on companies that it believes to have fallen afoul of its regulations. The most high-profile GDPR case currently involves WhatsApp and the Irish Data Protection Commission, which has raised concerns over whether WhatsApp sufficiently informs its users about how it processes their data.

Right now the draft decision on the fine WhatsApp is expected to pay has been pushed back to 2023 after WhatsApp’s lawyers had a procedural complaint accepted.

In November 2023, the UK’s data protection agency issued warnings to ad tech companies over the processing of sensitive data and the contracts used to share data between vendors.

In November, Microsoft amended the privacy policies on its cloud contracts after an investigation from the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) raised concerns that its contracts and its role as a data processor for EU institutions wasn’t compliant with GDPR.


As you can see, the GDPR has caused a lot of privacy-related conflict between online businesses and the European Union. While companies are showing a willingness to abide by the GDPR’s stipulations, it’s clear that many of them have a long way to go before they’re fully compliant, and we’re likely to see the fines and warnings coming in thick and fast as companies are forced to adapt to the dramatically overhauled laws surrounding online privacy in the EU.

Robert Zak

Content Manager at Make Tech Easier. Enjoys Android, Windows, and tinkering with retro console emulation to breaking point.

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Everything You Need To Know About 360

Video comes in all sorts of aspect ratios, such as 16:9 widescreen and 21:9 ultra widescreen. These are pretty immersive, but what about a video that spans a whole 360-degree around you? 

Yes, it’s possible to make spherical video that really puts the viewer right in the middle of the action, but obviously the equipment that we use to make more traditional video isn’t the right solution. So if you’re interested in either making or consuming 360-degree video, here’s everything that you need to know.

Table of Contents

360-Degree Video Is Not (Exactly) VR

However, since 360-degree videos are not interactive or computer-generated, there is some debate as to what extent we can really lump them in with VR. So while the convention might be to refer to this media format as VR video, it’s good to know that a clear distinction exists.

Why Choose 360-Degree Video?

Every aspect ratio or format of video has its own unique attributes that make it suitable for one purpose or another. As has been said many times before, the medium is the message.

This type of video is perfect when you want to convey what it feels like to stand in a particular place. Unlike traditional video, the viewer in a 360-degree video gets to choose what deserves attention. You can’t direct their viewpoint through framing as with traditional video formats.

That means it’s best to use this video format for content that doesn’t rely on precise framing and benefit most from immersion. Training videos are one good example, as are concerts and theatre performances. Action sports videos have also become a popular medium and tours of places like museums or other travel locations are also perfect for 360-degree video.

That doesn’t mean you can’t use this immersive video to tell a story, but it needs a new visual vocabulary to properly guide the story, something they didn’t teach in film school in the past for obvious reasons.

Camera Types

As you can imagine, a normal camera isn’t going to produce this sort of surround video. You need a special setup in order to capture spherical video. There is no standard for this though. Some rigs are literally several regular cameras stuck together. Then special software is used to stitch the various overlapping camera feeds into one 360-degree video.

There are now also specialized 360- and 180- degree cameras that use fish-eye lenses to bend the incoming image onto a standard sensor. Software then undoes the known distortion of the lens to provide a clear image, but one that give you a surround view of what was filmed.

In general, the fewer cameras needed to create the final image, the more seamless it will look. Using makeshift multi-camera rigs makes it much more likely that there will be stitching errors. Which show up as visible cuts in the final image, where things don’t quite line up.

For the regular person on the street, something like the Insta360 line of smartphone-attached cameras is a good place to start.

Computer-Generated 360-Degree Video

Using cameras isn’t the only way to generate 360-degree video. You’ll find plenty of examples that are made using 3D animation software or from video games using a custom field of view that encompasses 180- or 360- degrees. 

Obviously it’s pretty simple to create stereoscopic video this way as well, since you have full control over the rendered world. It’s also a good way to bring non-interactive CG experiences to hardware platforms that have no hope of running them natively on local hardware.

