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Stored XSS Vulnerability

A Stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability is when the software has a flaw that allows a hacker to upload a malicious file that can then attack someone else who visits the site.

There are different kinds of stored XSS vulnerabilities and it isn’t clear which kind this is.

However, depending on where the malicious file is uploaded, this type of vulnerability can be especially problematic when someone with admin level privileges visits the site and receives the payload, which can lead to a total site takeover.

According to the United States government National Institute of Standards and Technology, a U.S. Commerce Department website, the following is how a cross site scripting exploit is defined:

“A vulnerability that allows attackers to inject malicious code into an otherwise benign website.

These scripts acquire the permissions of scripts generated by the target website and can therefore compromise the confidentiality and integrity of data transfers between the website and client.

Websites are vulnerable if they display user supplied data from requests or forms without sanitizing the data so that it is not executable. “

This is called a “stored” XSS vulnerability because the malicious file is stored on the website itself. Of the different kinds of XSS

Vulnerability Rating

Vulnerabilities are rated using an open source standard called Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). A vulnerability score is commonly referred to using CVSS version 3.1.

This is how the vulnerability standard is described:

“The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is an open framework for communicating the characteristics and severity of software vulnerabilities. “

That may be a contributing reason for why the severity level of the Autoptimize WordPress Plugin vulnerability has been rated as medium, with a score of 5.4 on a scale of 1 to 10.

Autoptimize Changelog

A changelog is a log of all the changes that a software makes with every update. It typically states a version, sometimes the date of the version and the changes contained within the update.

According to the official Autoptimize Changelog, the latest version is 2.8.4 which fixes the vulnerability.

fix for an authenticated XSS vulnerability”

While this is a vulnerability that’s rated as medium, it’s still recommended that all publishers who use this plugin update it immediately in order to stay safe.


Documentation of Autoptimize Vulnerability at Patchstack Security Site

Official Autoptimize Changelog

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All In One Seo WordPress Plugin Vulnerability Affects Up To 3+ Million

All In One SEO (AIOSEO) plugin, which has over three million active installations, is vulnerable to two Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.

The vulnerabilities affect all versions of AIOSEO up to and including version 4.2.9.

Stored Cross-Site Scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks are a form of injection exploit that involves malicious scripts executing in a user’s browser which then can lead to access to cookies, user sessions and even a site takeover.

The two most common forms of Cross-Site Scripting attacks are:

Reflected Cross-Site Scripting

Stored Cross-Site Scripting

A Stored XSS is when the malicious script is on the vulnerable site itself.

The vulnerability arises when there are insufficient security checks to block unwanted inputs.

The two issues affecting the AIOSEO plugin are both Stored Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities.


Vulnerabilities are assigned numbers to keep track of them. The first one was assigned, CVE-2023-0585.

This vulnerability arises from a failure to sanitize inputs. This means that insufficient filtering is done to prevent a hacker from uploading a malicious script.

The National Vulnerability Database (NVD) notice describes it like this:

“The All in One SEO Pack plugin for WordPress is vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting via multiple parameters in versions up to, and including, 4.2.9 due to insufficient input sanitization and output escaping.

This makes it possible for authenticated attackers with Administrator role or above to inject arbitrary web scripts in pages that will execute whenever a user accesses an injected page.”

The vulnerability was assigned a threat level of 4.4 (out of ten), which is a medium level.

An attacker must first acquire administrator privileges or higher to perpetrate this attack.


This attack is similar to the first one. The main difference is that an attacker needs to assume at least a contributor level of website access privilege.

A contributor level role has the ability to create content but not to publish it.

The vulnerability is also a medium level threat but it is assigned a higher vulnerability score of 6.4.

This is the description:

“The All in One SEO Pack plugin for WordPress is vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting via multiple parameters in versions up to, and including, 4.2.9 due to insufficient input sanitization and output escaping.

This makes it possible for authenticated attackers with Contributor+ role to inject arbitrary web scripts in pages that will execute whenever a user accesses an injected page.”

Recommended Action

The first vulnerability requires administrator level privileges and is assigned a relatively low medium threat level score of 4.4.

But the second vulnerability only requires a lower level of privilege and is rated higher at 6.4.

It’s generally a good policy to update all vulnerable plugins. AIOSEO plugin version 4.3.0 is the one containing the security fix, referred to in the official AIOSEO changelog as additional “security hardening.”

Read details of the two vulnerabilities:



Featured image by Shutterstock/Bangun Stock Productions

How To Remove All Traces Of A WordPress Plugin

With over 50,000 plugins in its repository, it’s clear that WordPress plugins are an essential element to any WordPress site. You have most likely tested and tried to use many of them to solve problems or accomplish tasks. If you decide you don’t want to use it anymore or it doesn’t work as you expected, you deactivate and then delete it from your WP dashboard.

