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What is chúng tôi & How to Fix Its System Errors Uninstalling the associated file is usually a good save




If you’re running virtual machines, you’ll need to ensure their performance is optimized and they pass the compatibility tests.

This is what the chúng tôi file is responsible for users who opt for the VMware Workstation.



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Using virtual machine tools usually comes with the need for additional software, and chúng tôi is one of them. If you use the VMware Workstation for Windows, you might have seen this file.

It runs in the background of your computer and helps to manage virtual machines. However, some users have reported some errors associated with the file, so let’s have a look at what these errors are and how to address them.

Vmtoolsd.exe is an executable file that belongs to VMware Tools, a set of utilities that improves the performance and usability of VMware Workstation and other VMware products on Microsoft Windows systems.

If you’re wondering, Where is vmtoolsd? It’s usually located in the following directory: c:Program FilesVMwareVMware

The location of this application’s installation folder and its default file name depends on the product version you are using and whether you are using 32-bit or 64-bit editions of Windows.

You’ll therefore find this file useful when running your virtual machines. The only issue that may arise is that you may encounter some errors if you’re dealing with an obsolete or compromised version. 

Potential errors you may come across related to the chúng tôi file include:

Vmtoolsd.exe not valid

Error in Application: chúng tôi encountered a problem and will close

Can’t locate chúng tôi is missing

Faulty Program Path: chúng tôi failed

Problem starting application: chúng tôi is not running

Such errors can be caused by a virus attack, corrupt registry files or outdated applications. Below, we look at how you can fix these errors.

2. Run DISM and SFC scans

Alternatively, we suggest a reliable third-party repair software to make sure you get rid of all corrupt and missing files.

3. Run a virus scan 4. Uninstall associated program 5. Perform a System Restore

If none of the above solutions work in getting rid of the chúng tôi errors, performing a system restore may be your only hope, but only if you had created a restore point. If not, a clean install may be on the horizon.

VMware tools increase the performance of your VM and provide better compatibility with guest operating systems. However, this is only for users who operate virtual machines.

If you’re frugal about the processes you want running on your PC, you might find the chúng tôi file unwarranted. This is especially true if you are not running any virtual machines. 

There’s no right answer on how many processes you should be running on your device, but your system resources should act as a guide. You want to ensure you’re getting a good balance of efficiency and effectiveness.

That being said, chúng tôi uses very little CPU and RAM resources while running, so it shouldn’t cause any problems with your performance if you leave it running all the time. 

That sums it up on all things chúng tôi file. Hopefully, you now have the right information on how to address any errors that may arise by running the VMware Tools program.

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What Is A Vpn And What Is It Used For?

A VPN, or Virtual Private Network is an extremely useful tool for every internet user, no matter how much time you spend online or what sort of stuff you do on the internet. A VPN gives you more security and privacy when you go online – things that are hard to come by in today’s information age. 

Table of Contents

What Is a VPN and How Does It Work?

If you have a general idea of how the internet works, you probably know that your internet service provider (ISP) and some other organizations have ways of tracking your online activity. Your browser’s private browsing mode can’t help protect your data and give you peace of mind, while a VPN can do more than that.

VPN is a technology that protects your online activity by adding an extra level of encryption to your data. It connects your computer or a smartphone to a private network, allowing your data to go through an encrypted “tunnel”.

It travels from your device to some other point on the internet, often in another country, before making its way to the public internet. Your data stays hidden the entire time. All an ISP can see is that you’re connected to a private network. 

When you connect your device to a VPN, it behaves as if it was on the same local network as the VPN. It allows you to access local network resources even if physically you’re accessing the internet from a different country. You can also browse the internet as if you were based at the VPN’s location. For example, if you’re using a USA-based VPN from outside the US, the websites will see your online activity as if it was coming from within the country. 

What IS a VPN Used For?

Some people associate using a VPN with the need to hide your online activity. In reality, a VPN comes with a number of benefits that can help any internet user in their everyday life. Here are a few reasons why you might want to start using a VPN.

Secure Your Connection When Using Public WiFi

When you’re browsing the internet at home, your connection is via a password-protected router and a private WiFi network. However, when you connect to a public WiFi network – whether it’s at a coffee shop, a hotel, or an airport – your traffic isn’t protected anymore. Those networks offer open access to all users, which makes it much easier to intercept the wireless network traffic. 

That’s why it’s a good idea to use a VPN next time you decide to connect to a public WiFi network to send an email or check your Instagram account. 

Take Back Your Online Privacy

Using a VPN is one of the simplest and most effective ways to gain back your online privacy and stop others from collecting your data.

Access Geo-Blocked Content 

One of the most popular reasons for getting a VPN service is to access geo-blocked websites. Sometimes you’ll find that certain content, streaming services, or websites are blocked or have restricted access based on your location. Using a VPN is the easiest way to bypass those restrictions. 