Monoscopic & Stereoscopic Video

Another major subdivision within 360-degree video formats is between monoscopic and stereoscopic video. Basically, monoscopic footage isn’t in 3D. Although you have a giant video that surrounds you as a viewer, it’s still flat. Stereoscopic 360-degree video gives each eye it’s own unique feed, which your brain interprets as a 3D image.

Obviously 3D video is more compelling, but it’s much more complex when it comes to equipment. Basically, you need two independent 360-degree cameras, mounted at precisely the right distance from each other. Cameras that can shoot stereoscopic video like this are quite a bit more expensive, so most of the video you’ll find is the non-3D kind right now.

Editing 360-Degree Video

Fundamentally, 360-degree video is no different than any other digital video file. So, in principle, you can edit it with any software that can read the video codec used to encode it. However, the video is going to look like a distorted mess, shown as a normal frame.

Software designed to edit or play this type of video warps the footage into the correct spherical form, so that everything looks the way it should. Which means it’s best if you use an editing suite that knows how to do this. 

More often than not, your camera will come bundled with some sort of editor. What specific features are present will depend on the app in question.

Professional editing packages such as Adobe Premiere and Final Cut Pro natively support editing 180-degree and 360-degree video, as do other mainline video editing solutions. If you already have one of these programs, you may find you can also already work with this format.

Supported Platforms

So, once you have recorded and edited your 360-degree masterpiece, where can you actually upload it for other people to watch? Believe it or not, YouTube already supports several formats of 360-degree video.

There are also several apps for mobile devices that also support 360-degree video, but of course the user has to download the video to their device and can’t stream it.

Watching 360-Degree Video

The other way is to simply watch the video on a normal screen. On desktops, you can look around by using the mouse and on mobile phones you can swipe with a finger or use the phone’s built-in motion sensors.

Our Favorite Examples Of 360-Degree Video

Now that you know the most important information about this exciting video format, the only thing left to do is highlight some excellent examples of video you can try out for yourself right now.

Starting off with an example of live music performances, check out Childish Gambino’s “Me and Your Mama”. The camera I set low to simulate being at the show, but other videos even put the camera on stage so you can stand with the musicians and see the massive crowds.

This promotional video for the new Doctor Who series is both an example of a CG video and a narrative video. You don’t even have to be a fan of the show to appreciate how cool this concept is.

Galaxy S23: Everything You Need To Know About The Smartphones

The Galaxy S22 series will be replaced by the Galaxy S23 and its Plus and Ultra variants. We are still eagerly awaiting these newcomers to the most well-liked premium range of the Android ecosystem. Will we be entitled to a modest evolution or to significant changes and innovation? In this detailed Galaxy S23 article, you can find the answer to this question.

Galaxy S23 release date

When it comes to the release of smartphones for its main series, Samsung adheres to a very strict schedule. The South Korean manufacturer habitually releases its Galaxy S in February. Because it no longer exhibits at the MWC in Barcelona, where it previously unveiled its new models at the end of February for marketing in March. Recall that on February 9 at the Unpacked conference, the Galaxy S22, S22+, and S22 Ultra were unveiled before going on sale on February 25.

Samsung, however, has a good chance of releasing the Galaxy S23 earlier than expected. The three new models could very well be released early in 2023, in January. This would be consistent with Qualcomm’s announcements that its upcoming Snapdragon Summit conference will take place in mid-November rather than early December. Samsung will probably have access to chips earlier than in previous years, just like other manufacturers.

A poster from the Korean carrier KT states that the smartphones will be unveiled starting on December 23 (or even the day before). With general availability in stores beginning on January 6, 2023. It will be interesting to see if this leak is verified.