However, this does not remove all traces of a WP plugin and leaves behind rows and tables in your WP database.

Table of Contents

The plugins that are most likely to store data include form, caching, security, and SEO plugins. Before proceeding, be sure to backup your website in case something goes wrong.

Over time, these plugins traces will take up disk space and affect your site’s performance. This article will show you how to remove a WP plugin along with all associated files.

Remove the WordPress Plugin From The Dashboard Delete Plugin Via FTP

Plugins can also be uninstalled via FTP. Connect to an FTP client such as FileZilla, WinSCP, or Free FTP. Navigate to the /wp-content/ folder.

Find the plugin you want to remove and delete it from your server by removing its folder.

Use FTP to Remove Leftover Files

WP keeps related plugin files in unique folders. You can remove these files with an FTP client such as FileZilla.

Remove Orphaned Tables from Your Database

There are two methods to remove these tables. The easiest is to use a plugin.

Use WP-Optimize

WP-Optimize will clean up and remove unused data from your database. 

Delete Orphaned Tables Manually

Don’t attempt this method unless you are experienced and comfortable editing databases. You don’t want to delete tables that are not related to the plugin you are uninstalling.

To delete orphaned tables manually, use a tool such as phpMyAdmin. Most hosting control panels will give you access to this tool.

From phpMyAdmin, use the search function at the top to find the database you want to clean up.

Use WP Plugins to Remove Plugin Associated Files

Some free and premium WP plugins will clean up your database with minimal effort.  Below are a few of them.

Plugins Garbage Collector

Plugins Garbage Collector will scan and check your WP database to show the tables you can’t see in your WP dashboard.


WP-Optimize has over 600,000 active installations and is one of the most popular of the WP database optimization plugins.


WP-Sweep is another WP plugin that will clean up unnecessary data in your database, including orphaned plugin data and tables.

WP-Sweep uses WP delete functions to clean up your database. This ensures that orphaned data isn’t left behind.

Remove Unused Shortcodes

WP has many plugins that use shortcodes that you insert on pages and posts. When you deactivate the plugin, the shortcode remains and shows as text in brackets to viewers.

One option is to remove the shortcut from every instance on your site manually. However, this can take a long time. Other more time-effective and practical options are outlined below.

Hide the Shortcode

To hide a shortcode leftover from a deleted plugin, add the following to your chúng tôi file:

Use WP Plugin Remove Orphan Shortcodes

If you aren’t comfortable editing WP files, use the Remove Orphan Shortcodes plugin.

This plugin automatically hides orphan (inactive) shortcodes from your content that were previously used with plugins and themes.

Uninstalling plugins from your WP dashboard is simple and easy. However, as you now know, deactivating and deleting plugins doesn’t always remove all files and WordPress databases associated with them.

Winner Claimed In $1 Million Ios 9 Hacking Contest

A team of security researchers may have found a way to remotely penetrate the defenses of Apple’s latest mobile OS, making them eligible for a $1 million reward.

The money was offered in a contest run by a Washington, D.C.-based company called Zerodium, which is in the controversial business of buying and selling information about software vulnerabilities.

It congratulated the winning team on Twitter Monday, though it didn’t identify the researchers, which made its claim about finding a new security hole in iOS 9 impossible to verify.

Chaouki Bekrar, Zerodium’s founder, said via email that the winning team’s exploit “is still being extensively tested by Zerodium to verify and document each of the underlying vulnerabilities.”

Apple’s iOS is one of the most challenging for hackers to exploit and the company has engineered strong defenses around iOS that make it hard to infect with malware. 

Zerodium launched its contest in September, saying it would reward the first group to come up with a remote, browser-based exploit. That means the unauthorized code had to be delivered to an iOS device by getting the user to visit a web page using Chrome or Safari, or via a text or multimedia message sent to the device, according to Zerodium’s conditions.

“It’s definitely very technically challenging,” said Patrick Wardle, director of research with Synack, a service that matches security researchers with bug-hunting work.

Despite the difficulty, enthusiasts have found ways around Apple’s defenses in the past to install unapproved apps, a process known as jailbreaking.

Jailbreakers usually want to run apps from Cydia, a store for unauthorized apps. The jailbreak exploit code is publicly available and those who developed it weren’t paid.

Zerodium, however, keeps the vulnerabilities it buys close and only makes them available to clients who subscribe to its Security Research Feed. 

Bekrar said the vulnerabilities found by the winning team may be reported to Apple later by Zerodium.