This can be useful if you ever find that certain movies or TV shows aren’t available on your streaming platform in your region. Connecting to a VPN server from the appropriate country can easily fix that. 

When traveling, you might find yourself in a country where entire websites and services are geo-blocked. For instance, if you want to access LinkedIn in Russia, you’ll have to use a VPN or other means of getting around geo-restrictions. 

Bypass Your School or Workplace Firewall

When using the internet at your school or workplace, you’re bound to come across blocked websites that management doesn’t want you to access. They do this by using firewalls that filter all web content and keep you away from the blacklisted sites. 

There’s a number of workarounds that can help you bypass your school or workplace firewall. One of the easiest ways to do it is via the VPN service. When you connect to a VPN and start browsing, all the internet traffic is encrypted, and the firewall can’t see what you’re doing and what sites you’re visiting on the network connection. This way you can view the sites you want no matter the time and place.

Save Money on Shopping

Aside from the obvious benefits you get from using a VPN, you can get some extra perks if you think outside the box. A VPN can help you save money on shopping. Admittedly, it does require some time and effort.

You can use a VPN to connect to different servers across the world and find the cheapest prices. The things you can save money on include streaming services, software subscription plans, flight tickets, and even hotels. In theory, you can find cheaper prices for everything. However, don’t forget that some of the price differences will be covered by exchange rates and bank fees. 

Do You Need a VPN?

While VPNs come with many benefits, they’re not flawless. The biggest downside of using a VPN is a connection speed drop. Since you’re sending your data to another location before it reaches the right server, your VPN connection speed is bound to be slower than your regular internet speed. 

However, if that’s not a big problem for you, or if the connection speed drop isn’t significant, using a VPN is definitely a good idea. All that’s left is to choose the right VPN service for you. Luckily, there are plenty of options out there – from a Windows built-in option, VPN Chrome extensions, best free options for Mac, and the best VPN apps out there.  

What Is Response Bias?

Response bias refers to several factors that can lead someone to respond falsely or inaccurately to a question. Self-report questions, such as those asked on surveys or in structured interviews, are particularly prone to this type of bias.

Example: Response biasA job applicant is asked to take a personality test during the recruitment process. One of the questions is “Do you like meeting new people?”

The applicant thinks that, since this is a customer service job, the company is probably looking for someone who enjoys meeting new people. Despite being an introvert at heart, the applicant answers “yes” in an attempt to increase their chances of being hired.

Because respondents are not actually answering the questions truthfully, response bias distorts study results, threatening the validity of your research. Response bias is a common type of research bias.

What is response bias?

Response bias is a general term describing situations where people do not answer questions truthfully for some reason.

This occurs because of the way we integrate and process multiple sources of information when we answer a question in an interview or similar setting. Respondents may answer inaccurately for a variety of reasons:

Desire to conform to perceived social norms (social desirability bias)

Desire to appear favorably to interviewer or other participants while being observed (Hawthorne effect)

Desire to perform in line with the research objectives, perhaps due to having guessed the aims of the study through demand characteristics

Desire to finish survey questions quickly, or lack of interest

In practice, this means that any aspect of a study can potentially cause a respondent to answer in a biased fashion.

Different types of response bias

There are several types of response bias, categorized based on what causes the bias. Common types of response bias are:

Acquiescence bias: Respondent tendency to answer “yes” to every question, regardless of what they really think. This often occurs with surveys that include only or mostly binary response options, like “Yes/No.”

Demand characteristics: Anything that can alert research participants to the goals of the study. The title of the study, the tools and instruments used, or even the researchers’ interactions with the participants can all lead participants to alter their behavior based on what they think the research is about.

Social desirability bias: Respondent tendency to distort responses in order to bring them more in line with social norms and expectations. For example, when asked about their drinking habits, respondents who drink on a daily basis may feel inclined to conceal this, fearing that they may be perceived negatively by others or by the researcher.

Courtesy bias: Respondent tendency to be polite or courteous toward the researcher. It is common in qualitative research designs (e.g., face-to-face interviews). For example, when consumers are asked about their opinion on a product, some may downplay their frustration or lack of satisfaction for fear of being impolite.

Question-order bias: Risk of questions that appear earlier in a survey or questionnaire affecting responses to subsequent questions. Earlier questions can serve to set context, influencing how respondents interpret the questions that follow. For example, asking respondents which basketball team is their favorite and then immediately following up with a question about which sport is their favorite is likely to result in more respondents indicating a preference for basketball.

Extreme responding: Respondent tendency to choose only the highest or lowest response available, regardless of their actual opinion. For example, in a Likert scale survey with response options ranging from 1 to 5, there is a risk that a respondent will only choose the 1s or the 5s throughout the survey.

Response bias examples

In experimental designs, response bias can influence participant behavior due to demand characteristics. Here, the result or response that the researchers expect is accidentally suggested to participants.

Example: Demand characteristicsSuppose you want to test whether study participants who are aware of the study goals behave differently from those who are unaware.