Galaxy S23’s prices

Galaxy S22:

8GB + 128GB: $799/£769/€879

8GB + 256GB: $849/£819/€929

8GB + 128GB: $999/£949/€1,079

8GB + 256GB: $1,049/£999/€1,129

Galaxy S22 Ultra:

8GB + 128GB: $1,199/£1,149/€1,279

12GB + 256GB: $1,299/£1,249/€1,379

12GB + 512GB: $1,399/£1,329/€1,489

12-GB + 1TB: $1,599/£1,499/€1,689

Galaxy S23 design

Samsung is being fairly conservative with the design of its Galaxy S range of smartphones, similar to how Apple is with its iPhones. The Galaxy S22 Ultra, which replaced the Galaxy Note by including a slot for the S Pen stylus and adopting a less curved and more square design, was the most recent significant change. The Galaxy S23 Ultra will likely have an even more angular chassis than the S22 Ultra, according to the insider Ice Universe. The screen’s curved effect will also be less obvious.

The Galaxy S23 series’ design will be very similar to what we already know for the most part. The punch will be back because there won’t be an under-screen selfie camera like on the Galaxy Z Fold 4. This generation confirms that the cameras are frequently the components that change the most between the two. The three cameras on the Galaxy S23 and S23+ protrude from the back cover of the smartphone, forming three distinct islands as a result.

There will also be a small difference in the dimensions. According to OnLeaks, the Galaxy S23 will be 146.3 x 70.8 x 7.6 mm in size as opposed to the Galaxy S22’s 146.0 x 70.6 x 7.6 mm dimensions. Samsung will enlarge its smartphone slightly while keeping the thickness the same. As a result, and against all expectations, the screen’s borders will widen. The Galaxy S23 + should have dimensions of 157.7 x 76.1 x 7.6 mm compared to the Galaxy S22 +’s 157.4 x 75.8 x 7.64 mm. The smartphone is consequently 0.3 mm longer than its smaller variant, but it is also 0.3 mm wider. Therefore, the borders could become 0.15 mm thicker on each side.

Unsurprisingly, the three smartphones will have IP68 certification, making them dust and water-resistant.

Galaxy S23 screens

For the S23 series, Samsung uses its top-level Super AMOLED display technologies. Thus, as has been the case since the Galaxy S21, Dynamic AMOLED 2X screens are HDR10 + compatible and provide a refresh rate of up to 120 Hz on all models. The Galaxy S23 Ultra’s screen has a resolution of 3088 x 1440 pixels (Quad HD +). While the Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus’s screens have 2340 x 1080 pixels (Full HD +). It is also classic in terms of sizes:

Galaxy S23: 6.1 inches

Galaxy S23+: 6.6 inches

Galaxy-S23 Ultra: 6.8 inches

The Galaxy S23 Ultra should once again be the only model with an LTPO 2.0 display, which will enable it to dynamically vary its refresh rate from 1 to 120 Hz in order to adapt to the content displayed and thereby save some battery.

Samsung should install Qualcomm’s 3D Sonic Max, which is already found on the Vivo X80 Pro, under the screen of the S23 Ultra. This sensor can even register a fingerprint with a single tap and is faster and wider than other sensors. Additionally, it supports a security mode that uses two fingerprints at once.

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Galaxy S23 performance

It has been discussed for years that Samsung might stop using its Exynos chips in its high-end smartphones in Europe, and now it may actually happen. Exynos SoCs will not be offered by Samsung in 2023 or 2024. The manufacturer wants to take its time developing a new, high-performance chip for the market in 2025, as the Exynos has always struggled to compete with Qualcomm’s Snapdragon. The ultimate objective would be to compete with Apple, the industry leader and great champion.

The South Korean company and Qualcomm have agreed to a multi-year strategic partnership for the delivery of chips. In order to prevent heating and preserve the battery, the S23 series will therefore ship with a Snapdragon 8 Gen 2 SoC, which has been declared to be more effective than the Snapdragon 8 Gen 1 SoC, especially at the GPU level. The CFO at Qualcomm, Akash Palkhiwala, has also confirmed this.

This year, Qualcomm would choose a 1+2+2+3 core configuration, with a Cortex-X3 Prime core running at 3.36 GHz, two Cortex-A715 cores, two Cortex-A710 cores, and three Cortex-A510 cores, all running at 2.0 GHz. This information has also been verified by the Galaxy S23’s initial Geekbench benchmark. The Galaxy S23 scored 1524 points on a single core and 4597 points when using multiple cores.