The reward that the company is allegedly paying shows how valuable the information could be to other companies, organizations and even nation states.

“If they’re paying a million dollars, I’m sure that means someone is willing to buy it for that or more,” Wardle said in a phone interview Monday.

The flaws are known as “zero-day” vulnerabilities since Apple hasn’t had time yet to develop a patch. It may be hard for Apple to figure out how to fix the flaws if more information doesn’t leak out.

Wardle said the team likely found several software flaws that are used in a chain to ensure any planted code stays on an iOS 9 device even after it is rebooted.

That probably means the group has found a browser vulnerability and then another one around the core of the operating system, known as the kernel, Wardle said. A third flaw would also be needed to ensure the unauthorized code stays on the device on reboot since Apple checks for strange apps, he said.

Bekrar wouldn’t reveal much detail other than that “the exploit chain includes a number of vulnerabilities affecting both Google Chrome browser and iOS, and bypassing almost all mitigations in place.”

A second team also participated in the contest as well, Bekrar wrote. That team developed a partial jailbreak and may be eligible for partial reward, he said.

Bekrar also founded Vupen, a now-shuttered vulnerability broker that sold information to government agencies and other organizations.

Vupen’s business model was criticized by some in the security community, who contended that sharing vulnerability information without notifying software vendors could put people at unnecessary risk if the information is abused.

How Digital Marketing Affects Consumer Behavior?

Businesses now have access to powerful analytics and measuring tools that track progress regarding online reach, engagement rate, and conversions. This helps them analyze user behavior better and make necessary changes accordingly.

Data availability has given marketers more insights into their audience’s likes/dislikes and preferences, allowing them to tailor their campaigns more effectively while keeping budgets in check.

The introduction of mobile technology has enabled companies to target mobile users by creating dedicated apps or using creative strategies such as geo-targeting based on location settings that are available only through mobile devices.

How is Digital Marketing Affecting the Behavior of Consumers?

Whether they’re buying a product or service, consumers are doing their due diligence to ensure that the company is reputable and that they’ll get the best bang for their buck.

Consumers are Performing Online Research

Consumers now search for reviews, ratings, and price comparisons before making purchase decisions. As such, businesses need to prioritize customer satisfaction so that customers can trust their products and services.

By providing excellent customer service, offering competitive prices, and staying up-to-date on industry trends, companies can create an online presence that will draw more people in and encourage them to buy from them over other competitors.

The online presence of a brand includes many different facets. It ranges from how it is represented on social media, to its website design and SEO, to how it communicates with customers through emails and other digital channels. All these things can accurately represent the company that consumers trust when choosing products or services.

Customers Look for Reviews and Feedback

Having a strong online presence can also boost customer engagement by allowing businesses to communicate more directly with their audience. Through various platforms such as email newsletters or chatbots, companies can get feedback from customers about their experiences in real time, which helps them make better decisions for future product launches or marketing campaigns.

Overall, having an effective online presence is key for any successful business today, regardless of industry or size. Companies must ensure they provide accurate information about themselves and their products while also engaging with customers regularly to gain consumer trust and build long-term relationships with them to remain competitive in the modern market landscape.

The Overall Word-Of-Mouth

Social proof is a great way to establish trust with customers. Social proof can be in the form of user-generated content (UGC) such as product reviews, customer testimonials, or recommendations from friends and family. The more people share their experiences with your brand, the better it will reflect on you and help build trust among potential new customers.

Digital marketing has given companies the ability to connect with their customers in a more personalized and meaningful way. Companies can create highly targeted campaigns that provide tailored content for specific demographics or interests. They can also track customer behavior across multiple channels, allowing them to adjust their strategy based on the data they have collected.

Unreliable Loyalty from Clients

Furthermore, customers are now more inclined to give feedback and ratings for products they purchase. This is because retailers have become increasingly transparent about who their partners are, the materials used in a product’s construction, and how those products will be handled during shipping.

Consumers Don’t Have Much Patience

Studies have shown that customers appreciate the convenience of digital marketing. Companies can easily reach their audiences through email, social media, and other online methods. People are more likely to purchase a product when they receive information about it in an easy-to-read format. Additionally, businesses can personalize messages to target specific consumer groups and ensure that content is relevant and engaging for each customer segment.

Companies can use email campaigns or social media posts to reach out to their target audiences while providing timely updates about their products or services at no extra cost. In return, this opens up opportunities for increased sales conversions that would not be possible with traditional forms of marketing communication.