Participants are randomly assigned to either a group told that menstrual cycle symptomatology is the focus of the study or a group to which no interest in menstrual cycle symptoms is communicated.

You notice that people who are aware of the study goals are more likely to report negative typical symptoms like irritability and pain than those who are unaware of the study goals.

You conclude that the reporting of the symptoms is influenced by demand characteristics. In other words, people who were informed about the study’s purpose thought that the researchers wanted to hear about the typical complaints related to the menstrual cycle. As a result they were more likely to report that they had experienced such negative symptoms.

Response bias can also distort the findings of a study.

Example: Acquiescence biasAn admissions officer wants to find out what prospective students think of the live virtual visit feature on the university’s website. A 10-item survey is sent via email to everyone who registered for the live virtual visit in the past 3 months.

The survey includes questions with binary responses such as:

“Was the live virtual visit satisfactory?” Yes/No

“Our live virtual visit feature is easy to use” Agree/Disagree

When the survey is closed, the admissions officer notices that responses are invariably positive. In this case, questions were worded in such a way that the respondents were more likely to respond positively to every question, choosing yes or agree, even if they didn’t necessarily agree with the statements.

How to minimize response bias

Although it may not always be possible to eliminate response bias entirely, there are a few steps you can take to minimize it:

Keep your surveys short and to the point to avoid respondent fatigue.

Use unambiguous language and avoid jargon when writing your survey questions and responses. In this way, your respondents will not lose interest or disengage due to the complexity of your survey.

Use neutral language, particularly in surveys and interviews that probe into sensitive topics like politics, religion, or illegal substances.

Make sure that your questions are interesting and relevant to your respondents.

Use different question formats—e.g., scale, binary, or open-ended. Group questions by topic.

Withhold information that can place demand characteristics on participants or researchers when conducting experimental research. Setting up a double-blind study and using random assignment can prevent this type of bias from affecting your results.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

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What Is Secondary Research?

Secondary research is a research method that uses data that was collected by someone else. In other words, whenever you conduct research using data that already exists, you are conducting secondary research. On the other hand, any type of research that you undertake yourself is called primary research.

Example: Secondary researchYou are interested in how the number and quality of vegan options offered at your campus dining hall have changed over time. You have a friend who graduated a few years ago who was also interested in this topic. You borrow her survey results and use them to conduct statistical analysis.

Secondary research can be qualitative or quantitative in nature. It often uses data gathered from published peer-reviewed papers, meta-analyses, or government or private sector databases and datasets.

When to use secondary research

Secondary research is a very common research method, used in lieu of collecting your own primary data. It is often used in research designs or as a way to start your research process if you plan to conduct primary research later on.

Since it is often inexpensive or free to access, secondary research is a low-stakes way to determine if further primary research is needed, as gaps in secondary research are a strong indication that primary research is necessary. For this reason, while secondary research can theoretically be exploratory or explanatory in nature, it is usually explanatory: aiming to explain the causes and consequences of a well-defined problem.

Types of secondary research

Secondary research can take many forms, but the most common types are:

Statistical analysis

There is ample data available online from a variety of sources, often in the form of datasets. These datasets are often open-source or downloadable at a low cost, and are ideal for conducting statistical analyses such as hypothesis testing or regression analysis.

Credible sources for existing data include:

The government

Government agencies

Non-governmental organizations

Educational institutions

Businesses or consultancies

Libraries or archives

Newspapers, academic journals, or magazines

Literature reviews

A literature review is a survey of preexisting scholarly sources on your topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant themes, debates, and gaps in the research you analyze. You can later apply these to your own work, or use them as a jumping-off point to conduct primary research of your own.

Structured much like a regular academic paper (with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion), a literature review is a great way to evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.

TipA literature review is not a summary. Instead, it critically analyzes, synthesizes, and evaluates sources to give you and/or your audience a clear picture of the state of existing work on your research topic.

Case studies

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject. It is usually qualitative in nature and can focus on  a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. A case study is a great way to utilize existing research to gain concrete, contextual, and in-depth knowledge about your real-world subject.

You can choose to focus on just one complex case, exploring a single subject in great detail, or examine multiple cases if you’d prefer to compare different aspects of your topic. Preexisting interviews, observational studies, or other sources of primary data make for great case studies.

Content analysis

Content analysis is a research method that studies patterns in recorded communication by utilizing existing texts. It can be either quantitative or qualitative in nature, depending on whether you choose to analyze countable or measurable patterns, or more interpretive ones. Content analysis is popular in communication studies, but it is also widely used in historical analysis, anthropology, and psychology to make more semantic qualitative inferences.

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Examples of secondary research

Secondary research is a broad research approach that can be pursued any way you’d like. Here are a few examples of different ways you can use secondary research to explore your research topic.