In terms of connectivity, all Galaxy S23s are obviously 5G and Wi-Fi 6E compatible, but we might also be entitled to the new Wi-Fi 7 standard. The Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus have 8 GB of RAM, while the Galaxy S23 Ultra has 8 or 12 GB. The Galaxy S22 and S22+ also have a choice of 128 or 256 GB of internal storage. As opposed to 256, 512 GB, or 1 TB for the S23 Ultra.

Galaxy S23 battery life

We regretted the Galaxy S22’s somewhat limited autonomy. With the Galaxy S23, Samsung should make it right. The smartphones in the series are all a little bit bigger than the previous models, as was already mentioned. The brand should be able to increase the size of the battery built into two of its products by about 5% as a result of the space savings. The Galaxy S23’s battery would be about 3900 mAh in comparison to the Galaxy S22’s 3700 mAh. In addition, the Galaxy S23+’s battery would have a 4700 mAh capacity in comparison to the Galaxy S22 +’s 4500 mAh.

Galaxy S23 camera

Every year, the Galaxy S Ultra model is among the best smartphones available. And the Galaxy S23 Ultra should be no different. The 108 MP sensor that has been on the Ultra since the Galaxy S20 will be replaced with a new 200 MP photo module by Samsung this year, which is an innovation. But it shouldn’t be the well-known Samsung ISOCELL HP1, which we’ve seen in action on Xiaomi and Motorola smartphones. Instead, Samsung would create the ISOCELL HP2, an HP1 variant. With a smaller (1/1.3 inch) but still quite an effective sensor.

Due to a more sophisticated pixel fusion technique, these 200 megapixels will not only enable you to take ultra-high-definition pictures but also produce images with more light. In fact, because this sensor has such a large number of pixels. It is now possible to combine many of them to create larger, brighter pixels while still maintaining a high resolution.

Due to its highly developed night mode, some are already quick to proclaim that the Galaxy S32 Ultra will be the best smartphone for photography in 2023. The Galaxy S23 Ultra should retain the S22 Ultra’s optics, which include a 10 MP ultra-wide-angle lens, a 10 MP telephoto lens with optical image stabilization and optical zoom up to 3x, and a 10 MP periscopic lens with 10x optical zoom.

Although it is unknown at this time whether a hardware upgrade is intended. The Galaxy S23 and S23 Plus would maintain a shared technical sheet with regard to the camera. A 50 MP ISOCELL GN5 main sensor, a 12 MP ultra wide-angle. And a 10 MP telephoto lens with a 3X optical zoom will be present if nothing changes.

Since the Ultra model first debuted in the lineup, the front camera for selfies has always benefited from a 40 MP module. And that should continue to be the case. In recent years, the 10 MP lens on the Galaxy S22 and S22 Plus could be replaced with a 12 MP lens.

Galaxy S23 software

The Galaxy S23 series of smartphones will all debut with One UI 5, Samsung’s custom interface built on Android 13. The most recent version of the mobile operating system. In this version, the interface’s design is changed. The notification panel has been redesigned, and there are also new alert icons, slightly adjusted opacity for quick settings. And a change in the location of the box dialogue managing the user’s authorizations.

The company has also improved the system’s animations and added new multitasking gestures. Optical character recognition, which recognizes text from images for simple copying and pasting, is one of the new features. The assessment of the WiFi connection’s quality for OneUI 5.0’s Internet connection is another innovation. It enables you to access a wealth of data on the performance of your home network, identify dead spots throughout your property, and guide the proper installation of Wi-Fi repeaters.

What Is Dataops? Everything You Should Know About Dataops

The newest agile operations technique to emerge from the collective awareness of IT and big data experts is DataOps, or data operations. It focuses on developing data management techniques and procedures that increase analytics precision and agility, including access to data, quality assurance, automation, integration, and, finally, model operations and maintenance. Let’s learn more about DataOps in the sections below.  

Who Benefits From DataOps?