Look for Impulse Marketing

It also helps build customer relationships through personalized content, tailored messaging, and community engagement activities. Through online platforms such as blogs, websites, and social media channels like Facebook and Twitter, brands can interact with customers in real-time to answer queries or provide guidance on product usage. This helps create an emotional connection between the brand and its customers.


Digital marketing tools such as social media and email marketing can reach customers and inform them about new products, offers, discounts, or promotions. Consumers are more likely to purchase a particular product when they feel that the brand provides something unique. This helps build trust in the company and its products.

Overall, digital marketing has revolutionized how businesses interact with consumers by allowing them greater control over their shopping experiences. By creating targeted content and using analytics to measure success rates, businesses can create an experience for each customer that will result in higher conversion rates and improved engagement levels.

How Does Javafx Gradle Plugin Work

Introduction to JavaFX Gradle

The following article provides an outline for JavaFX Gradle. In Java, JavaFX helps in creating desktop applications as well as games. Gradle is considered as one of the top build systems present on the Java platform. Nowadays, plethora of projects is migrated to gradle from maven and ant etc. Using this plugin boosts the build-script and moreover, gradle-plugin wraps every call as well as introduces workarounds along with fixes for JDK-bugs.

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How does JavaFX Gradle Plugin Work?

Step 1:

Download JDK8 and install it for the platform you use. Always remember to download the JDK based on your platform. Then, verify the same by using the command java – version and running it.

Before moving to next step, you have to know what JDK is.

Note: JDK is the Java Development Kit that is considered as Java programming language’s one of the top 3 primary technology packages. Other two are JVM (Java Virtual Machine) which is the component that executes programs in Java and JRE (Java Runtime Environment) which is the Java’s on-disk part that helps in creating the Java Virtual Machine.

Step 2:

After installing JDK, download Eclipse IDE and install the same.

Note: Eclipse is an IDE that helps in programming which consists of a base workspace along with a wide plug-in system. This is mainly for environment customization.

Step 3:

Normally, Eclipse has in-built gradle support (that is, buildship gradle plugin). But, the default version can be old sometimes. For that, the gradle buildship has to be updated.

For that, perform the steps below.

Open Eclipse.

Choose Eclipse Marketplace.

Find the buildship with the help of field find on the top.

Once these steps are done, restart eclipse.

If you want to check whether the buildship is installed or not, perform the below steps.

Open Eclipse.

Choose Eclipse Marketplace.

Normally, you will be able to see the buildship in that section. If it is not visible, close the eclipse and start again.

Note: Gradle is considered as a build automation tool that helps in multi-language software development which controls the task compilation and packaging to testing development process along with deployment, as well as publishing. C/C++ and JavaScript are the other programming languages that support gradle.

Next, a JavaFX project has to be created with the help of gradle.

Now, we will see how to do that. For that, following steps has to be performed.

Open Eclipse.


Select Other.

Select the GradleProject from the Gradle option.

Give a name for the project you have created.

As this is the first gradle project you have created, it will download libraries for the project.

Step 5:

Once all these steps are done, create a simple Java class and save it within the project folder src/main/java.

Note: Normally, when you create a new class, it will be automatically saved into the location src/main/java.

Step 6:



Sometimes, you may see an error as shown below.

Select properties.

Change the resolution as Accessible.

Set the pattern as javafx/**.

Apply and close the window.

Example of JavaFX Gradle

Let us see a sample program which is created on the gradle project.

JavaFX program that works on a gradle project.


import javafx.application.Application ; import javafx.scene.Scene ; import javafx.scene.control.Button ; import javafx.scene.layout.StackPane ; import javafx.stage.Stage ; public class JavaFXDemoSample extends Application { public static void main(String[] args) { launch(args); } @Override public void start(Stage st) throws Exception { String msg = "Hey !!! It is working !!!" ; Button btn1 = new Button(); btn1.setText(msg); StackPane sp = new StackPane(); sp.getChildren().add(btn1); Scene sc = new Scene( sp , 350 , 300 ); st.setTitle(msg); st.setScene(sc);;   } }


First, import all the necessary packages and declare a msg “Hey !!! It is working !!!”. Then, create a button btn1 and set the msg as the text for the button. For UI controls, create a layout container and add children to the same. Once all these are done, set title for the stage and set the scene. On executing the code, it can be seen that a button is displayed with a text as shown above.


In Java platform, Gradle is considered as one of the top build systems and many of the projects are migrating to gradle from maven and ant etc. In this article, detailed aspects such as working, and examples of JavaFX gradle is explained in detail.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to JavaFX Gradle. Here we discuss the introduction, how does JavaFX gradle plugin work? and example respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

JavaFX AnimationTimer 

JavaFX Timeline

JavaFX Background

JavaFX 3D

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