Example: Statistical analysisYou are interested in the characteristics of Americans enrolled in Affordable Care Act coverage. You utilize enrollment data from the US government’s Department of Health and Human Resources to observe how these characteristics change over time. Example: Literature reviewYou are interested in the reactions of campus police to student protest movements on campus. You decide to conduct a literature review of scholarly works about student protest movements in the last 100 years. Example: Case studyYou are interested in the acclimatization process of formerly incarcerated individuals. You decide to compile data from structured interviews with those recently released from a prison facility in your hometown into a case study. Example: Content analysisYou are interested in how often employment issues came up in political campaigns during the Great Depression. You choose to analyze campaign speeches for the frequency of terms such as “unemployment,” “jobs,” and “work.”

Advantages of secondary research

Advantages include:

Secondary data is very easy to source and readily available.

It is also often free or accessible through your educational institution’s library or network, making it much cheaper to conduct than primary research.

As you are relying on research that already exists, conducting secondary research is much less time consuming than primary research. Since your timeline is so much shorter, your research can be ready to publish sooner.

Using data from others allows you to show reproducibility and replicability, bolstering prior research and situating your own work within your field.

Ease of access does not signify credibility. It’s important to be aware that secondary research is not always reliable, and can often be out of date. It’s critical to analyze any data you’re thinking of using prior to getting started, using a method like the CRAAP test.

Secondary research often relies on primary research already conducted. If this original research is biased in any way, those research biases could creep into the secondary results.

Many researchers using the same secondary research to form similar conclusions can also take away from the uniqueness and reliability of your research. Many datasets become “kitchen-sink” models, where too many variables are added in an attempt to draw increasingly niche conclusions from overused data. Data cleansing may be necessary to test the quality of the research.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

George, T. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article


Largan, C., & Morris, T. M. (2023). Qualitative Secondary Research: A Step-By-Step Guide (1st ed.). SAGE Publications Ltd.

What Is Anchoring Bias?

Anchoring bias describes people’s tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information they receive on a topic. Regardless of the accuracy of that information, people use it as a reference point, or anchor, to make subsequent judgments. Because of this, anchoring bias can lead to poor decisions in various contexts, such as salary negotiations, medical diagnoses, and purchases.

Example: Anchoring bias You are considering buying a used car, and you visit a car dealership. The dealer walks you around, showing you all the higher-priced cars, and you start worrying that you can’t afford a car after all.

Next, the car dealer walks you toward the back of the lot, where you see more affordable cars. Having seen all the expensive options, you think these cars seem like a good bargain. In reality, all the cars are overpriced. By showing you all the expensive cars first, the dealer has set an anchor, influencing your perception of the value of a used car.

What is anchoring bias?

Anchoring bias (also known as anchoring heuristic or anchoring effect) is a type of cognitive bias that causes people to favor information they received early in the decision-making process. People hold on to this information, called an anchor, as a reference point and fail to correctly adjust their initial impressions, even after receiving additional information.

Once the anchor is set, subsequent judgments are made by adjusting away from that anchor, while staying within the range set by it. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiation. Here, prices lower than the initial price seem like a good deal, even if they are still higher than the car’s actual value. As a result, our perception of reality is distorted, and our decisions are biased.

Depending on their sources, anchors can be external or internal.

External anchors are reference points provided by others (for example, the suggested retail price tags we see on many products).

Internal anchors are reference points based on beliefs, experiences, or contextual clues. For example, if your parents followed an active lifestyle and exercised a lot, this experience might set a standard level of exercise for you in adulthood.

NoteIt is important to keep in mind that the more knowledgeable we are about a certain topic, the less likely we are to fall for anchoring bias. When we don’t have enough information to know how to value something, we are more likely to be influenced by anchors.

Why does anchoring bias happen?

Although there is no consensus as to why anchoring bias happens, two mechanisms can help explain this phenomenon:

Anchoring and adjustment applies best to situations where people are influenced by an internal anchor.

Confirmatory hypothesis testing can explain how external anchors influence our judgment.

Anchoring and adjustment

Anchoring and adjustment is the mechanism that explains how people try to answer a general knowledge question when they don’t know the answer.

If people don’t know the correct answer, they try to make an educated guess and adjust from there until they reach a conclusion that seems plausible.

This initial estimation becomes an internal anchor and influences subsequent adjustments.

Because the adjustment is usually insufficient, it results in a biased estimation. In other words, people always end up with an answer that is close to the anchor anyway.

Example: Anchoring and adjustmentSuppose you need to answer the question “How long does it take Mars to orbit the Sun?” but don’t know the correct answer and you’re not allowed to search for it online! You remember that Mars is between Earth and Jupiter, and that it takes 12 years for Jupiter to orbit the Sun.

Based on this, you estimate that the correct answer is somewhere close to 12 years. After thinking some more, you come up with your final answer: 6 years. Unfortunately, your internal anchor (12 years) was too high, and it didn’t allow you to adjust sufficiently so as to approximate the correct answer, which is actually 1.88 years.