Leading companies in taking an innovative and purposeful approach to data science are 4 times more likely to experience growth that surpasses customer expectation than its less data-driven competitors. It’s no surprise, therefore, that businesses are undertaking data management improvements to enable more accessibility and creativity. Several of today’s disruptors — Facebook, Spotify, Stitch Fix, and others have already implemented DataOps techniques. Anyone in the firm who needed data beyond the short, curated summary housed in the database system had to come to the statistics team and make a request, as was customary back then. Our data staff was fantastic, but it could only operate at a certain speed: there was an obvious bottleneck. Hive, a data warehouse screening tool that enabled Facebook’s team members to query data housed in a variety of databases, finally democratised the company’s data.  

Origin of DataOps Speed and Flexibility of DataOps How Do I Start Implementing DataOps?

As you may have guessed, there is no one-size-fits-all strategy to

Democratize Your Data

As per Experian Data Quality, 96 percent of chief data officers feel that corporate stakeholders are expecting greater data access than ever before, and 53 percent believe that data availability is the most significant obstacle to effective decision-making. Nonetheless, there is enough data; by 2023, we will have created 40 zettabytes, or 5,200 GB of data for every individual on the planet.

Make Use of Platforms and Open Source Software

Being agile entails avoiding squandering time developing stuff you don’t need or trying to reinvent the wheel when the technologies your team already knows are highly customizable. Analyze your data requirements and tailor your IT stack to meet them.

Automate and automate

This one comes straight from the realm of DevOps: It’s critical to automate stages that take a lot of human labour, such as quality validity of the data and data analytics pipeline management, in order to accomplish a faster time to value on data-intensive initiatives. Using microservices to enable self-sufficiency is also a factor. Offering your data scientists the flexibility to deploy models as APIs, for example, allows engineers to use that code without having to rewrite it, resulting in increased productivity.

Govern With Care

It’s no surprise that more organisations are adopting a Center of Excellence approach to information science management lately. It’s doubtful you’ll receive the return on investment you expected from data science or DataOps until you’ve developed a roadmap for success that covers the procedures, tools, infrastructure, objectives, and main performance indicators data science teams must consider.

Smash Silos

Collaboration is crucial when it comes to adopting DataOps. As part of your DataOps journey, the tools and services you employ should serve a wider aim of bringing people together to better use data.  


What Is A Sim Card? Everything You Need To Know

A SIM identifies you as a subscriber of a network.

“SIM” and “SIM card” are often used interchangeably. SIM refers to the identification technology as a whole, while SIM card refers to the plastic card that holds the gold-colored electronic contacts that enables SIM tech.

How does a SIM card work?

A SIM stores several crucial pieces of data, including:

ICCID (Integrated Circuit Card Identification Number): This is a unique 18-22 digit code that is used to identify the physical SIM card itself. In common parlance, it is also called the SIM card number, but do not confuse it with your mobile number.

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity Number): This is a 14-15 digit code that forms the basis of identification for the subscriber.

Data related to security authentication such as the authentication key, LAI (Local Area Identity), and more.

Carrier-specific data such as SPN (Service Provider Name), SDN (Service Dialling Numbers), network identifiers, and more.

Your phone pulls the IMSI contained within the SIM card.

The phone identifies the mobile operator from the code and contacts it.

The phone passes the IMSI to the mobile operator for authentication.

The mobile operator searches within its database for the IMSI.

Upon successful location, the authentication key associated with the IMSI is also found. This is then utilized to help confirm the identity and authenticity of the SIM. There’s a fair bit of back and forth between the phone and the network operator in the authentication process, but these technicalities are outside the scope of this article.

Once authenticated, the mobile operator grants the phone access to its network.

The SIM is the most crucial piece in this whole puzzle, namely for the data it contains. The physical card is less important, and that is why alternatives like eSIMs have evolved to provide similar functionality.

How many types of SIM cards are there?

There are four main types of SIM cards on the basis of their physical size, although only the smallest retains relevancy in current times. Beyond them, there are two other types of SIMs that people should be aware of.

Full-size SIM, mini-SIM, micro-SIM

The full-size SIM was the first format of SIM cards, issued all the way back in the 1990s. It was the size of a credit card, although the total area of the gold-colored contacts was the same as we see now.