Confirmatory hypothesis testing

When we are presented with an external anchor, our first response is to consider the anchor as a possible answer. While we are doing that, we activate existing information in our brain that is consistent with the anchor.

This information is more accessible, and so we use it for estimating the absolute value, a phenomenon called selective accessibility.

In general, after a comparison with a high anchor, people are likely to base their absolute estimate on knowledge indicating that the target object or situation value is fairly high.

However, after a comparison with a low anchor, people are likely to base their absolute estimate on knowledge suggesting that the value is fairly low.

Example: Selective accessibility When asked whether Mahatma Gandhi was younger or older than 86 when he died, people often engage in confirmatory hypothesis testing. In other words, they are influenced by the phrasing of the question and recall information that supports the hypothesis presented to them: that Gandhi was approximately 86 years old when he died. As a result, this information is likely to influence their final answer.

This selective accessibility mechanism works even when anchors are clearly unrealistic. When asked whether Mahatma Gandhi was

older or younger than 140 years old when he died


older or younger than 9 years old when he died

participants were influenced by these implausible anchors.

Participants who received the high implausible anchor estimated on average that Gandhi lived 67 years, whereas participants who received the low implausible anchor thought that he was just 50 years old when he died.

Anchoring bias examples

Example: Anchoring bias and salary negotiations You have passed the first round of interviews for a job, and you are now invited to a second round. During a call, the HR person makes you an offer of $50,000 per year. Considering the role and your previous experience, you know this is too low of an offer.

With that amount as a starting point, you manage to negotiate up to $55,000. You are satisfied that you got more than they initially offered. In reality, the HR person could have offered you more, but they used the anchoring effect against you. By starting with a low value, they influenced your perception of what an acceptable salary would be.

Anchors that are entirely arbitrary and unrelated to the decision can still influence our judgment, especially when we lack the knowledge to make an educated guess.

Example: Anchoring bias and random anchorsIn an experiment, participants were asked to estimate the percentage of African countries in the United Nations (UN) in two ways:

First, they were asked whether the percentage is smaller or larger than a given number (the anchor), which was randomly determined by spinning a wheel.

Next, participants were asked to estimate the exact percentage of African UN member states.

Even though the anchor was entirely arbitrary and irrelevant to the question, it still influenced participants who used it as a standard in their subsequent judgment. As a result, their answers were close to the anchor. For example:

If the anchor was 10, participants’ mean estimate of the true value was 25.

If the anchor was 65, their mean estimate was 45.

This shows that under the anchoring bias, irrelevant anchors are just as impactful as anchors that offer relevant informational cues.

Other types of cognitive bias in decision-making

Apart from anchoring bias, there are two more types of heuristics that people use that can affect their decision-making:

The availability heuristic occurs when we place greater emphasis on information that is easier to recall while forming a judgment.

The representativeness heuristic arises when we estimate the probability of something based on the degree to which it is similar to (or is representative of) a known situation.

Although all of them help us reduce the time and effort needed to form a judgment, they do so in different ways.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions

What is the difference between anchoring bias and availability bias?

Although anchoring bias and availability bias are both types of cognitive bias (or heuristics) and may seem similar, they are quite different:

The availability bias refers to people’s tendency to estimate the probability of an outcome (e.g., being struck by lightning), based on how easily they can recall similar events. Because of this, people sometimes mix up ease of recall with probability or frequency and end up believing that some events are far more common than they actually are.

Anchoring bias refers to people’s tendency to give disproportionate weight to the first piece of information they receive in a decision-making context. As a result, this becomes a reference point or anchor that influences people’s perception of subsequent information.

In other words, although both anchoring and availability bias influence our perception, anchoring is related to the order in which we receive the information, while availability is related to ease of recall.

When does anchoring bias occur?

Anchoring bias occurs when you focus on the first piece of information you receive during a decision-making process and fail to consider any other information that follows.

What is anchoring and adjustment bias?

Anchoring and adjustment bias refers to the mechanism underlying cases in which we are influenced by an internal anchor or reference point. When we are faced with a decision or question and we are uncertain about the right option, we try to make an educated guess.

For example, when we are trying to estimate how long it will take us to write a paper. In this case, we start with an initial anchor value that seems reasonable and then adjust until an acceptable answer is found. Because we subconsciously place more importance on the initial value or answer we come up with, we typically fail to adjust sufficiently from there on and our judgment is biased.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article


Furnham, A. & Boo, H. (2011). A Literature Review of the Anchoring Effect. The Journal of Socio-Economics. 40. 35-42. 10.1016/j.socec.2010.10.008.

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What Is Moment Marketing

An enormous billboard around Akshardham caught my friend’s attention one busy morning in 2014, while the entire metro crowd was busy talking on the phone at the top of their voices and listening to music, saying – ‘TRY WITH HAIDER BREAD OR ROTI’ with a picture of Shahid Kapoor, and the noseless Amul girl who was this time–for a change–was wearing a warm jacket, but the polka dot red hairband was quite evident. 

The Amul girl has taken the position of Shradha Kapoor this time and has come up with a clever punchline: Modern Day Classic.

Needless to say, the billboard was promoting Shahid Kapoor’s latest release ‘Haider,’ also known as desi Hamlet, which was receiving a lot of positive press. Taking a quick glance at the billboard became a habit for me after that. Amul billboards, on the other hand, never let you down. 

They used to come up with something relevant, unusual, and humorous every two weeks. It was either about Deepika’s Cannes style, celebrating Virat Kohli and Anushka’s wedding, or remembering George Clooney’s wedding with the slogan Clooney ne promise pe Amaal kiya. My friends and I had no idea that was a great example of Moment Marketing at the time.

Let’s fast forward to the end of 2023. Moment marketing has become a buzzword, and many companies have begun to test it. And the reason is simple: it allowed them to reach their target demographic at a low cost swiftly. Everyone is making use of new developments to communicate with their clients, from Netflix to Burger King to Surat Police to Mumbai Police. 

Continue reading this article to know more about Moment Marketing and a few best Moment Marketing examples.

What is Moment Marketing, and How Does It Work?

Moment marketing, in textbook words, is the capacity to use an event to give relevant and related, seemingly spontaneous, and frequently ephemeral connections with clients in real time.

Few Advantages of Moment Marketing Connection, Conversation, and Conversion are the three Cs:

Moment marketing is a terrific way to start a discussion and build a real-time connection with your customers when they search for or read about a specific trend or topic. It enhances the likelihood of being discovered by customers while also increasing recall. Create an organic relationship with your followers because they are more inclined to convert on their own terms.

It helps you save a lot of money Instantly Meets The Needs of The Audience

Your client is all about the latest news! They enjoy reading tales, keeping up with current events, and discovering what their brand has in store for them, and here is where Moment Marketing comes into play!

Moment marketing allows you to quickly match client expectations by providing the exact information that they’ve been looking for.

The Town Talks About You

All it takes is a single moment and some excellent content that resonates with your audience and communicates your brand value. People are more likely to engage with a company if they express their thoughts on a trend in a certain way. If your material is good, but you can’t deliver your point adequately, you’ll become a phenomenon, and engagement will skyrocket.

People have a limited attention span, making engaging with your business a significant problem. Moment marketing is the most incredible way to overcome this obstacle.

Now, let us understand a few Moment Marketing Tips that will help you market your products more effectively.

Here are a few quick marketing ideas that might help you and your company:

‍Organically becoming a part of people’s trend/newsfeed guarantees that your marketing message reaches them at the optimal time for them to listen, engage, or interact.

Engage in wordplay and banter because companies that do so already have a lot of success. Engage in some lighthearted banter, fast comebacks, and Twitter battles. These strategies keep viewers interested and wanting more.

Keep your primary brand message truthful and honest; the last thing you want is to lose credibility. Don’t jeopardise your brand’s message or compromise the principles you and your company stand for and believe in merely to appear fashionable at a particular event.

Keep sales at the forefront of your efforts, and ensure that your communications tie back to your product or service offers to persuade customers to buy.

Now, with no further wait.

Also Read: Guerrilla Marketing Examples from Top Brands

10 Best Moment Marketing Examples By Top Brands 1. Burger King is the King of Good Moment Marketing

As the name implies, Burger King is not just the king of burgers but also of capturing moments. When Kanye West claimed that McDonald’s is his favourite spot to eat a meal in November 2023, Burger King mocked him with their iconic “Explains a Lot” tweet. West’s statements that his eyes are now “wide open” as he separates himself from politics prompted Burger King to respond with the tweet “Eyes still closed I guess.”

2. Pepsi – The Swaggers 

PepsiCo India is another company that has embraced the concept of instant marketing. Even better than its arch-rival and official sponsor of the competition, Coca-Cola, the hype produced around the ICC Women’s T20 helped it gain discussions. They signed Shafali Verma, a 16-year-old cricketer, as a new brand ambassador ahead of the ICC Women’s T20 World Cup final, which fell on International Women’s Day. 

3. Netflix – Featuring Excellent Stiletto Sarcasm Rather of harsh criticism,

Netflix, an OTT platform, is another company that has benefited from Moment Marketing. They’ve been utilizing Twitter to communicate with their fans on a daily basis. If you go to their Twitter account, you’ll see tweets discussing anything from Mumbai’s wet weather to the Jal lijiye joke, all of which are related to binge-watching.

4. Amul – Extremely Buttery and Perfectly Timed

Amul, the dairy brand, would be the leader in the ‘moment marketing’ field if there was one. Amul is possibly the only brand with a campaign concept and aesthetic that has remained consistent for over 50 years. The wonderful thing about Amul commercials is that just when you think you’ve found your all-time favourite, another one will appear the next week that will be just as fantastic. In fact, the Amul Girl has been entertaining Indian audiences with her incredible one-liners practically every day since its release.