Mini-SIM and micro-SIMs were introduced later on, with the intention to reduce the size of the plastic holding the gold-colored contacts and allow for smaller mobile handsets to come into existence. As mentioned, they retained the same area for the gold-colored contacts as the full-size SIM. In the transition phases between two sizes, mobile operators would issue the bigger size SIM but offer an easy way to “break” the SIM into its smaller size.

Nano SIM

This is the current size of SIM cards that most popular smartphones accept. It’s the smallest size possible while maintaining backward compatibility, as the size of the card is practically just the gold-colored contacts and a very thin layer of plastic.

However, phone manufacturers find this small size enough of a liability to consider removing it completely. For instance, the iPhone 14 series completely removed the SIM card slot and opted for an eSIM-only solution in the US.

eSIM (Embedded SIM)

Advancements in technology have allowed SIMs to be programmed remotely, allowing the SIM to take the form of a chip built into your phone itself. There is no physical card for the SIM for you to insert into your phone anymore. The eSIM configuration profile can be installed onto a phone by the network (usually by providing a QR code that the subscriber can scan), so you don’t even need to pop open the SIM slot anymore.

eSIM support started off rather slow but has built up steam in the past few years. And with the launch of the iPhone 14 series, Apple removed the SIM slot entirely on phones sold in the US, which skyrocketed eSIM adoption in the region as well as across the globe. For better or for worse, most phones and most popular carriers provide eSIM options nowadays.

iSIM (Integrated SIM)

iSIM shrinks the SIM down even beyond what eSIM could achieve. It integrates the SIM directly into the modem chip or the SoC of the phone. So you’re no longer reserving the (relatively) larger space that an eSIM needed. While this technology has been slow to pick up on smartphones, it has great scope in IoT devices.

How to insert a SIM card into a phone

C. Scott Brown / Android Authority

Despite the wide diversity of smartphones, the process of inserting and removing a SIM card is largely the same.

Locate the SIM slot. It is usually present on the phone’s mid-frame and looks like a closed cupboard drawer.

Locate the pinhole near the SIM card slot.

Use the SIM removal tool that came with your phone, or a small paperclip, to press into the pinhole. This will eject the SIM slot tray.

You can now insert the SIM card into the SIM slot tray.

There are likely to be markings present on the SIM slot tray to indicate which side of the tray should be facing the screen. Insert the tray back in that orientation.


SIM cards are backwards compatible through the use of adapters. You can also use punches to cut out a smaller SIM card for a larger-sized card. However, your carrier will easily issue you a newer SIM card for a nominal fee, and we recommend that you choose that option for the additional security and benefits present in newer, higher-storage SIM cards.

No, you do not need a new SIM card to upgrade from 4G to 5G. The SIM upgrade was needed during the upgrade from 3G to 4G as the older SIM lacked certain capabilities. This is not the case for switching from 4G to 5G. However, ensure that your phone supports 5G, and that your carrier offers 5G in your region.

SIM cards do not usually go bad, but they can stop working due to poor maintenance and habits. If you remove them very frequently, the contact points could get scraped and fail. They can also fail due to corrosion and water damage. Bending a SIM card will also destroy the contact lines and cause failure.

Yes, SIM cards can be swapped between devices, as long as they are the same size. If sizes mismatch, you may need an adaptor or a punch, as the case may be.

It depends. On iPhone 13 and older, you can easily use a SIM card from an Android phone by simply popping it in to the SIM slot. However, the newer iPhone 14 series is eSIM-only in the USA, so you will need to migrate your eSIM configuration profile. You can do so during the iPhone 14 setup process, or contact your carrier for further assistance.

iPhone 13 and older iPhones come with SIM card support. However, iPhone 14 series sold in the US does not support a SIM card as the series is eSIM-only. iPhone 14 sold outside the US still retains SIM card support.

While it is technically possible to use a SIM card in an eSIM-only iPhone 14, we do not recommend users do so. The process involves disassembly and complicated motherboard resoldering, and thus, is best avoided by most people.