They gave an honorable tribute to the late athlete.

5. Faasos: Intriguing yet Upbeat

Faasos did not miss out on this marketing opportunity while Mumbai was undergoing a power outage. To promote their delivery service, they came up with the amusing one-liner: ‘Andheri or Andhera, we’re still delivering.’ Another was in the context of the famous web series- sacred games. 

The freshly introduced #SacredWraps line is another excellent example of Moment marketing. All of the wraps were renamed after characters from Sacred Games. As a result, the campaign received 47 million impressions and over 45k engagements across all social networks.

6. Zomato – You Can’t Avoid Them 7. Oreo & Fastrack

Titan’s Fasttrack chose the quickest route to reach out to Game of Thrones fans by releasing items during the show’s final season. The limited Game of Thrones Edition Merchandise was a terrific illustration of how to strike while the iron was still hot, and how to exploit the moment not just in messaging but also in the items themselves.

Both businesses demonstrate how the allure of a hot issue or event can work wonders. They chose timeliness, were ready to enjoy the moment, and, in the end, they displayed the ace under their sleeves and triumphed.

8. Fevicol – Sticks Like It Was Never Broken

Fevicol, an Indian adhesive company, has been performing Moment Marketing even before the phrase was coined. From digging into Nasa’s first-ever blackhole photo to taking part in the #10YearsChallenge, the brand has delivered some of the most humorous and imaginative commercials in history.

When cricketer Yuvraj Singh announced his retirement, it took up the bat(on) once more. We admire the brand’s take on occasion because of how basic it is while yet being effective. It is always successful in striking a balance between the brand’s basic value and the currently popular subject. For example, much like its other efforts, it used the hashtag ‘MazbootJod’ for this one. Their in-the-moment marketing strategies leave an indelible impression!

In Conclusion,

Whether it’s the Amul girl’s sense of humour and the way she gets away with everything with her wide-eyed innocence, twirly red polka dress, and stinging wit, or Zomato’s tribute when Yuvraj Singh announced his retirement, or Netflix’s gripping, grilling, and grasping reaction to almost everything, brands are making a real-time connection with customers through moment marketing these days. Because clients are always searching for a specific trend or news on social media, their chances of being discovered have improved and produced a strong recall.

We hope through this article you’ve understood the ins and outs of moment marketing, with a few best examples to date.

If you have any queries or questions related to moment marketing, or do you have any other examples of moment marketing that just took place at the right time and relevant moment?

All the best!

What Is Hybrid Cloud Computing?

Hybrid cloud computing is clearly on its way – and by some accounts is already there – to being the dominant cloud computing model. It shares the cloud spotlight, so to speak, with public cloud computing, with leading vendors such Amazon, Microsoft, Google, IBM, and a host of other firms. The private cloud is essentially a firm’s on-premises data center systems, configured more in the manner of the public cloud than traditional data center setup. Private cloud leverages virtualization and automation to pool and optimize resources.

Gartner defines a hybrid cloud computing as a cloud service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers. The hybrid cloud is the most widely-used choice for cloud services among enterprise IT firms for a variety of key reasons, all of which center around flexibility and scalability. Furthermore, the hybrid cloud is a good fit with the expanded functionality of Platform as a Service, or PaaS. For help decided which type of cloud service to use for your business, read our comprehensive guide to cloud computing.

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A hybrid cloud service means the company gets some of its hybrid IT services from a public cloud provider but retains some of its private, on-premises systems. The reasons range from governance and regulation requiring sensitive data to remain on-premises to the services needed are not available from a public cloud provider.

“The fact is most companies moving from on-prem to the cloud simply can’t move the entire back office to the cloud. Functionality doesn’t exist or is too complicated or all of the above,” said Joshua Greenbaum, principal analyst with Enterprise Applications Consulting.

In some cases, it’s due to very vertical functionality not being available. A manufacturing firm, for example, can move basic functions to the cloud like Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) or Customer Resource Management (CRM), but if you’re a supplier to aerospace and defense or serve a specific geographic firm with their own requirements with customizations and regulation to deal with, some of the needed functionality isn’t available out of the box from a cloud vendor and possibly never will be.

For one reason or another, on-premises and cloud data have to be kept separate. For example, a medical company might need to keep patient records on-premises in a secured database, but it can use Oracle or Peoplesoft for HR and accounting. Keeping the data separate is actually easy. It’s not like medical records will suddenly fall into the HR app, assuming you configure everything properly.

The hybrid cloud world by definition requires that there are varying levels of integration between on-premises apps and their data and the cloud. The two are functionally separate systems and should be walled off. That is carefully conceived of and engineered and can be done wrong. Then you end up with unanticipated problems that suddenly expose you to some kind of governance or regulatory risk.

More likely, though, it’s human error that causes data to move from one system to another. “Data does migrate between the two freely and needs to be well regulated. You might have tightly controlled data in your system and an employee has a Dropbox account that you don’t know about. If it’s not managed that’s a security violation. So that leakage exists,” said Greenbaum.

Hybrid cloud computing enables enterprises to run apps in a private or public cloud infrastructure.

The main benefit of hybrid is the best of both worlds. You get to keep your legacy systems for archival or historical data, or whatever reason you need to hang on to it, and you get the benefits of the cloud. It’s scalability and elastic on demand, the primary appeal of the cloud.

If you find yourself in need of computing capacity, you have two choices: requisition, purchase, and deploy a server, which could take months, and then it sits idle and unused when the task is done but you still pay for it. Or you rent some capacity on AWS for the time needed and shut it down when done and cease paying for it.

One reason everyone is moving to the cloud at a fantastic rate is security and privacy and you should, too, said Greenbaum. “It’s now abundantly clear on-premises data centers are vulnerable and IT staffs are under the gun to security concerns. Your stuff is much more secure to have a Microsoft or Amazon doing it for you, but they still interface with [your] older systems and if they are not properly locked down, that becomes a vulnerability vector,” he said.

Hybrid cloud computing allows companies to expand their computing capabilities by linking in-house infrastructure to public cloud resources.

Moving to the cloud, even partially, has its challenges, said King. “The biggest problem that companies or cloud providers and businesses face using hybrid cloud is coordinating apps so that an app can work seamlessly in both environments, whatever that is. On the plus side we’re far enough along on those that the companies focusing on hybrid cloud have developed the tools and management processes that are necessary for customers to successfully manage those problems,” said King.

Another challenge is that switching to a cloud app is a big disruption. When you move to a cloud app, especially from an older, on-premises application, you are migrating data from an older system into a thoroughly modern new system, which can be fraught with complexity. Moving databases means a new schema, managing data, where everything can be different, which will undoubtedly break existing apps.

Another key concern is you are also upgrading and changing the user experience. The way you do things is different, and people tend to resist change, especially if there is no clear gain, and people don’t respond well to radical change. So you are introducing change and complexity in the already complex world of cloud, you have to ask if it’s worth it.

In choosing a provider, hybrid cloud providers assume you are maintaining your own data center and some IT functions. So the question becomes what are you looking to get out of hybrid cloud. Some might want it for times when they need a lot of compute power, such as during a compile. Others might use it as a disaster recovery solution.

“It pays to pay attention to what services are offered, what benefits you gain. It’s not as often in clear in hybrid as some traditional methodologies,” said King. “You are certainly going to be maintaining assets around data centers. So companies have to spend a lot of time on logistics and planning and make sure the benefits they think they are going to get are actually achievable.”

The market for hybrid cloud providers is growing as more and more enterprise realize that some form of hybrid cloud likely their best strategy. Clearly, the hybrid cloud market is a diverse as the companies that serve it. AWS, for instance, so heavily promotes the concept of the public cloud as the answer to any enterprise problem that it’s not known as a hybrid provider. Though strictly speaking, a company could cobble together a hybrid cloud using its offerings. Microsoft is particularly strong in hybrid cloud, and many cloud experts predict that this strength will be a big competitive edge for its Azure offering in the years ahead.

These hybrid cloud providers each take a different approach to adding hybrid cloud services.

One of the knocks on cloud service providers like Salesforce, NetApp, Oracle, and ServiceNow is that they don’t offer significant custom fits. They are for the most part strictly off the shelf, one size fits all. They allow for some customizations or extensions to fit your business but by and large, they are fairly vanilla.

There is a watchword for the cloud called fit to standard, which means the cloud does by definition require you to accept certain business practices as standard. The cloud apps are fundamentally multitenant, so there is a requirement you do not do customization in the software.

“It’s not meant to be a common denominator approach, these are best practices, but in the cloud you have to do business as everyone else does business and if you want to deviate you do it in a hybrid environment and either build custom apps or build in the cloud but not a multitenant apps,” said Greenbaum. Also, many of the leaders of on-premises software have jumped into the cloud, offering SaaS versions of their once on-premises apps, but they haven’t always had parity. For example, Microsoft’s SQL Server initially was available to Azure subscribers as a partial implementation, but up until recently, it lacked some features of the on-premises version. It was only with the recent release of SQL Server 2023 that the on-premises version and Azure version are identical.

Right now, commercial enterprise software design has shifted to cloud-first and then the on-premises version, but Gartner predicts that by 2023 or 2023, it will be cloud-only for software development, supporting either public or private cloud, or both.

So the public cloud is growing and, one way or another, companies IT infrastructure will leverage it. Moving your entire data center to the cloud may be unsuitable, especially if there are legacy systems that will not be available in the cloud. More likely, the public cloud will be a piece of your overall computing systems, and in that scenarios, you are a hybrid cloud user.

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