Everything You Need To Know About Forecasting Headcount Spend

Everything You Need to Know about Forecasting Headcount Spend

Why and how to correctly forecast spend on headcount

Written by

Josh Aharonoff

Published April 6, 2023

Updated April 14, 2023

How to Forecast Headcount Spend

Your headcount spend is one of the most important numbers to project correctly.

Most people don’t realize that their headcount typically accounts for 50-80% of their cash burn. But it makes sense — a company’s biggest asset is its people, so it shouldn’t come as a surprise that it may be the biggest expense as well.

That’s why it’s crucial to understand your headcount forecast. Even the slightest mistake can make a huge impact on planning.

When you project your headcount spend correctly:

You get insights into who you can hire and when

You understand where your cash is going

You get ahead of any surprises

When done incorrectly:

Your cash-out date hits sooner than expected

You may be forced to do layoffs, with exit packages and other unexpected costs

Company morale takes a hit as others fear for their job security

Let’s get into the why, how, and what of forecasting headcount the correct way.

Why Should You Forecast Your Headcount Spend?

Your headcount spend will often account for 50 to 80% of your cash burn each month. Within this, the salary costs are the main driver of structure costs.

A good forecast can help determine the break-even point for the company to cover the structure costs. It provides the sales volume needed to reach profitability.

Your headcount spend can also be one of the most challenging costs to reduce, with a number of challenges ensuing from lay-offs — including severance, lawsuits, and decreased work morale.

Forecasting your headcount expense will allow you to make better informed decisions as you plan for your cash burn for the next 12-18 months.

How Do You Forecast Your Headcount Spend?

To begin, you need to define your needs for the next 12 to 24 months depending on your backlog and sales projections.

Next, begin adding your projected hires one by one.

For a long-range forecast (12 months or more into the future), add roles in bulk.

Consolidate and review the consistency of all headcount with the management team.

How Do You Calculate Projected Spend?

Now that you have your inputs, it’s time to calculate your projected spend for each month. There are two ways to go about doing this:

The simple method

Determine the departments with direct FTE.

Apply the business growth ratio to the direct FTE to calculate the traditional headcount.

Use one salary increase rate across the board to calculate the salary costs for next year.

Your salary costs for next year should be (# of FTE next year X average salary per FTE current year X (1+salary increase).

The detailed method

Prorate the salary for any hires who joined this month, or were terminated.

Full-time employees have a number of other incidental costs:

Employer payroll taxes which are around 8 to 10% of salary

Health benefits which are around 8 to 10% of salary, or a fixed dollar amount per employee

Payroll processing fees which is around 2.5% of salary, or a fixed dollar amount per employee

Other payroll costs to consider


Commissions (could be monthly, quarterly, or annually)

Recruiting fees (often a percentage of first year salary)

Training costs

Additional structure costs that include place, energy, and equipment — these could be marginal if the structure is already big, but for a smaller team, this is an impact to consider

Putting It All Together

Once you have all the information entered, you can start to use it to analyze your headcount:

Slice and dice your data on a department basis, and by each cost type

Use graphs to understand costs and hires by department and across multiple periods

Use ratios like FTE increase VS sales increase

Being in full control of your headcount planning allows you to analyze the data in a variety of ways. This includes:

Headcount: The evolution per month and compared to your budget.

Percentage of direct employees: A direct employee works directly on a project or production order, whereas an indirect employee has more of a supervisory or a support function role — figure out what employees are working directly on projects and which are supporting.

Flexibility: You gain flexibility through contractors or temporary workers, and understanding this will help you know how much you can reduce or increase your activity to adapt to the business demand.

Capacity: Compare the gross capacity (hours before holidays, sickness, leaves) as well as the net capacity to help explain why there are less or more hours worked.

Turnover rate: The number of employees leaving the company compared to the total number of employees. You can see if there is some anomaly in some departments or some reason for the turnover.

The key is to not just create the headcount forecast and stop there. You want to provide ongoing reporting to ensure that the company continues to stay aligned on its plan, and its progress against that plan.

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